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book report blog Brennan Barnard is the director of nurse ratio research, college counseling at experience service, the Derryfield School in Manchester, N.H. Whether you are counting down the nurse ratio paper last days of a piece of homework, school or have already started your summer break, we hope your summertime plans involve a good book. We’ve asked a number of college admission deans and high school counselors for their summer reading suggestions. What follows is nurse patient research paper, a sampling of their recommendations. Prompts For Freshmen Entering! Some are specific to college admission, and others are just great reads. Recommended by Bruce A. Berk, assistant director of college counseling, the Derryfield School, Manchester, N.H. Recommended by Alison Slater, assistant director of nurse patient, admissions, Denison University, Granville, Ohio. Recommended by Peter Jennings, director of college counseling, Concord Academy, Concord, Mass. Jacques Steinberg of The Choice, a senior editor at The New York Times, appeared on NBC#8217;s “Today#8221; show on Friday morning to talk about college admissions and prompts our student-led series, #8220;The Envelope, Please.#8221; Watch the full interview below. College Admissions Books for patient ratio paper Your Summer Reading Pleasure. In collaboration with our sister blog, The Learning Network, The Choice will join a Twitter celebration of summer reading on Thursday, using the hashtag #summerreading.
Here is a small sampling of persuasive essay, college admissions books #8212; and there are many #8212; that might be useful to readers of The Choice this summer. Feel free to patient ratio find more reads in our Book Report, and to add your recommendations in the comment box below. #8216;Colleges That Change Lives#8217; by Loren Pope. Every year, when it comes time for yet another group of high school students to begin thinking about colleges, an enormous amount of essay prompt jungle, attention is paid to the nation’s most elite schools. However, in the 2006 book “Colleges That Change Lives,” Loren Pope underscores 40 small, less-selective liberal arts institutions, which he believes are exceptional. These colleges and universities are generally explored much less than those in the Ivy League, are all across America and have certain idiosyncrasies that help their students thrive. It is paper, clear that the grad app essays institutions outlined in Mr. Pope’s book #8212; including Guilford College, Reed College and Clark University #8212; actually want you. Read more#8230; A New Book Argues Against the patient ratio paper SAT. When Wake Forest University announced three years ago that it would make the SAT optional for its undergraduate applicants, among those cheering was Joseph Soares, a sociology professor at the university.
Mr. How To Write Grad School! Soares has channeled his enthusiasm for Wake Forest#8217;s decision #8212; as well as for similar policies at several hundred other colleges #8212; into a new book, “SAT Wars,” that argues for looking beyond standardized test scores in college admissions. Ratio! (The book was published last month by Teachers College Press.) “The SAT and ACT are fundamentally discriminatory,” Mr. Soares said in a phone interview last week. How To Write App Essays! Through his own essays in the book, as well as those of contributors that he edited, Mr. Soares seeks to build a case against the SAT. He characterizes it as a test that tends to nurse patient ratio paper favor white, male, upper income students with the means to for freshmen entering prepare for it. Chang Young Chung, a statistical programmer, and Thomas J. Nurse Patient Research Paper! Espenshade, a sociology professor, both at essay, Princeton University, co-authored one chapter in which they cite a study that examined national SAT data from the late 1990s.
That study broke applicants into three socio-economic classes. They found that 29 percent of students from the highest social class scored above 1400 on ratio paper, the SAT, compared to 24 percent of middle class students and 14 percent of introduce, lower class students. Turning that pyramid on its head, the study found that those students from lower social classes were more likely to have earned a top high school G.P.A. In seeking academically engaged students, Mr. Soares said in an interview with The Choice, colleges should pay more attention to nurse patient paper high school grades and give less credence to standardized test scores. Jungle! Book Reviews: #8216;Don#8217;t Stalk the Admissions Officer#8217; and #8216;I#8217;m Going to College #8212; Not You!#8217; The Choice has taken a close look at nurse patient ratio, two recently published college admissions books, each with especially catchy titles. Prompts For Freshmen Entering! One, #8220;Don#8217;t Stalk the Admissions Officer,#8221; is intended for applicants; the ratio research other, #8220;I#8217;m Going to College #8212; Not You!#8221; is for parents. #8220;Don#8217;t Stalk the Admissions Officer#8221; (Ten Speed Press, 2010) by Risa Lewak, who describes herself as a former #8220;pre-admissions counselor#8221; and recruiter for Hunter College, is in community, a tongue-in-cheek #8220;survival guide#8221; aimed at high school students.
While the book purports to be a practical how-to companion, it#8217;s more satire than substance. It#8217;s a book with a distinct brand of humor #8212; sarcastic, cynical and nurse patient research paper highly irreverent #8212; and, if it doesn#8217;t alienate its reader, it#8217;s more likely to #8220;restore sanity#8221; by experience in community way of incredulous laughter than actual preparedness. The book is research paper, broken into uc essay prompts for freshmen entering three parts: Part One: #8220;Enjoy High School Now, Avoid Therapy Later,#8221; playfully asserts that #8220;Overachiever and paper Loser Have the Same Latin Root.#8221; A Murder Mystery Unfurled in a piece, a College Admissions Essay. Every so often on research, The Choice, we traverse into do-not-try-this-at-home territory, and the story told in a new novel called #8220;The November Criminals#8221; would seem to prompt fit that category. As described in a review in The Times Book Review on Sunday, the nurse paper book, by Sam Munson, is #8220;a murder mystery that takes the form of a rambling college admissions essay.#8221; Here#8217;s how the reviewer, Joseph Salvatore, who teaches writing and literature at the New School, synthesizes the plot: Applying to the outsiders essay college can feel downright novelistic, with its stress and suspense catapulting some families into research faraway fantasy worlds and alternate frames of mind. Karen Stabiner, an author with a typically nonfiction take on the outsiders persuasive, parenting and education (she writes a column called The College Insider for The Huffington Post), has drawn inspiration from an admissions system rife with creative material. Nurse Research! Her latest book, “Getting In,” (Hyperion, March 2010) is a work of fiction that chronicles the introduce yourself scholarship essay senior year strife of five high school students as they file college applications, confront rejection and acceptance, and nurse ratio prepare to leave home. The novel’s greatest strength is its greatest downfall: it’s too real. “Getting In” captures student and parent stress well – too well to jungle make it an escapist, light read.
At the same time, its characters lack the depth and likability to endear them to nurse paper the reader and inspire much other than resentment for having absorbed their fictional anxieties and borne witness to neurotic what-ifs. The question is, once you or a child has jumped the how to grad school collegiate gatepost, do you want to relive the associated angst? And if you’re in the midst of nurse patient ratio research paper, applying, or are anticipating the process, do you want to jungle expose yourself to a powerful strain of the virus? (Maybe you do.) Read more#8230; Book Report: #8216;Admission Matters: What Students and Parents Need to Know About Getting Into College#8217; “Admission Matters,” by patient ratio research Sally P. Springer, Jon Reider and Marion R. The Outsiders Essay Prompts! Franck is a direct and human companion to the college admissions process. The second edition of the book, which was recently published, is by no means revelatory, but it is thorough and psychologically sensitive, making it a good read for the overwhelmed or under-prepared student. The authors seek to minimize the hype surrounding the admissions process. They spend a lot of time describing the nurse ratio paper intensity of in community service essay, competition today and the fallacy of associating the quality of nurse research, a school’s education with its selectivity. There is a nurturing, humanistic emphasis on “good-fit” colleges. Read more#8230; Illuminating Low College Completion Rates, and Offering Potential Prescriptions. In his #8220;Economic Scene#8221; column in today#8217;s Times, my colleague David Leonhardt dives into #8220;Crossing the Finish Line,#8221; a new book about the college dropout crisis by William Bowen (the former Princeton president who is an economist) and Michael McPherson (another economist who is the former president of Macalester College.) The book, Mr.
Leonhardt writes, is based on the records of about 200,000 students at 68 colleges. Mr. Leonhardt begins his piece by framing the problem as follows: At its top levels, the American system of higher education may be the best in the world. Yet in terms of its core mission — turning teenagers into educated college graduates — much of the essay jungle system is simply failing. Only 33 percent of the freshmen who enter the nurse ratio paper University of Massachusetts, Boston, graduate within six years.
Less than 41 percent graduate from the University of introduce, Montana, and 44 percent from the University of New Mexico. Nurse Ratio Paper! The economist Mark Schneider refers to colleges with such dropout rates as “failure factories,” and experience essay they are the norm. The United States does a good job enrolling teenagers in nurse patient ratio, college, but only half of students who enroll end up with a bachelor’s degree. Among rich countries, only Italy is worse. That’s a big reason inequality has soared, and productivity growth has slowed. Economic growth in this decade was on pace to be slower than in any decade since World War II — even before the financial crisis started. He continues, though, on a note of of homework, surprising optimism: For all the book’s alarming statistics, its message is research paper, ultimately uplifting — or at least invigorating. Yes, inadequate precollege education is a problem. But high schools still produce many students who have the skills to complete college and yet fail to do so.
Turning them into college graduates should be a lot less difficult than fixing all of American education. An Argument for Cutting the Standard College Experience to Three Years. Should the standard, undergraduate academic experience be shortened to three years at colleges and universities across the country? Robert Zemsky, a professor of education at the University of Pennsylvania, raises this provocative question deep in his forthcoming book, #8220;Making Reform Work: The Case for Transforming American Higher Education#8221; (Rutgers). A Piece! Professor Zemsky, who also leads a higher-education advisory group called the Learning Alliance at UPenn, sent a galley copy of the book along to The Choice over the weekend. Ratio Research Paper! In the book, which will be released on Sept. 10 but can be pre-ordered now, he calls for #8220;a dislodging event of sufficient magnitude that it breaks the gridlock that now holds attempts to reform higher education hostage.#8221; One such event, he argues, would be a #8220;process of reform#8221; that #8220;concluded that the standard undergraduate degree in the United States, as in Europe, should be a three-year baccalaureate.#8221; As Mr.
Zemsky puts it: With more and more Americans pursuing advanced degrees, it makes sense to look for ways to shorten the undergraduate portion of their post-secondary educations. There is abundant testimony that for college-ready students the senior year in high school is something of a waste. More of that year#8217;s curriculum could be devoted to acquiring advanced college-ready skills in a foreign language, composition, and mathematics, in particular, so that students are ready for more advanced work in their first year of college. Though the community colleges will see themselves as threatened, a nationally adopted three-year baccalaureate degree could well prove to be a boon to them by clearly identifying and funding them as the places where students go to essay prompt jungle complete their precollegiate education. Community colleges could continue to provide the first year of collegiate instruction for students of nurse patient, limited means as well as students seeking a low-risk higher education portal.
Finally, provided the four-year curriculum was actually pared to three years, an essay jungle, undergraduate education would see an immediate 25-percent reduction in cost.
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Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments  Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria , An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. By the ratio research Marquis Beccaria of Milan. With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire. A New Edition Corrected. (Albany: W.C. Little Co., 1872). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2193. An extremely influential Enlightenment treatise on legal reform in which Beccaria advocates the ending of torture and the death penalty.
The book also contains a lengthy commentary by Voltaire which is an indication of high highly French enlightened thinkers regarded the grad app essays work. The text is in the public domain. This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit. In rebus quibuscunque difficilioribus non expectandum, ut quis simul, serat, metat, sed pr#xE6;paratione opus est, ut per gradus maturescant. Bacon. Penal Laws, so considerable a part of patient ratio, every system of legislation, and of so great importance to the happiness, peace and security of every member of society, are still so imperfect, and are attended with so many unnecessary circumstances of yourself scholarship, cruelty in all nations, that an attempt to reduce them to the standard of reason must be interesting to all mankind. It is not surprising then, that this little book hath engaged the attention of all ranks of patient ratio research, people in every part of Europe. It is now about eighteen months since the first publication; in which time it hath passed no less than six editions in the original language; the for freshmen third of which was printed within six months after its first appearance.
It hath been translated Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] into French; that translation hath also been several times reprinted, and perhaps no book, on any subject, was ever received with more avidity, more generally read, or more universally applauded. The author is the Marquis Beccaria, of Milan. Upon considering the nature of the religion and government under which he lives, the nurse ratio reasons for concealing his name are obvious. The whole was read, at different times, in a society of learned men in that city, and was published at their desire. As to the translation, I have preserved the order of the original, except in a paragraph or two, which I have taken the liberty to restore to the chapters to which they evidently belong, and from which they must have been accidentally detached.
The French translator hath gone much farther; he hath not only transposed every chapter, but every paragraph in in community, the whole book. But in this, I conceive he hath assumed a right which belongs not to any translator, and which cannot be justified. His disposition may appear more systematical, but certainly the research paper author has as undoubted a right to the arrangement of his own ideas as to the ideas themselves; and therefore to destroy that arrangement, is to pervert his meaning, if he had any meaning in of homework, his plan, the contrary to which can hardly be supposed. Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] With regard to the Commentary, attributed to Mons. de Voltaire, my only authority for paper, supposing it his, is the voice of the public, which indeed is the only authority we have for most of his works. Let those who are acquainted with the peculiarity of his manner judge for themselves. The facts above mentioned would preclude all apology for this translation, if any apology were necessary, for translating into our language a work, which, from the nature of the subject, must be interesting to write grad school app essays, every nation; but must be particularly acceptable to the English, from the nurse ratio paper eloquent and the outsiders persuasive essay prompts forcible manner in which the author pleads the cause of liberty, benevolence and humanity. It may however be objected, that a treatise of nurse patient ratio, this kind is useless in England, where, from the excellence of our laws and essay government, no examples of patient ratio paper, cruelty or oppression are to service, be found.
But it must also be allowed, that much is nurse patient ratio research still wanting to perfect our system of legislation; the a piece of homework confinement of debtors, the filth and horror of our prisons, the cruelty of jailors, and the extortion of the petty officers of justice, to all which may be added the melancholy reflection, that the number of criminals put to death in England is much greater than in any other part of Europe, are considerations which will sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] answer every objection. These are my only reasons for endeavouring to diffuse the patient ratio research paper knowledge of the essay useful truths contained in this little essay; and I say, with my author, that if I can be instrumental in rescuing a single victim from the hand of ratio paper, tyranny or ignorance, his transports will sufficiently console me for the contempt of all mankind. Introduction . . . For Freshmen! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ratio Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uc Essay Prompts! . . . Nurse Paper! . . . . How To Grad School App Essays! . . Ratio! page. 11 Chap. I. Of the Origin of jungle, Punishments . . . Patient Paper! . . . . . Uc Essay For Freshmen! . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 II. Of the Right to Punish . . . . Nurse Ratio Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Piece! . 17 III. Consequences of the foregoing Principles . . . . . . . . . 19 IV.
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Of Crimes which disturb the public Tranquillity . Nurse Ratio Research Paper! . . 44 XII. Of the Intent of Punishments . . Persuasive Essay! . . Nurse Patient Ratio Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 XIII. Of the Credibility of Witnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 XIV. Of Evidence and scholarship essay the Proofs of patient research paper, a Crime, and of the Form of Judgment . . . . . . . The Outsiders Persuasive! . . . . . Nurse Research Paper! . . . . . . . In Community Service Essay! . . . . . Nurse Ratio Research Paper! . . . 51 XV. Of secret Accusations . . Uc Essay Entering! . Research Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . How To Write Grad App Essays! . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 XVI. Patient! Of Torture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How To Write Grad School App Essays! . . . . Patient Research Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . Uc Essay Prompts For Freshmen! . . . Ratio! 58 XVII.
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On Religious Confession . . . . . . . . Patient Research Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 XVII. Of false Money . . . . . School App Essays! . Nurse Patient Ratio Paper! . . . . How To Write Grad! . Ratio Paper! . . . . Service Essay! . Nurse Ratio Paper! . A Piece Of Homework! . Nurse Patient! . . . . Prompt Jungle! . . . . . . Nurse Research! . 214 XVIII. On domestic Theft . . . . . . . School App Essays! . . Research! . . . . . Of Homework! . . . . . . . . . . . Nurse Patient Research! . 215 XIX. On Suicide . . . School App Essays! . . . . Ratio Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . Experience Service! . . . . . . . Nurse Ratio Research Paper! . Experience In Community Service! . . . . . . 216 XX. On a certain Species of Mutilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 XXI. On Confiscation . . . . . . . Research Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uc Essay Prompts For Freshmen Entering! . 220 XXII.
On criminal Procedure, and other Forms . . . . . . 224 XXIII. The Idea of Reformation . . Nurse Ratio Research Paper! . . . . . . How To! . . . . . . . . Patient! . . . . 228. In every human society, there is an effort continually tending to essay jungle, confer on one part the height of power and ratio research happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws is to experience in community service essay, oppose this effort, and to diffuse their influence universally and equally. But men generally abandon the care of nurse ratio paper, their most important concerns to the uncertain prudence and discretion of those, whose interest it is to reject the best and wisest institutions; and it is not till they have been led into a thousand mistakes, in matters the most essential to their lives and liberties, and are weary of suffering, that they can be induced to essay prompts, apply a remedy to the evils with which Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] they are oppressed. It is ratio then they begin to conceive, and how to school app essays acknowledge the most palpable truths, which, from their very simplicity, commonly escape vulgar minds, incapable of nurse patient ratio, analysing objects, accustomed to essay, receive impressions without distinction, and to be determined rather by the opinions of others, than by the result of nurse ratio paper, their own examination. If we look into history we shall find that laws which are, or ought to be, conventions between men in a state of freedom, have been, for the most part, the work of the passions of a few, or the consequences of a fortuitous or temporary necessity; not dictated by persuasive essay prompts, a cool examiner of human nature, who knew how to collect in one point the research actions of a multitude, and had this only the outsiders persuasive essay, end in view, the greatest happiness of the greatest number. Happy are those few nations who have not waited till the slow succession of human vicissitudes should, from the extremity of evil, produce a transition to good; but, by prudent laws, have facilitated the progress from nurse patient research paper, one to the other! And how great are the obligations due from mankind to that philosopher, who, from the obscurity of his closet, had the courage to scatter among the multitude the seeds of useful truths, so long unfruitful!
Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] The art of printing has diffused the knowledge of a piece, those philosophical truths, by nurse ratio, which the grad relations between sovereigns and their subjects, and between nations, are discovered. By this knowledge commerce is animated, and nurse patient research paper there has sprung up a spirit of emulation and industry worthy of rational beings. These are the produce of this enlightened age; but the prompts for freshmen entering cruelty of punishments, and the irregularity of proceeding in criminal cases, so principal a part of the legislation, and so much neglected throughout Europe, has hardly ever been called in question. Errors, accumulated through many centuries, have never been exposed by nurse research, ascending to general principles; nor has the force of acknowledged truths been ever opposed to the unbounded licentiousness of scholarship, ill-directed power, which has continually produced so many authorized examples of the most unfeeling barbarity. Surely, the groans of the weak, sacrificed to nurse ratio research paper, the cruel ignorance and indolence of the powerful; the barbarous torments lavished and multiplied with useless severity, for crimes either not proved, or in their nature impossible; the uc essay filth and horrors of patient research paper, a prison, increased by the most cruel tormentor of the for freshmen miserable, uncertainty, ought to have roused the attention of those, whose business is to direct the opinions of mankind. Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] The immortal Montesquieu has but slightly touched on nurse patient research, this subject. Truth, which is eternally the same, has obliged me to follow the steps of that great man; but the studious part of mankind, for whom I write, will easily distinguish the superstructure from the foundation. I shall be happy, if, with him, I can obtain the secret thanks of the obscure and peaceful disciples of reason and philosophy, and excite that tender emotion, in which sensible minds sympathise with him who pleads the cause of humanity. AN ESSAY ON CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: OF THE ORIGIN OF PUNISHMENTS.
Laws are the conditions under which men, naturally independent, united themselves in society. Weary of scholarship essay, living in a continual state of war, and patient of enjoying a liberty which became of little value, from the uncertainty of its duration, they sacrificed one part of introduce, it to enjoy the rest in peace and security. Research Paper! The sum of all these portions of the prompt liberty of each individual constituted the sovereignty Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] of a nation; and was deposited in the hands of the sovereign, as the lawful administrator. But it was not sufficient only to establish this deposit; it was also necessary to defend it from the usurpation of each individual, who will always endeavour to take away from the mass, not only his own portion, but to encroach on patient ratio, that of others. Some motives, therefore, that strike the senses, were necessary to prevent the in community despotism of each individual from plunging society into research paper its former chaos. Such motives are the punishment established against the infractors of the laws. I say that motives of persuasive essay prompts, this kind are necessary; because experience shews that, the multitude adopt no established rules of conduct; and because, society is prevented from approaching to that dissolution (to which, as well as all other parts of the physical and moral world, it naturally tends) only by motives that are the immediate objects of sense, and which, being continually presented to the mind, are sufficient to counterbalance the effects of the passions of the individual which oppose the general good.
Neither the nurse ratio power of eloquence, nor the how to grad school app essays sublimest truths, are sufficient to restrain, for any length of time, those passions which are excited by the lively impression of present objects. CHAPTER II.: OF THE RIGHT TO PUNISH. Every punishment which does not arise from absolute necessity, says the research great Montesquieu, is write school tyrannical. A proposition which may be made more general, thus. Every act of authority of one man over another, for which there is not an patient ratio paper absolute necessity, is tyrannical. It is upon this, then, that the sovereign#x2019;s right to punish crimes is founded; that is, upon the necessity of defending the public liberty, intrusted to experience in community, his care, from the patient research usurpation of individuals; and punishments are just in proportion as the liberty, preserved by the sovereign, is sacred and valuable. Let us consult the human heart, and there we shall find the foundation of the sovereign#x2019;s right to punish; for no advantage in moral policy can be lasting, which is not founded on essay prompt, the indeliable sentiments of the heart of ratio research, man. Whatever law deviates from a piece of homework, this principle will always meet with a resistance, which will destroy it in the end; for the smallest force, continually applied, Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] will overcome the most violent motion communicated to bodies. No man ever gave up his liberty merely for the good of the public. Such a chimera exists only in romances. Every individual wishes, if possible, to be exempt from the compacts that bind the rest of patient, mankind.
The multiplication of mankind, though slow, being too great for the means which the earth, in experience in community, its natural state, offered to satisfy necessities, which every day became more numerous, obliged men to separate again, and form new societies. These naturally opposed the first, and a state of war was transferred from individuals to nations. Thus it was necessity that forced men to give up a part of their liberty; it is certain, then, that every individual would chuse to put into the public stock the smallest portion possible; as much only as was sufficient to engage others to defend it. The aggregate of these, the smallest portions possible, forms the right of patient ratio paper, punishing: all that extends beyond this is abuse, not justice. Observe, that by justice I understand nothing more than that bond, which is necessary to prompts for freshmen entering, keep the interest of individuals united; without which, men would return to the original state of barbarity. All punishments, which exceed the necessity of patient ratio research, Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] preserving this bond, are in their nature unjust. We should be cautious how we associate with the word justice, an idea of anything real, such as a physical power, or a being that actually exists. Uc Essay Entering! I do not, by any means, speak of the justice of God, which is of another kind, and refers immediately to rewards and punishments in research, a life to come. CHAPTER III.: CONSEQUENCES OF THE FOREGOING PRINCIPLES. The laws only can determine the punishment of entering, crimes; and the authority of making penal laws can only reside with the legislator, who represents the whole society united by the social compact.
No magistrate then, (as he is nurse patient paper one of the society,) can, with justice, inflict on any other member of the same society, punishment that is not ordained by the laws. But as a punishment, increased beyond the degree fixed by how to write app essays, the law, is the just punishment, with the ratio addition of another; it follows, that no magistrate, even under a pretence Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] of zeal, or the essay public good, should increase the punishment already determined by the laws. If every individual be bound to society, society is patient ratio equally bound to him by a contract, which, from its nature, equally binds both parties. This obligation, which descends from the throne to the cottage, and equally binds the highest and school lowest of mankind, signifies nothing more, than that it is the interest of all, that conventions, which are useful to the greatest number, should be punctually observed. The violation of this compact by patient research paper, any individual, is an introduction to anarchy. The sovereign, who represents the society itself, can only make general laws to bind the members; but it belongs not to write grad school app essays, him to judge whether any individual has violated the patient social compact, or incurred the punishment in consequence.
For in this case there are two parties, one represented by introduce yourself scholarship essay, the sovereign, who insists upon the violation of the contract, and the other is the person accused, who denies it. Research! It is necessary then that there should be a third person to decide this contest; that is to say, a judge, or magistrate, from whose determination there should be no appeal; and this determination should consist of a simple affirmation, or negation of fact. Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] If it can only be proved, that the severity of persuasive essay, punishments, though not immediately contrary to the public good, or to the end for paper, which they were intended, viz., to prevent crimes, be useless; then such severity would be contrary to a piece of homework, those beneficent virtues, which are the consequence of enlightened reason, which instructs the sovereign to wish rather to nurse ratio, govern men in a state of freedom and happiness, than of slavery. It would also be contrary to justice, and the social compact. CHAPTER IV.: OF THE INTERPRETATION OF LAWS. Judges, in criminal cases, have no right to interpret the penal laws, because they are not legislators. They have not received the essay laws from our ancestors as a domestic tradition, or as the will of a testator, which his heirs and executors are to obey; but they receive them from a society actually existing, or from the sovereign, its representative. Even the authority of the laws is not Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] founded on any pretended obligation, or ancient convention; which must be null, as it cannot bind those who did not exist at the time of its institution; and unjust, as it would reduce men, in the ages following, to a herd of brutes, without any power of judging or acting. The laws receive their force and authority from an oath of fidelity, either tacit or expressed, which living subjects have sworn to their sovereign, in patient ratio paper, order to uc essay entering, restrain the intestine fermentation of the private interests of individuals.
From hence springs their true and natural authority. Who then is their lawful interpreter? The sovereign, that is, the representative of society, and not the judge, whose office is only to examine, if a man have or have not, committed an nurse paper action contrary to the laws. In every criminal cause the judge should reason syllogistically. The major should be the general law; the minor the conformity of the action, or its opposition to the laws; the conclusion, liberty or punishment.
If the judge be obliged by the imperfection of the laws, or chuses to make any other, or more syllogisms than this, it will be an introduction to uncertainty. There is nothing more dangerous than the introduce yourself essay common axiom: the spirit of the laws is to be considered. To adopt it is to give way to patient ratio, the torrent of opinions. Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] This may seem a paradox to vulgar minds, which are more strongly affected by the outsiders persuasive essay, the smallest disorder before their eyes, than by the most pernicious, though remote, consequences produced by one false principle adopted by a nation. Our knowledge is in proportion to the number of our ideas. The more complex these are, the greater is the variety of positions in ratio paper, which they may be considered. Every man hath his own particular point of view, and at the outsiders essay prompts different times sees the nurse patient research same objects in very different lights. For Freshmen! The spirit of the laws will then be the result of the good or bad logic of the judge; and this will depend on nurse ratio research paper, his good or bad digestion; on essay prompts, the violence of his passions; on the rank and condition of the abused, or on his connections with the nurse research judge; and on all those circumstances which change the appearance of objects in the fluctuating mind of man. Hence we see the experience in community essay fate of a delinquent changed many times in passing through the different courts of judicature, and his life and liberty victims to the false ideas or ill humour of the nurse paper judge; who mistakes the vague result of his own confused reasoning, for the just interpretation of the laws. We see the same crimes punished in a different manner at different times in the same tribunals; the consequence of not Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] having consulted the constant and invariable voice of the laws, but the erring instability of arbitrary interpretation. The disorders that may arise from a rigorous observance of the letter of penal laws, are not to be compared with those produced by the interpretation of them.
The first are temporary inconveniencies, which will oblige the legislator to correct the letter of the law, the want of preciseness and uncertainty of which has occasioned these disorders; and this will put a stop to the fatal liberty of explaining; the source of arbitrary and venal declamations. When the code of laws is persuasive prompts once fixed, it should be observed in the literal sense, and nothing more is left to the judge than to determine, whether an action be, or be not, conformable to the written law. When the rule of right, which ought to direct the actions of the philosopher as well as the ignorant, is a matter of controversy, not of fact, the people are slaves to the magistrates. The despotism of this multitude of tyrants is more insupportable, the less the distance is between the oppressor and the oppressed; more fatal than that of one, for the tyranny of many is not to research paper, be shaken off, but by having recourse to that of one alone. It is more cruel, as it meets with more opposition, and the Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] cruelty of introduce yourself, a tyrant is not in proportion to his strength, but to the obstacles that oppose him. These are the patient research paper means by which security of person and property is best obtained; which is just, as it is the service purpose of uniting in society; and it is useful, as each person may calculate exactly the inconveniencies attending every crime. By these means subjects will acquire a spirit of independence and patient liberty; however it may appear to those who dare to call the weakness of submitting blindly to their capricious and interested opinions by the sacred name of virtue. These principles will displease those who have made it a rule with themselves, to transmit to introduce, their inferiors the nurse patient ratio research paper tyranny they suffer from their superiors. I should have every thing to fear, if tyrants were to persuasive, read my book; but tyrants never read.
CHAPTER V.: OF THE OBSCURITY OF LAWS. If the power of interpreting laws be an nurse patient ratio research evil, obscurity in them must be another, as the former is the a piece of homework consequence of the latter. This evil will be still greater, if the laws be written in a language unknown to the people; who, being ignorant of the consequences of their own actions, become necessarily dependent on research, a few, who are interpreters of the laws, which, instead of being public and general, are thus rendered private and particular. What must we think of mankind when we reflect, that such is the established custom of the greatest part of our polished and enlightened Europe? Crimes will be less frequent, in proportion as the code of prompt, laws is nurse more universally read, and understood; for there is yourself essay no doubt, but that the eloquence of the passions is greatly assisted by the ignorance and uncertainty of punishments. Hence it follows, that without written laws, no society will ever acquire a fixed form of government, Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] in which the power is vested in the whole, and nurse research not in any part of the society; and in which the laws are not to be altered but by the will of the whole, nor corrupted by the force of private interest. Experience In Community Service Essay! Experience and nurse ratio research paper reason shew us, that the probability of human traditions diminishes in proportion as they are distant from their sources. How then can laws resist the inevitable force of time, if there be not a lasting monument of the social compact?
Hence we see the use of printing, which alone makes the public, and not a few individuals, the guardians and defenders of the laws. It is essay prompt jungle this art which, by diffusing literature, has gradually dissipated the nurse ratio research paper gloomy spirit of cabal and intrigue. To this art it is owing, that the atrocious crimes of our ancestors, who were alternately slaves and tyrants, are become less frequent. Those who are acquainted with the uc essay history of the two or three last centuries, may observe, how from the lap of luxury and effeminacy have sprung the most tender virtues, humanity, benevolence, and toleration of human errors. They may contemplate the effects of, what was so improperly called, ancient simplicity and good faith; humanity groaning under implacable superstition; the avarice and ambition of a few, staining with Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] human blood the thrones and palaces of kings; secret treasons and public massacres; every noble a tyrant over the people; and the ministers of the nurse gospel of Christ bathing their hands in blood, in the name of the God of all mercy. We may talk as we please of the corruption and degeneracy of the present age, but happily we see no such horrid examples of cruelty and oppression. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE PROPORTION BETWEEN CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS.
It is not only the common interest of mankind that crimes should not be committed, but that crimes of every kind should be less frequent, in proportion to the evil they produce to society Therefore, the means made use of by the legislature to prevent crimes, should be more powerful, in proportion as they are destructive of the public safety and happiness, and uc essay prompts entering as the nurse ratio paper inducements to commit them are stronger. Therefore there Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] ought to be a fixed proportion between crimes and punishments. It is essay impossible to prevent entirely all the disorders which the nurse ratio research paper passions of mankind cause in society. These disorders increase in experience service essay, proportion to nurse patient paper, the number of people, and the opposition of experience in community essay, private interests. If we consult history, we shall find them increasing, in nurse patient, every state, with the extent of essay jungle, dominion. Nurse Patient Research! In political arithmetic, it is persuasive necessary to substitute a calculation of probabilities to mathematical exactness. That force which continually impels us to our own private interest, like gravity, acts incessantly, unless it meets with an patient research paper obstacle to oppose it. The effects of this force are the confused series of entering, human actions. Punishments, which I would call political obstacles, prevent the nurse research fatal effects of the outsiders persuasive essay prompts, private interest, without destroying the impelling cause, which is that sensibility inseparable from nurse patient ratio research, man. The legislator acts, in this case, like a skilful architect, who endeavours to counteract the force of gravity by experience essay, combining the circumstances which may contribute to the strength of his edifice. The necessity of uniting in society being granted, together with the conventions, which the opposite interests of individuals must necessarily require, a scale of crimes may be formed, Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] of which the first degree should consist of those which immediately tend to the dissolution of patient ratio research, society, and the last, of the smallest possible injustice done to a private member of that society.
Between these extremes will be comprehended, all actions contrary to the public good, which are called criminal, and which descend by insensible degrees, decreasing from the highest to the lowest. If mathematical calculation could be applied to the obscure and infinite combinations of human actions, there might be a corresponding scale of punishments, descending from the greatest to the least; but it will be sufficient that the wise legislator mark the principal divisions, without disturbing the order, lest to crimes of the prompts entering first degree, be assigned punishments of the last. If there were an exact and universal scale of crimes and punishments, we should then have a common measure of the degree of liberty and slavery, humanity and patient ratio research paper cruelty, of different nations. Any action, which is not comprehended in the above mentioned scale, will not be called a crime, or punished as such, except by those who have an interest in the denomination. The uncertainty of the extreme points of this scale, hath produced a system of morality which contradicts the laws; Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] a multitude of laws that contradict each other; and yourself scholarship many which expose the patient research paper best men to the severest punishments, rendering the ideas of vice and virtue vague and how to write fluctuating, and even their existence doubtful. Nurse Paper! Hence that fatal lethargy of political bodies, which terminates in their destruction. Whoever reads, with a philosophic eye, the history of nations, and their laws, will generally find, that the ideas of virtue and vice, of a good or a bad citizen, change with the revolution of ages; not in proportion to the alteration of circumstances, and consequently conformable to the common good; but in proportion to the passions and errors by which the different lawgivers were successively influenced. He will frequently observe, that the passions and prompt vices of patient paper, one age, are the foundation of the morality of the following; that violent passion, the how to offspring of fanaticism and enthusiasm, being weakened by time, which reduces all the phenomena of the nurse ratio paper natural and moral world to write school app essays, an equality, become, by degrees, the prudence of the age, and an useful instrument in the hands of the powerful or artful politician. Hence the uncertainty of our notions of honour and virtue; an uncertainty which will ever remain, because they change with the revolutions of time, Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] and names survive the things they originally signified; they change with the nurse research paper boundaries of states, which are often the same both in physical and moral geography.
Pleasure and pain are the only springs of prompts, action in beings endowed with sensibility. Even among the motives which incite men to nurse patient ratio research, acts of religion, the invisible Legislator has ordained rewards and punishments. From a partial distribution of these will arise that contradiction, so little observed, because so common; I mean, that of punishing by the laws the crimes which the laws have occasioned. If an equal punishment be ordained for experience service, two crimes that injure society in different degrees, there is nothing to deter men from committing the greater, as often as it is patient paper attended with greater advantage. CHAPTER VII.: OF ESTIMATING THE DEGREE OF CRIMES. The foregoing reflections authorise me to assert, that crimes are only to be measured by the injury done to society. They err, therefore, who imagine that a crime is greater, or less, according to the intention of the person by whom it is how to write committed; for this will depend on the actual impression of objects on the senses, and on the previous disposition of the mind; both which will vary in different persons, and even in the same person at different times, according to patient research paper, the succession of ideas, passions, and circumstances.
Upon that system, it would be necessary to write app essays, form, not only a particular code for every individual, but a new penal law for every crime. Men, often with the best intention, do the research greatest injury to society, and with the worst, do it the most essential services. Others have estimated crimes rather by the dignity of the uc essay prompts for freshmen entering person offended, than by their consequences to society. If this were the true standard, Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] the smallest irreverence to the divine Being ought to be punished with infinitely more severity, than the assassination of a monarch. In short, others have imagined, that the nurse patient ratio research greatness of the sin should aggravate the a piece of homework crime. But the nurse patient paper fallacy of this opinion will appear on the slightest consideration of the uc essay for freshmen relations between man and man, and between God and man. The relations between man and man are relations of equality. Necessity alone hath produced, from the opposition of private passions and nurse patient research paper interests, the idea of public utility, which is the foundation of uc essay for freshmen, human justice. The other are relations of research, dependence, between an imperfect creature and his Creator, the most perfect of introduce yourself essay, beings, who has reserved to himself the research sole right of being both lawgiver and judge; for he alone can, without injustice, be, at the same time, both one and the other.
If he hath decreed eternal punishments for prompts for freshmen entering, those who disobey his will, shall an insect dare to put himself in the place of divine justice, to pretend to punish for the Almighty, who is himself all-sufficient; who cannot receive impressions of pleasure or pain, and who alone, of all other beings, acts without being acted upon? The degree of nurse patient ratio research paper, sin depends on essay prompt jungle, the malignity of the heart, which is impenetrable to finite being. How Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] then can the degree of sin serve as a standard to determine the degree of crimes? If that were admitted, men may punish when God pardons, and pardon when God condemns; and thus act in opposition to the Supreme Being. CHAPTER VIII.: OF THE DIVISION OF CRIMES. We have proved, then, that crimes are to be estimated by the injury done to ratio, society. This is prompts for freshmen one of those palpable truths, which, though evident to the meanest capacity, yet, by a combination of circumstances, are only known to a few thinking men in every nation, and in every age.
But opinions, worthy only of the despotism of Asia, and passions armed with power and authority, have, generally by insensible and sometimes by violent impressions on the timid credulity of men, effaced those simple ideas which perhaps constituted the first philosophy of infant society. Happily the philosophy of the present enlightened Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] age seems again to conduct us to the same principles, and with that degree of certainty which is obtained by paper, a rational examination, and repeated experience. A scrupulous adherence to order would require, that we should now examine and distinguish the different species of crimes, and the modes of punishment; but they are so variable in their nature, from the different circumstances of ages and countries, that the detail would be tiresome and endless. It will be sufficient for my purpose, to point out the most general principles, and the most common and dangerous errors, in order to undeceive, as well those who, from a mistaken zeal for liberty, would introduce anarchy and confusion, as those who pretend to reduce society in general to the regularity of a convent. Some crimes are immediately destructive of society, or its representative; others attack the private security of the life, property or honour of individuals; and a third class consists of such actions as are contrary to the laws which relate to essay prompt jungle, the general good of the community. The first, which are of the highest degree, as they are most destructive to society, are called crimes of Leze-majesty. * Tyranny and ignorance, Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] which have confounded the clearest terms and ideas, have given this appellation to crimes of a different nature, and consequently have established the same punishment for each; and on this occasion, as on a thousand others, men have been sacrificed victims to a word.
Every crime, even of the nurse patient research paper most private nature, injures society; but every crime does not threaten its immediate destruction. Moral, as well as physical actions, have their sphere of activity differently circumscribed, like all the movements of nature, by time and space; it is therefore a sophistical interpretation, the common philosophy of introduce yourself essay, slaves, that would confound the limits of things established by eternal truth. To these succeed crimes which are destructive of the security of individuals. This security being the principal end of all society, and to which every citizen hath an undoubted right, it becomes indispensably necessary, that to these crimes the greatest of punishments should be assigned. The opinion, that every member of society has a right to do anything that is not contrary to research paper, the laws, without fearing any other inconveniencies than those which are the natural consequences of the action itself, is a political dogma, which Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] should be defended by the laws, inculcated by uc essay entering, the magistrates, and believed by the people; a sacred dogma, without which there can be no lawful society; a just recompence for our sacrifice of that universal liberty of action, common to all sensible beings, and only limited by our natural powers. By this principle, our minds become free, active and vigorous; by this alone we are inspired with that virtue which knows no fear, so different from that pliant prudence worthy of those only who can bear a precarious existence.
Attempts, therefore, against the life and liberty of a citizen, are crimes of the highest nature. Under this head we comprehend not only assassinations and robberies committed by the populace, but by grandees and magistrates; whose example acts with more force, and at a greater distance, destroying the patient ratio paper ideas of justice and duty among the subjects, and substituting that of the right of the strongest, equally dangerous to those who exercise it, and to those who suffer. There is a remarkable difference between the civil laws, those jealous guardians of life and property, and the laws of, what is called, honour, which particularly respects the opinion of others. Honour is a term which has been the essay foundation of many long and brilliant reasonings, without annexing to it any precise or fixed idea. How miserable is the condition of the human mind, to paper, which the most distant and least essential matters, the revolution of the heavenly bodies, are more distinctly known, than the most interesting truths of write grad school app essays, morality, which are always confused and fluctuating, as they happen to be driven by the gales of passion, or received and transmitted by ignorance! But this will cease to appear strange, if it be considered, that as objects, when too near the eye, appear confused, so the too great vicinity of the ideas of morality, is the reason why the simple ideas, of which they are composed, are easily confounded; but which must be separated, before Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] we can investigate the phenomena of human sensibility; and the intelligent observer of human nature will cease to patient research, be surprised, that so many ties, and such an apparatus of morality are necessary to the security and essay happiness of mankind.
Honour, then, is one of those complex ideas, which are an aggregate not only of simple ones, but of others so complicated, that, in their various modes of affecsing the human mind, they sometimes exclude part of the elements of patient, which they are composed; retaining only some few of the uc essay most common, as many algebraic quantities admit one common divisor. To find this common divisor of the different ideas attached to research, the word honour, it will be necessary to go back to the original formation of society. The first laws, and the first magistrates, owed their existence to of homework, the necessity of preventing the nurse patient ratio research disorders, which the natural despotism of prompts entering, individuals would unavoidably produce. This was the object of the establishment of society, and nurse ratio was either in reality or in appearance, the scholarship principal design of all codes of laws, even the patient research most pernicious. But the more intimate connections of men, and the progress of their knowledge, gave rise to an infinite number of necessities, and mutual acts of friendship, between the a piece of homework members Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] of society. These necessities were not foreseen by the laws, and could not be satisfied by the actual power of each individual. At this epocha began to be established the despotism of opinion, as being the only means of obtaining those benefits which the law could not procure, and of removing those evils against nurse patient research paper which the laws were no security. It is opinion, that tormentor of the wise and the ignorant, that has exalted the appearance of virtue above virtue itself.
Hence the esteem of men becomes not only useful, but necessary, to yourself scholarship essay, every one, to prevent his sinking below the common level. The ambitious man grasps at it, as being necessary to patient, his designs; the vain man sues for it, as a testimony of his merit; the honest man demands it as his due; and the most men consider it as necessary to their existence. Honour, being produced after the formation of society, could not be a part of the common deposite, and therefore, whilst we act under its influence, we return, for that instant, to a state of nature, and withdraw ourselves from the laws, which in this case are insufficient for our protection. Hence it follows, that in extreme political liberty, and in absolute despotism, all ideas of prompt jungle, honour disappear, or are confounded with others. In the first case, reputation becomes useless from Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] the despotism of the laws; and in nurse patient, the second the for freshmen despotism of one man, annulling civil existence, reduces the rest to a precarious and temporary personality. Honour, then, is one of the research fundamental principles of those monarchies, which are a limited despotism, and in these, like revolutions in despotic states, it is a momentary return to a state of nature, and original equality. From the necessity of the esteem of others, have arisen single combats, and they have been established by the anarchy of the laws. They are thought to have been unknown to the ancients; perhaps because they did not assemble in their temples, in their theatres, or with their friends, suspiciously armed with swords; and, perhaps, because single combats were a common spectacle, exhibited to experience service, the people by gladiators, who were slaves, and whom freemen disdained to imitate.
Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] In vain have the laws endeavoured to abolish this custom, by punishing the offenders with death. A man of honour, deprived of the esteem of nurse paper, others, foresees that he must be reduced, either to uc essay prompts for freshmen entering, a solitary existence, insupportable to a social creature, or become the nurse object of perpetual insult; considerations sufficient to overcome the fear of death. What is the reason that duels are not so frequent among the common people, as amongst the great? Not only because they do not wear swords, but because to men of that class reputation is of less importance than it is to those of a higher rank, who commonly regard each other with distrust and jealousy. It may not be without its use to repeat here, what has been mentioned by of homework, other writers, viz., that the best method of patient research, preventing this crime is to punish the aggressor, that is, the person who gave occasion to the duel, and to prompt jungle, acquit him, who, without any fault on his side, is obliged to defend that, which is not sufficiently secured to him by the laws.
CHAPTER XI.: OF CRIMES WHICH DISTURB THE PUBLIC TRANQUILLITY. Another class of crimes are those which disturb the public tranquillity and the quiet of the citizens; such as tumults and riots in the public streets, which are intended for commerce and the passage of the inhabitants; the discourses of fanatics, which rouse the passions of the curious multitude, and gain strength from the number of their hearers, who, though deaf to calm and nurse ratio solid reasoning, are always affected by obscure and mysterious enthusiasm. The illumination of the streets, during the night, at the public expense; guards stationed in different quarters of the city; the plain and moral discourses of religion, reserved for the silence and how to app essays tranquillity of churches, and protected by authority; and harangues in support of the interest of the public, delivered only at patient the general meetings of the nation, in parliament, or where the sovereign resides; are all means to prevent the dangerous effects of the misguided passions of the people Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] These should be the principal objects of the essay jungle vigilance of a magistrate, and which the nurse patient ratio research French call Police; but if this magistrate should act in an arbitrary manner, and not in conformity to the code of laws, which ought to a piece of homework, be in the hand of every member of the community, he opens a door to tyranny, which always surrounds the confines of political liberty. I do not know of any exception to this general axiom, that Every member of the society should know when he is criminal, and when innocent. If censors, and, in general, arbitrary magistrates, be necessary in any government, it proceeds from some fault in the constitution. The uncertainty of crimes hath sacrificed more victims to secret tyranny, than have ever suffered by public and solemn cruelty. What are, in general, the proper punishments for crimes? Is the punishment of death, really useful, or necessary for the safety or good order of society? Are tortures and torments consistent with justice, or do they answer the nurse patient research paper end proposed by the laws? Which is the best method of preventing crimes?
Are the same punishments equally useful at all times? What influence have they on manners? These problems should be solved with that geometrical precision which the mist of Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] sophistry, the seduction of eloquence, and yourself scholarship essay the timidity of doubt are unable to resist. If I have no other merit than that of having first presented to my country, with a greater degree of evidence, what other nations have written, and are beginning to patient research paper, practise, I shall account myself fortunate; but if, by supporting the rights of mankind and of invincible truth, I shall contribute to save from the persuasive essay agonies of death one unfortunate victim of tyranny, or of ignorance, equally fatal; his blessings, and tears of transport, will be a sufficient consolation to nurse ratio paper, me for the contempt of all mankind. CHAPTER XII.: OF THE INTENT OF PUNISHMENTS. From the foregoing considerations it is essay evident, that the intent of punishments is not to torment a sensible being, nor to undo a crime already committed. Is it possible that torments, and useless cruelty, the patient ratio instruments of furious fanaticism, or Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] of impotency of tyrants, can be authorized by a political body? which, so far from being influenced by passion, should be the cool moderator of the passions of individuals. Can the groans of a tortured wretch recal the time past, or reverse the crime he has committed? The end of punishment, therefore, is no other, than to prevent others from committing the like offence. Such punishments, therefore, and such a mode of inflicting them, ought to app essays, be chosen, as will make strongest and most lasting impressions on the minds of others, with the least torment to the body of the criminal. CHAPTER XIII.: OF THE CREDIBILITY OF WITNESSES.
To determine exactly the nurse ratio research paper credibility of a witness, and uc essay prompts for freshmen the force of evidence, is an important point in nurse ratio, every good legislation. Every man of common sense, that is, every one whose ideas have some connexion with each other, and whose sensations Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] are conformable to those of other men, may be a witness; but the credibility of his evidence will be in proportion as he is interested in declaring or concealing the truth. Hence it appears, how frivolous is the reasoning of those, who reject the testimony of women on account of their weakness; how puerile it is, not to admit the evidence of those who are under sentence of of homework, death, because they are dead in nurse research, law; and how irrational, to introduce yourself essay, exclude persons branded with infamy: for in all these cases they ought to be credited, when they have no interest in patient, giving false testimony. The credibility of a witness, then, should only diminish in proportion to the hatred, friendship, or connexions subsisting between him and the delinquent. One witness is not sufficient; for whilst the accused denies what the other affirms, truth remains suspended, and yourself scholarship essay the right that every one has to nurse patient, be believed innocent, turns the balance in his favour.
The credibility of a witness is the grad school app essays less, as the atrociousness of the crime is greater, from the improbability of its having been committed; as in cases of witchcraft, and acts of wanton cruelty. The writers on ratio, penal laws have adopted a contrary principle, viz., that the a piece of homework credibility of a witness is greater, as the crime is more atrocious. Behold Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] their inhuman maxim, dictated by patient ratio research, the most cruel imbecility. In atrocissimis, leviores conjectur#xE6; sufficiunt, licet judici jura transgredi. Let us translate this sentence, that mankind may see one of the many unreasonable principles to which they are ignorantly subject. In the how to most atrocious crimes the slightest conjectures are sufficient, and nurse patient ratio paper the judge is allowed to exceed the limits of the yourself essay law. The absurd practices of nurse patient ratio, legislators are often the effect of timidity, which is a principal source of the contradictions of mankind.
The legislators, (or rather lawyers, whose opinions, when alive, were interested and venal, but which after their death become of decisive authority, and are sovereign arbiters of the lives and fortunes of men), terrified by the condemnation of some innocent person, have burdened the law with pompous and useless formalities, the scrupulous observance of which will place anarchical impunity on the throne of justice; at other times, perplexed by atrocious crimes of difficult proof, they imagined themselves under a necessity of superseding the very formalities established by themselves; and thus, at one time, with despotic impatience, and at another with feminine timidity, they transform their solemn judgments into a game of hazard. But to return. In the case of witchcraft, it Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] is much more probable, that a number of men should be deceived, than that any person should exercise a power which God hath refused to every created being. How To Grad App Essays! In like manner, in cases of wanton cruelty, the presumption is always against the accuser, without some motive of fear or hate. There are no spontaneous or superfluous sentiments in the heart of man; they are all the result of nurse ratio paper, impressions on the senses. The credibility of a witness may also be diminished, by a piece of homework, his being a member of a private society, whose customs and principles of conduct are either not known, or are different from those of the public. Such a man has not only his own passions, but those of the society of which he is a member. Finally, the ratio paper credibility of a witness is null, when the question relates to yourself scholarship essay, the words of a criminal; for the tone of voice, the gesture, all that precedes, accompanies and follows the different ideas which men annex to the same words, may so alter and modify a man#x2019;s discourse, that it is almost impossible to repeat them precisely in the manner in which they were spoken. Besides, violent and patient uncommon actions, such as real crimes, leave a trace in the multitude of circumstances that attend them, and in their effects; but words Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] remain only in the memory of the hearers, who are commonly negligent or prejudiced.
It is infinitely easier then to persuasive essay prompts, found an accusation on the words, than on the actions of a man; for in these, the number of circumstances, urged against the accused, afford him variety of means of justification. CHAPTER XIV.: OF EVIDENCE AND THE PROOFS OF A CRIME, AND OF THE FORM OF JUDGMENT. The following general theorem is of great use in nurse patient paper, determining the certainty of fact. When the proofs of a crime are dependent on each other, that is, when the evidence of each witness, taken separately, proves nothing; or when all the proofs are dependent upon one, the number of proofs neither increase nor diminish the probability of the fact; for the force of the whole is no greater than the of homework force of that on nurse ratio paper, which they depend; and if this fails, they all fall to the outsiders prompts, the ground. When the proofs are independent on each other, Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] the probability of the fact increases in ratio paper, proportion to the number of proofs; for the falsehood of one does not diminish the veracity of another. It may seem extraordinary that I speak of probability with regard to prompt, crimes, which, to deserve a punishment, must be certain. But this paradox will vanish, when it is considered, that, strictly speaking, moral certainty is only probability; but which is called a certainty, because every man in patient ratio research paper, his senses assents to it from an habit produced by the necessity of acting, and which is anterior to all speculation.
That certainty which is necessary to decide that the accused is guilty, is the very same which determines every man in the most important transactions of his life. The proofs of a crime may be divided into two classes, perfect and imperfect. I call those perfect which exclude the possibility of innocence; imperfect, those which do not exclude this possibility. Of the in community first, one only is sufficient for condemnation; of the second, as many are required as form a perfect proof: that is to say, that though each of these, separately taken, does not exclude the possibility of innocence, it is nevertheless excluded by their union. It should be also observed, that the imperfect proofs of Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] which the ratio accused, if innocent, might clear himself, and does not, become perfect. But it is much easier to feel this moral certainty of jungle, proofs, than to define it exactly. For this reason, I think it an excellent law which establishes assistants to the principal judge, and those chosen by lot; for that ignorance, which judges by its feelings, is less subject to patient, error, than the knowledge of the laws which judges by opinion. Where the laws are clear and the outsiders persuasive essay precise, the ratio research paper office of the judge is merely to ascertain the the outsiders persuasive fact. If, in examining the proofs of a crime, acuteness and dexterity be required; if clearness and precision be necessary in summing up the result; to judge of the result itself, nothing is nurse patient research paper wanting but plain and ordinary good sense, a less fallacious guide than the uc essay knowledge of a judge accustomed to find guilty, and to ratio paper, reduce all things to an artificial system, borrowed from his studies. Happy the nation, where the knowledge of the law is not a science! It is an admirable law which ordains, that every man shall be tried by his peers; for when life, liberty and fortune are in question, the introduce sentiments, which a difference of rank and fortune inspire, should be silent; that superiority with which the fortunate look upon nurse patient, the unfortunate, and that Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] envy with which the inferior regard their superiors, should have no influence.
But when the crime is an offence against a fellow-subject, one half of the judges should be peers to the accused, and the other peers to the person offended. So that all private interest, which, in spite of in community, ourselves, modifies the appearance of objects, even in the eyes of the most equitable, is counteracted, and nothing remains to turn aside the direction of truth and the laws. It is also just, that the accused should have the liberty of excluding a certain number of his judges. Where this liberty is enjoyed for a long time, without any instance to the contrary, the criminal seems to condemn himself. All trials should be public, that opinion, which is the best, or, perhaps, the only cement of society, may curb the authority of the powerful, and the passions of the judge; and that the people may say, #x201C;We are protected by the laws; we are not slaves;#x201D; a sentiment which inspires courage, and research paper which is the best tribute to a sovereign who knows his real interest. I shall not enter into particulars. There may be some persons who expect that I should say all that can be said upon this subject; to such, what I have already written must be unintelligible. Secret accusations are a manifest abuse, but consecrated by custom in many nations, where, from the weakness of the introduce scholarship government, they are necessary.
This custom makes men false and treacherous. Whoever suspects another to be an informer, beholds in him an enemy; and, from thence, mankind are accustomed to disguise their real sentiments; and from the patient ratio research paper habit of concealing them from grad school app essays, others, they at last even hide them from themselves. Unhappy are those, who have arrived at this point! Without any certain and fixed principles to nurse patient, guide them, they fluctuate in grad app essays, the vast sea of opinion, and are busied only in escaping the monsters which surround them; to those, the present is always embittered by the uncertainty of the future; deprived of the pleasures of tranquillity and security, some fleeting moments of nurse research paper, happiness, scattered thinly through their wretched lives, console them for the misery of existing. Shall we, amongst such men, find Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] intrepid soldiers to defend their king and country?
Amongst such men shall we find incorruptible magistrates, who, with the spirit of freedom and patriotic eloquence, will support and explain the true interest of their sovereign; who, with the tributes, offer up at the throne the essay prompts love and blessing of the people, and thus bestow on the palaces of the great, and the humble cottage, peace and security; and to nurse patient paper, the industrious a prospect of bettering their lot, that useful ferment and vital principle of states? Who can defend himself from calumny, armed with that impenetrable shield of tyranny, secrecy? What a miserable government must that be, where the sovereign suspects an enemy in every subject, and, to secure the tranquillity of the public, is of homework obliged to sacrifice the repose of every individual? By what arguments is it pretended, that secret accusations may be justified? The public safety, say they, and nurse patient research paper the security and maintenance of the established form of for freshmen entering, government. But what a strange constitution is that, where the patient paper government, which hath in its favour not only power but opinion, still more efficacious, yet fears its own subjects? The indemnity of the informer. Do not the laws defend him sufficiently; and uc essay entering are there subjects more powerful than the laws? The Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] necessity of protecting the informer from infamy.
When secret calumny is authorised, and punished only when public. Patient Ratio Research Paper! The nature of the crime. If actions, indifferent in themselves, or even useful to the public, were called crimes, both the accusation and the trial could never be too secret. Essay! But can there be any crime, committed against the public, which ought not to be publicly punished? I respect all governments; and I speak not of any one in particular. Such may sometimes be the patient ratio research nature of circumstances, that when abuses are inherent in the constitution, it may be imagined, that to rectify them, would be to experience in community essay, destroy the constitution itself.
But were I to dictate new laws in a remote corner of the universe, the good of posterity, ever present to my mind, would hold back my trembling hand, and prevent me from authorising secret accusations. Public accusations, says Montesquieu, are more conformable to the nature of a republic, where zeal for the public good is the principal passion of a citizen, than of a monarchy, in which, as this sentiment is very feeble, from the nature of the government, the best establishment is that of commissioners, who, in the name of the nurse ratio public, accuse the infractors of the laws. But in all governments as well in a republic as in a monarchy, Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] the punishment, due to the crime of a piece of homework, which one accuses another, ought to be inflicted on the informer. The torture of a criminal, during the course of his trial, is a cruelty, consecrated by custom in most nations. Nurse Ratio Research! It is a piece of homework used with an intent either to make him confess his crime, or explain some contradictions, into which he had been led during his examination; or discover his accomplices; or for some kind of metaphysical and patient paper incomprehensible purgation of infamy; or, finally, in experience in community service, order to discover other crimes, of which he is not accused, but of which he may be guilty. No man can be judged a criminal until he be found guilty; nor can society take from him the public protection, until it have been proved that he has violated the conditions on which it was granted. What right, then, but that of power, can authorise the punishment of a citizen, so long Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] as there remains any doubt of his guilt? The dilemma is frequent. Either he is guilty, or not guilty. Patient! If guilty, he should only suffer the punishment ordained by the laws, and torture becomes useless, as his confession is unnecessary.
If he be not guilty, you torture the innocent; for, in the eye of the law, every man is innocent, whose crime has not been proved. Besides, it is introduce yourself scholarship confounding all relations, to expect that a man should be both the accuser and accused; and that pain should be the test of nurse ratio paper, truth, as if truth resided in the muscles and fibres of a wretch in torture. By this method, the robust will escape, and the feeble be condemned. These are the inconveniencies of this pretended test of prompts entering, truth, worthy only of a cannibal; and nurse patient ratio research which the Romans, in many respects barbarous, and whose savage virtue has been too much admired, reserved for the slaves alone. What is the political intention of punishments? To terrify, and to be an example to others. Is this intention answered, by thus privately torturing the guilty and the innocent? It is doubtless of importance, that no crime should remain unpunished; but it is useless to make a public example of the author of a crime hid in a piece, darkness. A crime already committed, and for which there can be no remedy, can only be punished by nurse patient research, a Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] political society, with an intention that no hopes of impunity should induce others to commit the same. If it be true, that the number of those, who, from fear or virtue, respect the prompts laws, is greater than of those by nurse patient ratio research paper, whom they are violated, the risk of torturing an innocent person is greater, as there is a greater probability that, c#xE6;teris paribus, an individual hath observed, than that he hath infringed the how to app essays laws.
There is another ridiculous motive for torture, namely, to purge a man from infamy. Ought such an abuse to ratio, be tolerated in the eighteenth century? Can pain, which is a sensation, have any connection with a moral sentiment, a matter of opinion? Perhaps the rack may be considered as a refiner#x2019;s furnace. It is not difficult to trace this senseless law to its origin; for an absurdity, adopted by a whole nation, must have some affinity with other ideas, established and essay respected by the same nation. This custom seems to nurse patient research, be the offspring of religion, by which mankind, in all nations and in all ages, are so generally influenced. We are taught by our infallible church, that those stains of sin, contracted through human frailty, and which have not deserved the eternal anger of the Almighty, are to be purged away, in another life, by an Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] incomprehensible fire. Now infamy is a stain, and if the punishments and fire of purgatory can take away all spiritual stains, why should not the pain of in community service, torture take away those of a civil nature? I imagine that the confession of a criminal, which in some tribunals is required, as being essential to his condemnation, has a similar origin, and has been taken from the mysterious tribunal of ratio research, penitence, where the confession of sins is a necessary part of the sacrament. Thus have men abused the unerring light of revelation; and in the times of tractable ignorance, having no other, they naturally had recourse to it on every occasion, making the most remote and absurd applications. Moreover, infamy is a sentiment regulated neither by the laws nor by reason, but entirely by opinion.
But torture renders the victim infamous, and therefore cannot take infamy away. Another intention of torture is, to oblige the persuasive essay supposed criminal to reconcile the contradictions into which he may have fallen during his examination; as if the dread of nurse patient ratio paper, punishment, the uncertainty of his fate, the solemnity of the court, the majesty of the judge, and the ignorance of the accused, were not abundantly sufficient to account for contradictions, which are so common to men even in a state of tranquillity; and which must Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] necessarily be multiplied by scholarship, the perturbation of the mind of a man, entirely engaged in the thought of nurse research, saving himself from imminent danger. This infamous test of truth is a remaining monument of that ancient and savage legislation, in a piece of homework, which trials by fire, by boiling water, or the ratio uncertainty of combats, were called judgments of God; as if the links of that eternal chain, whose beginning is in the breast of the first cause of all things, could never be disunited by the institutions of men. The only difference between torture, and trials by fire and boiling water, is, that the event of the first depends on the will of the accused; and of homework of the second, on a fact entirely physical and external: but this difference is apparent only, not real. A man on the rack, in the convulsions of torture, has it as little in his power to declare the truth, as, in nurse ratio research, former times, to prevent, without fraud, the effect of fire or of boiling water. Every act of the will is invariably in proportion to the force of the impression on our senses. The impression of pain, then, may increase to such a degree, that, occupying the of homework mind entirely, it will compel the sufferer to use the shortest method of nurse ratio research, freeing himself from torment. His answer, therefore, will be an effect as necessary as that of fire or boiling water; and he will Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] accuse himself of crimes of which he is innocent.
So that the very means employed to grad app essays, distinguish the innocent from the guilty, will most effectually destroy all difference between them. It would be superfluous to confirm these reflections by patient research paper, examples of innocent persons, who from the agony of torture have confessed themselves guilty: innumerable instances may be found in all nations, and in every age. How amazing, that mankind have always neglected to draw the natural conclusion! Lives there a man who, if he have carried his thoughts ever so little beyond the necessities of life, when he reflects on such cruelty, is not tempted to fly from society, and return to his natural state of independence? The result of torture, then, is a matter of calcution, and depends on in community service, the constitution, which differs in every individual, and is in proportion to patient research paper, his strength and sensibility; so that to discover truth by this method, is of homework a problem which may be better resolved by a mathematician than a judge, and may be thus stated: The force of the muscles, and the sensibility of the nerves of an innocent person being given, it is required to patient research paper, find the degree of pain necessary to make him confess himself guilty of a given crime. The examination of the write grad app essays accused is intended to Edition: current; Page: [ 64 ] find out the truth; but if this be discovered with so much difficulty, in the air, gesture, and countenance of a man at ease, how can it appear in a countenance distorted by the convulsions of torture. Every violent action destroys those small alterations in the features, which sometimes disclose the sentiments of the heart.
These truths were known to the Roman legislators, amongst whom, as I have already observed, slaves, only, who were not considered as citizens, were tortured. They are known to the English, a nation in which the progress of science, superiority in commerce, riches and power, its natural consequences, together with the numerous examples of virtue and courage, leave no doubt of the ratio excellence of of homework, its laws. They have been acknowledged in Sweden, where torture has been abolished. They are known to one of the wisest monarchs in Europe, who, having seated philosophy on ratio paper, the throne, by his beneficent legislation, has made his subjects free, though dependent on essay, the laws; the only freedom that reasonable men can desire in nurse paper, the present state of things. Write Grad School! In short, torture has not been thought necessary in nurse ratio research paper, the laws of armies, composed chiefly of the prompts dregs of mankind, where its use should seem most necessary. Strange phenomenon! that a set of men, hardened by Edition: current; Page: [ 65 ] slaughter, and familiar with blood, should teach humanity to the sons of peace. It appears also, that these truths were known, though imperfectly, even to nurse research paper, those by uc essay prompts, whom torture has been most frequently practised; for a confession made during torture is null, if it be not afterwards confirmed by an oath; which, if the criminal refuses, he is nurse ratio paper tortured again. Some civilians, and some nations, permit this infamous petitio principii to be only three times repeated, and others leave it to essay, the discretion of the judge; and therefore of two men equally innocent or equally guilty, the most robust and resolute will be acquitted, and the weakest and most pusillanimous will be condemned, in consequence of the following excellent method of reasoning.
I, the judge, must find some one guilty. Thou, who art a strong fellow, hast been able to resist the force of torment; therefore I acquit thee. Thou, being weaker, hath yielded to it; I therefore condemn thee. Research! I am sensible, that the confession which was extorted from thee, has no weight: but if thou dost not confirm by oath what thou hast already confessed, I will have thee tormented again. A very strange but necessary consequence of the use of torture, is that the case of the innocent is in community essay worse than that of the guilty. With regard to Edition: current; Page: [ 66 ] the first, either he confesses the crime, which he has not committed, and is condemned; or he is acquitted, and has suffered a punishment he did not deserve. Nurse Research Paper! On the contrary, the person who is prompts really guilty has the most favourable side of the question; for if he supports the torture with firmness and resolution, he is acquitted, and has gained, having exchanged a greater punishment for a less. The law by which torture is authorised, says, Men, be insensible to pain. Ratio Research! Nature has indeed given you an uc essay irresistible self-love, and an unalienable right of self-preservation, but I create in you a contrary sentiment, an heroical hatred of yourselves. I command you to accuse yourselves, and to declare the truth, midst the tearing of your flesh and the dislocation of your bones. Torture is used to discover, whether the criminal be guilty of other crimes besides those of which he is accused: which is ratio paper equivalent to the following reasoning: Thou art guilty of one crime, therefore it is experience in community essay possible that thou mayst have committed a thousand others: but the affair being doubtful, I must try it by my criterion of truth.
The laws order thee to be tormented, because thou art guilty, because thou mayst be guilty, and because I chuse thou shouldst be guilty. Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] Torture is used to make the criminal discover his accomplices; but if it has been demonstrated that it is not a proper means of discovering truth, how can it serve to discover the accomplices, which is one of the truths required. Will not the man who accuses himself, yet more readily accuse others? Besides, is it just to torment one man for the crime of another? May not the accomplices be found out by the examination of the witnesses, or of the criminal; from the evidence, or from the nature of the crime itself; in short, by all the means that have been used to prove the guilt of the prisoner? The accomplices commonly fly when their comrade is taken. The uncertainty of their fate condemns them to perpetual exile, and patient ratio frees society from the danger of introduce, further injury; whilst the punishment of the criminal, by deterring others, answers the ratio research paper purpose for which it was ordained. CHAPTER XVII.: OF PECUNIARY PUNISHMENTS. There was a time when all punishments were pecuniary.
The crimes of the subjects were the inheritance of the prince. An injury done to society was a favour to the crown; and the sovereign and magistrates, those guardians of the public security, were interested in the violation of the laws. Crimes were tried, at that time, in a court of Exchequer, and the cause became a civil suit between the person accused and the crown. The magistrate then had other powers than were necessary for the public welfare, and the criminal suffered other punishments than the necessity of example required. The judge was rather a collector for the crown, an agent for the treasury, than a protector and minister of the laws.
But, according to this system, for a man to confess himself guilty, was to acknowledge himself a debtor to the crown; which was, and is at a piece present (the effects continuing after the causes have ceased) the intent of all criminal causes. Thus, the criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 69 ] who refuses to confess his crime, though convicted by the most undoubted proofs, will suffer a less punishment than if he had confessed; and he will not be put to patient ratio, the torture to oblige him to confess other crimes which he might have committed, as he has not confessed the principal. But the of homework confession being once obtained, the judge becomes master of his body, and torments him with a studied formality, in order to squeeze out of him all the profit possible. Confession, then, is allowed to be a convincing proof, especially when obtained by the force of torture; at the same time that an extra-judicial confession, when a man is at case and under no apprehension, is not sufficient for his condemnation. All inquiries, which may serve to clear up the fact, but which may weaken the pretensions of the crown, are excluded. It was not from compassion to the criminal, or from considerations of nurse research paper, humanity, that torments were sometimes spared, but out of fear of losing those rights which at present appear chimerical and inconceivable. Jungle! The judge becomes an enemy to the accused, to a wretch, a prey to the horrors of a dungeon, to torture, to death, and patient ratio paper an uncertain futurity, more terrible than all; he inquires not into the truth of the fact, but the nature of the crime; he lays Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] snares to make him convict himself; he fears, lest he should not succeed in finding him guilty, and lest that infallibility which every man arrogates to himself should be called in question. It is in the power of the magistrate to determine, what evidence is sufficient to a piece, send a man to ratio paper, prison; that he may be proved innocent, he must first be supposed guilty.
This is what is called an offensive prosecution; and such are all criminal proceedings, in the eighteenth century, in all parts of our polished Europe. The true prosecution for information: that is, an impartial inquiry into the fact, that which reason prescribes, which military laws adopt, and which Asiatic despotism allows in suits of one subject against another, is very little practiced in any courts of justice. What a labyrinth of experience in community service essay, absurdities! Absurdities which will appear incredible to happier posterity. The philosopher only will be able to read, in ratio, the nature of persuasive essay prompts, man, the nurse ratio research paper possibility of there ever having been such a system. There is a palpable contradiction between the uc essay prompts entering laws and the natural sentiments of mankind, in the case of oaths which are administered to a criminal to make him speak the truth, when the contrary is nurse patient research his greatest interest. As if a man could think himself obliged to contribute to his own destruction; and as if, when interest speaks, religion was not generally silent; religion, which in all ages hath, of all other things, been most commonly abused; and indeed, upon introduce yourself scholarship, what motive should it be respected by patient paper, the wicked, when it has been thus violated by those who were esteemed the wisest of men? The motives which religion opposes to the fear of impending evil, and the love of life, are too weak, as they are too distant, to make any impression on the senses.
The affairs of the other world are regulated by laws entirely different from the outsiders persuasive prompts, those by which human affairs are directed; why then should we endeavour to nurse ratio, compromise matters between them? Why Edition: current; Page: [ 72 ] should a man be reduced to experience essay, the terrible alternative, either of offending God, or of contributing to his own immediate destruction? The laws which require an oath in such a case, leave him only the nurse patient research paper choice of becoming a bad christian or a martyr. For this reason, oaths become by degrees a mere formality, and persuasive essay all sentiments of religion, perhaps the only motive of honesty in the greatest part of mankind, are destroyed. Experience proves their utility: I appeal to every judge, whether he has ever known that an oath alone has brought truth from the lips of a criminal; and reason tells us, it must be so; for all laws are useless, and, in consequence, destructive, which contradict the natural feelings of mankind. Such laws are like a dyke, opposed directly to nurse patient ratio research, the course of prompts for freshmen entering, a torrent; it is either immediately overwhelmed, or by a whirlpool formed by itself, it is patient research gradually undermined and destroyed. CHAPTER XIX.: OF THE ADVANTAGE OF IMMEDIATE PUNISHMENT. The more immediately, after the commission of a crime, a punishment is inflicted, the more just and useful it will be. It will be more just, because it spares the criminal the cruel and superfluous torment of uncertainty, which increases in proportion to the strength of his imagination and the sense of his weakness; and because the privation of liberty, being a punishment, ought to be inflicted before condemnation, but for as short a time as possible. Imprisonments, I say, being only the means of prompt, securing the nurse patient ratio research person of the accused, until he be tried, condemned or acquitted, ought not only to be of short duration, but attended with as little severity as possible.
The time should be determined by the necessary preparation for the trial, and the right of priority in the oldest prisoners. The confinement ought not to be closer than is requisite to prevent his flight, or his concealing the proofs of the crime; and the trial should be conducted with all possible Edition: current; Page: [ 74 ] expedition. Can there be a more cruel contrast than that between the indolence of a judge, and the painful anxiety of the for freshmen entering accused; the comforts and pleasures of an insensible magistrate, and the filth and misery of the prisoner? In general, as I have before observed, The degree of the punishment, and the consequences of a crime, ought to be so contrived, as to nurse patient ratio, have the greatest possible effect on others, with the least possible pain to the delinquent. If there be any society in which this is of homework not a fundamental principle, it is an unlawful society; for mankind, by their union, originally intended to subject themselves to nurse patient research paper, the least evils possible.
An immediate punishment is more useful; because the smaller the interval of essay, time between the punishment and the crime, the stronger and more lasting will be the association of the two ideas of Crime and Punishment: so that they may be considered, one as the cause, and the other as the unavoidable and necessary effect. Nurse Patient Ratio Research! It is demonstrated, that the association of ideas is the cement which unites the fabric of the human intellect; without which, pleasure and pain would be simple and ineffectual sensations. The vulgar, that is, all men who have no general ideas or universal principles, act in consequence of the most immediate and in community familiar associations; but the more Edition: current; Page: [ 75 ] remote and complex only present themselves to the minds of those who are passionately attached to a single object, or to ratio, those of greater understanding, who have acquired an habit of rapidly comparing together a number of objects, and scholarship of forming a conclusion; and the result, that is, the action, in consequence, by these means, becomes less dangerous and uncertain. It is, then, of the greatest importance, that the punishment should succeed the crime, as immediately as possible, if we intend, that, in the rude minds of the multitude, the seducing picture of the advantage arising from the paper crime, should instantly awake the attendant idea of punishment. Delaying the experience in community essay punishment serves only to separate these two ideas; and thus affects the minds of the spectators rather as being a terrible sight than the ratio research paper necessary consequence of a crime; the horror of which should contribute to heighten the idea of the punishment. There is another excellent method of strengthening this important connection between the ideas of prompts entering, crime and punishment; that is, to make the punishment as analagous as possible to the nature of the crime; in order that the research punishment may lead the mind to consider the crime in a different point of view, from that in which it was Edition: current; Page: [ 76 ] placed by the flattering idea of promised advantages. Crimes of less importance are commonly punished, either in the obscurity of a prison, or the criminal is transported, to give, by his slavery, an example to introduce essay, societies which he never offended; an example absolutely useless, because distant from the place where the crime was committed. Research Paper! Men do not, in general, commit great crimes deliberately, but rather in a sudden gust of passion; and they commonly look on the punishment due to a great crime as remote and improbable. The public punishment, therefore, of essay prompt jungle, small crimes will make a greater impression, and, by deterring men from the smaller, will effectually prevent the patient greater. Some crimes relate to person, others to property.
The first ought to be punished corporally. The great and rich should by no means have it in their power to set a price on the security of the essay weak and indigent; for then, riches, which, under the protection of the laws, are the reward of industry, would become the aliment of tyranny. Liberty is at nurse paper an end, whenever the experience in community service laws permit, that, in certain cases, a man may cease to ratio research paper, be a person, and become a thing. Then will the powerful employ their address to select from the various combinations of civil society, all that is in their own favour. The Outsiders Essay! This is nurse patient ratio research that magic art which transforms subjects into of homework beasts of burden, and which, in the hands of the strong, is the chain that binds the nurse patient ratio research the weak and incautious.
Thus it is, that in the outsiders persuasive essay prompts, some governments, where there is all the appearance of liberty, tyranny lies concealed, and insinuates itself into some neglected corner of the constitution, where it gathers strength insensibly. Mankind Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] generally oppose, with resolution, the assaults of barefaced and open tyranny; but disregard the little insect that gnaws through the dyke, and opens a sure, though secret, passage to inundation. CHAPTER XXI.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF THE NOBLES. What punishments shall be ordained for nurse, the nobles, whose privileges make so great a part of the laws of nations? I do not mean to inquire whether the hereditary distinction between nobles and commoners be useful in any government, or necessary in a monarchy; or whether it be true, that they form an intermediate power, of use in moderating the excesses of both extremes; or whether they be not rather slaves to their own body, and to others, confining within a very small circle the natural effects and hopes of industry, like those little fruitful spots scattered here and there in the sandy deserts of Arabia; or Edition: current; Page: [ 79 ] whether it be true that a subordination of rank and condition is inevitable, or useful in society; and if so, whether this subordination should not rather subsist between individuals than particular bodies; whether it should not rather circulate through the whole body politic, than be confined to one part; and rather than be perpetual, should it not be incessantly produced and destroyed. Be these as they may, I assert that the punishment of a nobleman should in no wise differ from that of the lowest member of society. Every lawful distinction, either in honours or riches, supposes previous equality, founded on the laws, on which all the members of society are considered as being equally dependent. We should suppose that men, in renouncing their natural despotism, said, the wisest and most industrious among us shall obtain the greatest honours, and the outsiders persuasive essay prompts his dignity shall descend to patient ratio, his posterity.
The fortunate and in community service essay happy may hope for greater honours, but let him not therefore be less afraid than others of violating those conditions on which he is exalted. It is true, indeed, that no such decrees were ever made in a general diet of mankind, but they exist in the invariable relations of things: nor do they destroy the advantages which are supposed to be produced by the class of nobles, but prevent the inconveniencies; Edition: current; Page: [ 80 ] and they make the laws respectable by destroying all hopes of impunity. It may be objected, that the same punishment inflicted on a nobleman and a plebeian, becomes really different from the patient ratio paper difference of their education and from the infamy it reflects on an illustrious family; but I answer, that punishments are to be estimated, not by the sensibility of the criminal, but by the injury done to society; which injury is augmented by the high rank of the offender. The precise equality of a punishment can never be more than external, as it is in proportion to the degree of sensibility, which differs in every individual. The infamy of an the outsiders persuasive innocent family may be easily obliterated by some public demonstration of favour from the patient ratio sovereign; and forms have always more influence than reason on uc essay prompts entering, the gazing multitude. The punishment of robbery, not accompanied with violence, should be pecuniary. He who endeavours to enrich himself with the property of another, should be deprived of part of his own. But this crime, alas! is commonly the effect of misery and despair; the crime of that unhappy part of mankind, to whom the right of exclusive property, a terrible, and perhaps unnecessary right, has left but a bare existence.
Besides, as pecuniary punishment may increase the number of poor, and may deprive an innocent family of patient ratio paper, subsistence, the most proper punishment will be that kind of slavery, which alone can be called just; that is, which makes the society, for a time, absolute master of the person and labour of the criminal, in order to oblige him to repair, by this dependence, the unjust despotism he usurped over the property of another, and essay his violation of the social compact. When robbery is paper attended with violence, corporal Edition: current; Page: [ 82 ] punishment should be added to slavery. Many writers have shown the evident disorder which must arise from not distinguishing the punishment due to robbery with violence, and that due to theft, or robbery committed with dexterity, absurdly making a sum of money equivalent to essay prompt jungle, a man#x2019;s life. But it can never be superfluous to repeat, again and again, those truths of which mankind have not profited; for political machines preserve their motion much longer than others, and receive a new impulse with more difficulty. These crimes are in their nature absolutely different, and this axiom is as certain in politics as in mathematics, that between qualities of different natures there can be no similitude. CHAPTER XXIII.: OF INFAMY, CONSIDERED AS A PUNISHMENT.
Those injuries, which affect the honour, that is, that just portion of nurse patient research paper, esteem which every citizen has a right to expect from others, should be punished with infamy. Infamy is a mark of the Edition: current; Page: [ 83 ] public disapprobation, which deprives the object of all consideration in the eyes of his fellow citizens, of the confidence of his country, and of that fraternity which exists between members of the same society. This is not always in the power of the laws. It is necessary that the infamy inflicted by how to write grad school, the laws should be the same with that which results from the relations of things, from universal morality, or from that particular system, adopted by the nation and research paper the laws, which governs the opinion of the vulgar. If, on the contrary, one be different from the other, either the yourself essay laws will no longer be respected, or the received notions of morality and probity will vanish in spite of the declamations of moralists, which are weak to resist the force of example. If we declare those actions infamous, which are in nurse ratio, themselves indifferent, we lessen the infamy of those which are really infamous. The punishment of infamy should not be too frequent, for the power of experience in community service, opinion grows weaker by nurse ratio research, repetition; nor should it be inflicted on introduce scholarship, a number of persons at nurse research the same time, for the infamy of many resolves itself into prompts for freshmen entering the infamy of none. Painful and corporal punishments should never be applied to fanaticism; for being founded on pride, it glories in persecution. Infamy and ridicule Edition: current; Page: [ 84 ] only patient research paper, should be employed against fanatics; if the first, their pride will be overbalanced by the pride of the people; and we may judge of the power of the second, if we consider that even truth is write grad school obliged to summon all her force, when attacked by error armed with ridicule. Thus, by ratio research paper, opposing one passion to another, and opinion to opinion, a wise legislator puts an end to the admiration of the populace, occasioned by a false principle, the a piece of homework original absurdity of nurse patient research paper, which is veiled by some well-deduced consequences. This is the method to avoid confounding the service immutable relations of things, or opposing nature, whose actions not being limited by time, but operating incessantly, overturn and nurse research destroy all those vain regulations which contradict her laws.
It is not only in the fine arts that the imitation of nature is the fundamental principle; it is the same in sound policy, which is persuasive prompts no other than the art of uniting, and directing to the same end, the nurse patient research paper natural and immutable sentiments of mankind. A wise government will not suffer, in the midst of labour and industry, that kind of prompt jungle, political idleness which is confounded, by rigid declaimers, with the leisure attending riches acquired by industry, which is of use to an increasing society, when confined within proper limits. I call those politically idle, who neither contribute to the good of society by their labour nor their riches; who continually accumulate, but never spend; and are reverenced by the vulgar with stupid admiration, and regarded by patient ratio paper, the wise with disdain; who, being victims to a monastic life, and deprived of all incitement to the activity which is necessary to preserve or increase its comforts, devote all their vigour to passions of the strongest kind, the passions of opinion. I call him not idle, who enjoys the fruits of the virtues or vices of his ancestors, and in exchange for his pleasures supports the industrious poor. It is not then the jungle Edition: current; Page: [ 86 ] narrow virtue of austere moralists, but the laws, that should determine what species of idleness deserves punishment. CHAPTER XXV.: OF BANISHMENT, AND CONFISCATION. He who disturbs the public tranquillity, who does not obey the laws, who violates the patient research conditions on which men mutually support and defend each other, ought to be excluded from society, that is, banished. It seems as if banishment should be the punishment of those, who, being accused of an atrocious crime, are probably, but not certainly, guilty.
For this purpose would be required a law, the least arbitrary, and the most precise possible; which should condemn to banishment those who have reduced the community to yourself, the fatal alternative, either of fearing or punishing them unjustly; still, however, leaving them the nurse ratio sacred right of proving their innocence. The Edition: current; Page: [ 87 ] reasons ought to be stronger for banishing a citizen than a stranger, and for uc essay prompts entering, the first accusation than for one who hath been often excused. Should the paper person who is excluded for a piece, ever from society be deprived of his property? This question may be considered in different lights. The confiscation of effects, added to banishment, is a greater punishment than banishment alone; there ought then to be some cases, in which, according to patient ratio paper, the crime, either the whole fortune should be confiscated, or part only, or none at in community all. The whole should be forfeited, when the law, which ordains banishment, declares, at the same time, that all connections between the nurse patient paper society and the criminal are annihilated. In this case, the citizen dies, the man only remains; and with respect to a political body, the death of the prompts entering citizen should have the same consequences with the death of the man. It seems to follow, then, that in this case, the effects of the criminal should devolve to his lawful heirs.
But it is not on account of this refinement that I disapprove of confiscations. If some have insisted that they were a restraint to vengeance, and the violence of patient ratio, particulars, they have not reflected, that though punishments be productive of good, they are not, on that account, more just; to be just, they must be necessary. Edition: current; Page: [ 88 ] Even an useful injustice can never be allowed by a legislator, who means to guard against watchful tyranny; which, under the flattering pretext of momentary advantages, would establish permanent principles of destruction, and, to procure the ease of a few in a high station, would draw tears from thousands of the poor. The law which ordains confiscations, sets a price on the head of the subject, with the guilty punishes the innocent, and by reducing them to indigence and despair, tempts them to become criminal. Can there be a more melancholy spectacle, than a whole family, overwhelmed with infamy and misery, from the crime of their chief? a crime, which if it had been possible, they were restrained from preventing, by that submission which the laws themselves have ordained. CHAPTER XXVI.: OF THE SPIRIT OF FAMILY IN STATES.
It is remarkable, that many fatal acts of injustice have been authorised and approved, even by the wisest and service most experienced men, in the freest republics. This has been owing to their having considered the state, rather as a society of families, than of men. Let us suppose a nation, composed of an paper hundred thousand men, divided into twenty thousand families of five persons each, including the head or master of the family, its representative. If it be an association of families, there will be twenty thousand men, and eighty thousand slaves; if of men, there will be an hundred thousand citizens, and not one slave. In the jungle first case we behold a republic, and nurse ratio research twenty thousand little monarchies, of which the entering heads are the sovereigns; in the second, the spirit of liberty will not only breathe in every public place of the city, and in the assemblies of the nation, but in private houses, where men find the greatest part of their happiness or misery. As laws Edition: current; Page: [ 90 ] and customs are always the effect of ratio research paper, a republic, if the society be an write grad association of the heads of families, the spirit of monarchy will gradually make its way into patient paper the republic itself, as its effects will only be restrained by the outsiders essay prompts, the opposite interests of nurse patient ratio research paper, each; and not by an universal spirit of liberty and equality. The private spirit of family is a spirit of minuteness, and confined to of homework, little concerns. Public spirit, on the contrary, is influenced by general principles, and ratio from facts deduces general rules of experience essay, utility to the greatest number. In a republic of research, families, the children remain under the authority of the father, as long as he lives, and are obliged to wait until death for an existence dependent on the laws alone.
Accustomed to kneel and tremble in service, their tender years, when their natural sentiments were less restrained by that caution, obtained by experienee, which is called moderation, how should they resist those obstacles, which vice always opposes to virtue, in nurse patient ratio research paper, the languor and the outsiders persuasive essay prompts decline of age, when the despair of reaping the fruits is alone sufficient to damp the vigour of their resolutions. In a republic, where every man is a citizen, family subordination is not the effect of compulsion, but of contract; and the sons, disengaged from the natural dependence, which the weakness Edition: current; Page: [ 91 ] of infancy and the necessity of education required, become free members of society, but remain subject to the head of the family for nurse ratio research, their own advantage, as in the great society. In a republic of families, the young people, that is, the most numerous and most useful part of the nation, are at the outsiders persuasive the discretion of their fathers: in a republic of men, they are attached to their parents by no other obligation, than that sacred and inviolable one of mutual assistance, and of gratitude for the benefits they have received; a sentiment, destroyed not so much by the wickedness of the human heart, as by research, a mistaken subjection, prescribed by essay prompt, the laws. These contradictions between the laws of families, and the fundamental laws of ratio, a state, are the source of many others between public and private morality, which produce a perpetual conflict in the mind. Domestic morality inspires submission and fear: the other, courage and liberty. That instructs a man to confine his beneficence to a small number of persons, not of his own choice; this, to extend it to all mankind: that commands a continual sacrifice of himself to a vain idol, called the how to write school good of the patient ratio research paper family, which is often no real good to any one of those who compose it; this teaches him to consider his own advanatge Edition: current; Page: [ 92 ] without offending the of homework laws, or excites him to sacrifice himself for patient research, the good of his country by rewarding him beforehand with the fanaticism it inspires. Such contradictions are the reason, that men neglect the pursuit of virtue, which they can hardly distinguish midst the obscurity and confusion of natural and moral objects. How frequently are men, upon uc essay entering, a retrospection of their actions, astonished to find themselves dishonest. In proportion to the increase of society, each member becomes a smaller part of the nurse patient research whole; and the republican spirit diminishes in the same proportion, if neglected by the laws. Political societies, like the human body, have their limits circumscribed, which they cannot exceed without disturbing their economy.
It seems as if the greatness of a state ought to be inversely as the sensibility and activity of the individuals; if, on the contrary, population and essay inactivity increase in the same proportion, the laws will with difficulty prevent the crimes arising from the good they have produced. An overgrown republic can only be saved from despotism, by subdividing it into a number of confederate republics. But how is this practicable? By a despotic dictator, who, with the courage of Sylla, has as much genius for building up, as that Roman had for pulling down. Edition: current; Page: [ 93 ] If he be an ambitious man, his reward will be immortal glory; if a philosopher, the blessings of his fellow citizens will sufficiently console him for the loss of authority, though he should not be insensible to their ingratitude.
In proportion as the sentiments, which unite us to the state, grow weaker, those which attach us to the objects which more immediately surround us grow stronger; therefore, in ratio research, the most despotic government, friendships are more durable, and domestic virtues (which are always of the lowest class) are the most common, or the only virtues existing. Hence it appears how confined have been the views of the greatest number of legislators. CHAPTER XXVII.: OF THE MILDNESS OF PUNISHMENTS. The course of my ideas has carried me away from my subject, to the elucidation of which I now return. Crimes are more effectually prevented by the certainty, than the severity of punishment. Edition: current; Page: [ 94 ] Hence, in a magistrate, the a piece necessity of vigilance, and, in a judge, of implacability, which, that it may become an useful virtue, should be joined to nurse patient ratio, a mild legislation. The certainty of a small punishment will make a stronger impression, than the fear of one more severe, if attended with the hopes of escaping; for it is the nature of mankind to be terrified at the approach of the smallest inevitable evil, whilst hope, the prompt jungle best gift of Heaven, hath the power of patient ratio research, dispelling the apprehension of a piece of homework, a greater; especially if supported by nurse patient, examples of impunity, which weakness or avarice too frequently afford.
If punishments be very severe, men are naturally led to the perpetration of other crimes, to avoid the punishment due to the first. The countries and times most notorious for severity of punishments, were always those in which the most bloody and the outsiders persuasive essay prompts inhuman actions and the most atrocious crimes were committed; for the hand of the legislator and the assassin were directed by patient paper, the same spirit of ferocity: which on the throne, dictated laws of iron to slaves and entering savages, and in private instigated the subject to patient research paper, sacrifice one tyrant, to make room for a piece, another. In proportion as punishments become more cruel, the minds of men, as a fluid rises to the Edition: current; Page: [ 95 ] same height with that which surrounds it, grow hardened and insensible; and the force of passions still continuing, in patient research paper, the space of an hundred years, the wheel terrifies no more than formerly the prison. That a punishment may produce the effect required, it is how to write grad app essays sufficient that the evil it occasions should exceed the good expected from the crime; including in the calculation the nurse ratio research paper certainty of the punishment, and the privation of the expected advantage. All severity beyond this is superfluous, and therefore tyrannical. Men regulate their conduct by the repeated impression of evils they know, and not by uc essay prompts for freshmen, those with which they are unacquainted. Let us, for example, suppose two nations, in nurse research paper, one of which the greatest punishment is perpetual slavery, and in in community essay, the other the wheel. I say, that both will inspire the same degree of terror; and that there can be no reasons for patient research, increasing the a piece punishments of the first, which are not equally valid for augmenting those of the second to more lasting and more ingenious modes of tormenting; and nurse ratio research so on to the most exquisite refinements of a science too well known to persuasive prompts, tyrants. There are yet two other consequences of cruel punishments, which counteract the purpose of their institution, which was, to patient ratio paper, prevent crimes.
Edition: current; Page: [ 96 ] The first arises from the impossibility of establishing an exact proportion between the introduce yourself essay crime and punishment; for though ingenious cruelty hath greatly multiplied the variety of torments, yet the human frame can suffer only to a certain degree, beyond which it is impossible to proceed, be the enormity of the nurse crime ever so great. The second consequence is impunity. Human nature is limited no less in evil than in good. Excessive barbarity can never be more than temporary; it being impossible that it should be supported by a permanent system of legislation; for if the laws be too cruel, they must be altered, or anarchy and impunity will succeed. Is it possible, without shuddering with horror, to read in history of the barbarous and useless torments that were coolly invented and executed by men who were called sages? Who does not tremble at the thoughts of thousands of wretches, whom their misery, either caused or tolerated by the laws which favoured the few and outraged the many, had forced in grad app essays, despair to return to a state of nature; or accused of impossible crimes, the fabric of ignorance and superstition; or guilty only of having been faithful to their own principles; who, I say, can, without horror, think of their being torn to pieces with slow and studied Edition: current; Page: [ 97 ] barbarity, by men endowed with the same passions and the same feelings? A delightful spectacle to a fanatic multitude!
CHAPTER XXVIII.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. The useless profusion of punishments, which has never made men better, induces me to nurse ratio paper, inquire, whether the punishment of death be really just or useful in a well-governed state? What right, I ask, have men to cut the throats of their fellow-creatures? Certainly not that on write school app essays, which the sovereignty and laws are founded. The laws, as I have said before, are only the sum of the smallest portions of the private liberty of each individual, and represent the general will, which is the aggregate of that of each individual. Did any one ever give to others the right of taking away his life?
Is it possible, that in nurse patient paper, the smallest portions of the liberty of experience service essay, each, sacrificed to the good of the public, can be obtained the greatest Edition: current; Page: [ 98 ] of all good, life? If it were so, how shall it be reconciled to the maxim which tells us, that a man has no right to kill himself? Which he certainly must have, if he could give it away to another. But the punishment of death is not authorised by any right; for I have demonstrated that no such right exists. It is therefore a war of a whole nation against a citizen, whose destruction they consider as necessary or useful to the general good.
But if I can further demonstrate, that it is neither necessary nor useful, I shall have gained the cause of humanity. The death of a citizen cannot be necessary but in one case. When, though deprived of his liberty, he has such power and connections as may endanger the security of the nation; when his existence may produce a dangerous revolution in the established form of government. But even in this case, it can only patient research, be necessary when a nation is on the verge of recovering or losing its liberty; or in times of absolute anarchy, when the disorders themselves hold the place of laws. But in a reign of tranquillity; in a form of government approved by the united wishes of the nation; in a state fortified from enemies without, and supported by strength within, and how to grad app essays opinion, Edition: current; Page: [ 99 ] perhaps more efficacious; where all power is lodged in the hands of the true sovereign; where riches can purchase pleasures and not authority, there can be no necessity for taking away the life of a subject. If the experience of all ages be not sufficient to prove, that the punishment of death has never prevented determined men from injuring society; if the example of the Romans; if twenty years reign of Elizabeth, empress of Russia, in which she gave the fathers of their country an example more illustrious than many conquests bought with blood; if, I say, all this be not sufficient to persuade mankind, who always suspect the voice of reason, and who chuse rather to be led by authority, let us consult human nature in proof of my assertion.
It is not the intenseness of the pain that has the nurse paper greatest effect on the mind, but its continuance; for our sensibility is more easily and more powerfully affected by weak, but by repeated impressions, than by a violent but momentary impulse. The power of habit is universal over every sensible being. As it is by that we learn to speak, to walk, and to satisfy our necessities, so the in community ideas of morality are stamped on our minds by repeated impressions. The death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 100 ] is patient ratio a terrible but momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the jungle continued example of a man deprived of his liberty, condemned as a beast of burden, to repair, by his labour, the injury he has done to society. If I commit such a crime, says the spectator to himself, I shall be reduced to patient research, that miserable condition for the rest of my life. A much more powerful preventive than the prompts entering fear of death, which men always behold in distant obscurity. The terrors of nurse patient research, death make so slight an impression, that it has not force enough to withstand the prompt jungle forgetfulness natural to mankind, even in the most essential things; especially when assisted by the passions. Violent impressions surprise us, but their effect is momentary; they are fit to produce those revolutions which instantly transform a common man into a Laced#xE6;monian or a Persian; but in a free and quiet government they ought to be rather frequent than strong. The execution of a criminal is, to the multitude, a spectacle which in some excites compassion mixed with indignation. These sentiments occupy the mind much more than that salutary terror which the laws endeavour to inspire; but in the contemplation of continued suffering, terror is the only, or at least, the nurse patient ratio research predominant sensation. In Community Essay! Edition: current; Page: [ 101 ] The severity of a punishment should be just sufficient to excite compassion in the spectators, as it is nurse patient paper intended more for them than for the criminal.
A punishment, to a piece of homework, be just, should have only that degree of severity which is sufficient to deter others. Now there is no man, who, upon the least reflection, would put in nurse patient research paper, competition the total and write app essays perpetual loss of his liberty, with the greatest advantages he could possibly obtain in consequence of nurse ratio paper, a crime. Perpetual slavery, then, has in it all that is necessary to deter the most hardened and determined, as much as the punishment of death. I say, it has more. There are many who can look upon death with intrepidity and firmness; some through fanaticism, and others through vanity, which attends us even to the grave; others from a desperate resolution, either to get rid of their misery, or cease to live: but fanaticism and vanity forsake the criminal in slavery, in chains and fetters, in an iron cage; and despair seems rather the beginning than the end of their misery. The mind, by collecting itself and uniting all its force, can, for a moment, repel assailing grief; but its most vigorous efforts are insufficient to resist perpetual wretchedness. In all nations, where death is used as punishment, every example supposes a new crime committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 102 ] Whereas, in yourself essay, perpetual slavery, every criminal affords a frequent and patient ratio research lasting example: and if it be necessary that men should often be witnesses of the power of the laws, criminals should often be put to death; but this supposes a frequency of crimes; and from hence this punishment will cease to in community service, have its effect, so that it must be useful and useless at patient ratio the same time. I shall be told, that perpetual slavery is as painful a punishment as death, and therefore as cruel. I answer, that if all the miserable moments in the life of a slave were collected into one point, it would be a more cruel punishment than any other; but these are scattered through his whole life, whilst the pain of death exerts all its force in a moment. There is also another advantage in the punishment of slavery, which is, that it is more terrible to experience in community service essay, the spectator than to the sufferer himself; for the spectator considers the sum of all his wretched moments, whilst the sufferer, by the misery of the present, is prevented from thinking of the future.
All evils are increased by the imagination, and the sufferer finds resources and consolation, of nurse ratio, which the spectators are ignoran; who judge by their own sensibility of what passes in a mind by habit grown callous to for freshmen, misfortune. Edition: current; Page: [ 103 ] Let us, for a moment, attend to the reasoning of patient ratio, a robber or assassin, who is deterred from prompt jungle, violating the nurse ratio laws by the gibbet or the wheel. I am sensible, that to develop the sentiments of one#x2019;s own heart, is an art which education only can teach; but although a villain may not be able to give a clear account of his principles, they nevertheless influence his conduct. He reasons thus: #x201C;What are these laws that I am bound to the outsiders essay, respect, which make so great a difference between me and the rich man? He refuses me the farthing I ask of him, and excuses himself by bidding me have recourse to labour, with which he is unacquainted. Nurse Patient! Who made these laws? The rich and the great, who never deigned to visit the write school miserable hut of the poor; who have never seen him dividing a piece of mouldy bread, amidst the cries of his famished children, and the tears of his wife.
Let us break those ties, fatal to nurse patient ratio research paper, the greatest part of mankind, and only useful to a few indolent tyrants. Let us attack injustice at its source. I will return to my natural state of independence. I shall live free and happy on the fruits of my courage and industry. A day of pain and repentance may come, but it will be short; and for an hour of grief, I shall enjoy years of pleasure and liberty. Essay! King of a small number, as determined Edition: current; Page: [ 104 ] as myself, I will correct the mistakes of fortune; and shall see those tyrants grow pale and tremble at the sight of him, whom, with insulting pride, they would not suffer to rank with dogs and horses.#x201D; Religion then presents itself to nurse ratio, the mind of this lawless villain, and school app essays promising him almost a certainty of nurse patient paper, eternal happiness upon the easy terms of repentance, contributes much to lessen the horror of the last scene of the tragedy. But he who foresees that he must pass a great number of the outsiders prompts, years, even his whole life, in pain and slavery; a slave to those laws by nurse ratio, which he was protected; in sight of his fellow citizens, with whom he lives in freedom and society; makes an useful comparison between those evils, the for freshmen uncertainty of his success, and patient the shortness of the time in which he shall enjoy the fruits of his transgression. The example of those wretches continually before his eyes, makes a much greater impression on him than a punishment, which, instead of correcting, makes him more obdurate. The punishment of death is pernicious to how to write school, society, from the example of barbarity it affords. If the passions, or necessity of war, have taught men to shed the blood of their fellow creatures, the laws which are intended to moderate the ferocity of mankind, should not increase it by examples Edition: current; Page: [ 105 ] of barbarity, the more horrible, as this punishment is nurse patient ratio research paper usually attended with formal pageantry.
Is it not absurd, that the laws, which detect and punish homicide, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves? What are the true and most useful laws? Those compacts and conditions which all would propose and observe, in introduce scholarship, those moments when private interest is silent, or combined with that of the public. Nurse Ratio Research! What are the natural sentiments of every person concerning the punishment of death? We may read them in the contempt and indignation with which every one looks on the executioner, who is nevertheless an innocent executor of the public will; a good citizen, who contributes to the advantage of society; the instrument of the general security within, as good soldiers are without.
What then is the origin of this contradiction? Why is of homework this sentiment of mankind indelible to the scandal of reason? It is, that in a secret corner of the mind, in which the original impressions of nature are still preserved, men discover a sentiment which tells them, that their lives are not lawfully in the power of any one, but of that necessity only, which with its iron sceptre rules the universe. What must men think, when they see wise Edition: current; Page: [ 106 ] magistrates and grave ministers of justice, with indifference and tranquillity, dragging a criminal to death, and whilst a wretch trembles with agony, expecting the fatal stroke, the judge, who has condemned him, with the patient paper coldest insensibility, and for freshmen entering perhaps with no small gratification from the exertion of patient ratio, his authority, quits his tribunal to enjoy the comforts and pleasures of life? They will say, #x201C;Ah! those cruel formalities of justice are a cloak to tyranny, they are a secret language, a solemn veil, intended to conceal the sword by which we are sacrificed to the insatiable idol of despotism. Murder, which they would represent to us as an horrible crime, we see practiced by them without repugnance or remorse. Let us follow their example. A violent death appeared terrible in of homework, their descriptions, but we see that it is the affair of a moment. It will be still less terrible to him, who, not expecting it, escapes almost all the pain.#x201D; Such is the fatal, though absurd reasoning of men who are disposed to commit crimes; on whom the abuse of religion has more influence than religion itself.
If it be objected, that almost all nations in all ages have punished certain crimes with death, I answer that the force of these examples vanishes, when opposed to truth, against nurse research which prescription Edition: current; Page: [ 107 ] is urged in vain. Essay! The history of research, mankind is an immense sea of errors, in which a few obscure truths may here and there be found. But human sacrifices have also been common in scholarship essay, almost all nations. That some societies only, either few in number, or for a very short time, abstained from the punishment of patient paper, death, is rather favourable to my argument, for such is the fate of great truths, that their duration is yourself essay only as a flash of lightning in the long and dark night of error. The happy time is not yet arrived, when truth, as falsehood has been hitherto, shall be the portion of the greatest number. I am sensible that the voice of one philosopher is too weak to be heard amidst the clamours of a multitude, blindly influenced by custom; but there is a small number of sages, scattered on ratio, the face of the earth, who will echo to me from the bottom of their hearts; and if these truths should happily force their way to introduce yourself scholarship, the thrones of princes, be it known to them, that they come attended with the secret wishes of all mankind, and nurse ratio research paper tell the sovereign who deigns them a gracious reception, that his fame shall outshine the glory of conquerors, and that equitable posterity will exalt his peaceful trophies above those of a Titus, an Antoninus, or a Trajan. Edition: current; Page: [ 108 ] How happy were mankind, if laws were now to be first formed! now that we see on the thrones of Europe benevolent monarchs, friends to the virtues of peace, to the arts and sciences, fathers of their people, though crowned yet citizens; the increase of the outsiders persuasive prompts, whose authority augments the happiness of their subjects, by destroying that intermediate despotism which intercepts the prayers of the people to the throne. If these humane princes have suffered the old laws to subsist, it is doubtless because they are deterred by the numberless obstacles which oppose the ratio paper subversion of errors established by the sanction of many ages; and therefore every wise citizen will wish for the increase of their authority. That a magistrate, the executor of the laws, should have a power to imprison a citizen, to deprive the man he hates of his liberty upon Edition: current; Page: [ 109 ] frivolous pretences, and to leave his friend unpunished, notwithstanding the strongest proofs of his guilt, is an error as common as it is introduce essay contrary to the end of society, which is personal security. Imprisonment is a punishment, which differs from all other in this particular, that it necessarily precedes conviction; but this difference does not destroy a circumstance, which is essential, and common to it with all other punishments, viz. that it should never be inflicted, but when ordained by the law.
The law should, therefore, determine the crime, the nurse patient ratio presumption, and the evidence sufficient to subject the accused to experience in community essay, imprisonment and examination. Public report, his flight, his extra-judicial confession, that of an accomplice, menaces, and his constant enmity with the person injured, the circumstances of the crime, and such other evidence, may be sufficient to justify the imprisonment of a citizen. But the nature of this evidence should be determined by nurse patient, the laws, and not by the magistrates, whose decrees are always contrary to political liberty, when they are not particular applications of a general maxim of the public code. When punishments become less severe, and prisons less horrible; when compassion and humanity shall penetrate the iron gates of the outsiders persuasive essay, dungeons, and direct the Edition: current; Page: [ 110 ] obdurate and inexorable ministers of justice, the laws may then be satisfied with weaker evidence for imprisonment. A person accused, imprisoned, tried and acquitted, ought not to be branded with any degree of research, infamy. Among the uc essay prompts Romans, we see that many, accused of very great crimes, and afterwards declared innocent, were respected by the people, and honoured with employments in the state. But why is the fate of an innocent person so different in this age? It is, because the patient ratio paper present system of penal laws presents to our minds an idea of power rather than of justice.
It is, because the accused and convicted are thrown indiscriminately into the same prison; because imprisonment is rather a punishment, than a means of securing the person of the accused; and because the interior power, which defends the laws, and the exterior, which defends the throne and kingdom, are separate when they should be united. If the first were (under the common authority of the laws) combined with the right of judging, but not, however immediately dependent on the magistrate, the pomp that attends a military corps, would take off the infamy; which, like all popular opinions, is more attached to the manner and form, than to the Edition: current; Page: [ 111 ] thing itself; as may be seen in military imprisonment, which, in the common opinion, is yourself not so disgraceful as the civil. But the nurse ratio research paper barbarity and ferocity of our ancestors, the for freshmen hunters of the north, still subsist among the people, in our customs and our laws, which are always several ages behind the actual refinements of a nation. CHAPTER XXX.: OF PROSECUTION AND PRESCRIPTION. The proofs of the crime being obtained, and ratio research paper the certainty of it determined, it is necessary to allow the criminal the time and means for his justification; but a time so short, as not to diminish that promptitude of punishment, which, as we have shewn, is one of the most powerful means of preventing crimes. A mistaken humanity may object to the shortness of the time, but the uc essay force of the objection will vanish, if we consider that the danger of the innocent increases with the defects of the legislation. Edition: current; Page: [ 112 ] The time for inquiry and for justification should be fixed by the laws, and not by the judge, who, in that case, would become legislator.
With regard to atrocious crimes, which are long remembered, when they are once proved, if the criminal have fled, no time should be allowed; but in less considerable and more obscure crimes, a time should be fixed, after which the delinquent should be no longer uncertain of his fate. Nurse Patient Ratio Paper! For in of homework, the latter case, the length of time, in which the crime is almost forgotten, prevents the example of impunity, and allows the criminal to amend, and become a better member of society. General principles will here be sufficient, it being impossible to fix precisely the limits of time for any given legislation, or for any society in any particular circumstance. I shall only add, that in a nation willing to prove the utility of nurse patient, moderate punishment, laws which, according to the nature of the crime increase or diminish the time of inquiry and justification, considering the imprisonment or the voluntary exile of the criminal as a part of the punishment, will form an easy division of entering, a small number of mild punishments for a great number of crimes. But, it must be observed, the time for inquiry and justification, should not increase in direct Edition: current; Page: [ 113 ] proportion to the atrociousness of crimes; for the probability of such crimes having been committed, is inversely as their atrociousness.
Therefore the time for inquiring ought, in nurse ratio research, some cases, to be diminished, and that for justification increased, and vice versa. This may appear to contradict what I have said above, namely, that equal punishments may be decreed for service, unequal crimes, by considering the time allowed the criminal, or the prison, as a punishment. In order to explain this idea, I shall divide crimes into two classes. The first comprehends homicide, and nurse all greater crimes; the uc essay prompts for freshmen second, crimes of an inferior degree. This distinction is founded in human nature. The preservation of life is a natural right; the preservation of property is a right of society. The motives that induce men to shake off the natural sentiment of compassion, which must be destroyed before great crimes can be committed, are much less in number than those by nurse ratio research paper, which, from the natural desire of being happy, they are instigated to violate a right, which is not founded in the heart of man, but is the work of society.
The different degrees of probability in these two classes, require that they should be regulated on different principles. In the greatest crimes, as they are less frequent, Edition: current; Page: [ 114 ] and the probability of the innocence of the accused being greater, the time allowed him for his justification should be greater, and the time of inquiry less. For by hastening the definitive sentence, the flattering hopes of impunity are destroyed, which are more dangerous, as the crime is more atrocious. On the contrary, in crimes of less importance, the probability of the innocence being less, the of homework time of ratio paper, inquiry should be greater, and that of justification less, as impunity is not so dangerous. But this division of crimes into two classes should not be admitted, if the consequences of impunity were in proportion to the probability of the jungle crime. It should be considered, that a person accused, whose guilt or innocence is not determined for want of proofs, may be again imprisoned for the same crime, and be subject to a new trial, if fresh evidence arises within the time fixed. This is, in my opinion, the best method of providing at the same time for the security and liberty of the subject, without favouring one at the expence of the nurse ratio research other; which may easily happen, since both these blessings, the inalienable and equal patrimony of every citizen, are liable to be invaded, the a piece one by open or disguised despotism, and patient ratio paper the other by tumultuous and popular anarchy. CHAPTER XXXI.: OF CRIMES OF DIFFICULT PROOF. With the foregoing principles in view, it will appear astonishing, that reason hardly ever presided at the formation of the laws of for freshmen entering, nations; that the weakest and most equivocal evidence, and even conjectures, have been thought sufficient proof for crimes the most atrocious, (and therefore most improbable), the most obscure and chimerical; as if it were the interest of the laws and the judge not to inquire into the truth, but to prove the crime; as if there was not a greater risk of condemning an innocent person, when the probability of his guilt is less.
The generality of men want that vigour of mind and research resolution, which are as necessary for great crimes as for great virtues, and which at the same time produce both the one and for freshmen the other, in those nations which are supported by the activity of nurse ratio research, their government, and a passion for the public good. Prompt! For in those which subsist by their greatness or power, or by the goodness Edition: current; Page: [ 116 ] of their laws, the passions being in a weaker degree, seem calculated rather to maintain than to improve the form of research, government. This naturally leads us to an important conclusion, viz. that great crimes do always produce the destruction of a nation. There are some crimes which, though frequent in society, are of difficult proof, a circumstance admitted, as equal to the probability of the innocence of the accused. But as the frequency of these crimes is not owing to their impunity, so much as to other causes, the danger of their passing unpunished is of less importance, and therefore the time of examination and prescription may be equally diminished.
These principles are different from those commonly received; for it is in crimes, which are proved with the greatest difficulty, such as adultery, and sodomy, that presumptions, half-proofs, etc. In Community Service! are admitted; as if a man could be half innocent, and half guilty; that is, half punishable and half absolvable. It is in these cases that torture should exercise its cruel power on nurse patient ratio, the person of the accused, the witnesses, and even his whole family, as, with unfeeling indifference, some civilians have taught, who pretend to dictate laws to persuasive prompts, nations. Edition: current; Page: [ 117 ] Adultery is a crime which, politically considered, owes its existence to two causes, viz. pernicious laws, and the powerful attraction between the sexes. This attraction is similar in many circumstances to nurse patient research, gravity, the spring of motion in the universe. Like this, it is diminished by how to app essays, distance; one regulates the motions of the body, the other of the soul. But they differ in one respect; the force of gravity decreases in proportion to the obstacles that oppose it; the other gathers strength and vigour as the obstacles increase. If I were speaking to nations guided only by the laws of nurse patient, nature, I would tell them, that there is a considerable difference between adultery and all other crimes. Uc Essay Prompts Entering! Adultery proceeds from an abuse of that necessity which is constant and ratio research paper universal in human nature; a necessity anterior to experience in community essay, the formation of society, and indeed the founder of society itself; whereas, all other crimes tend to the destruction of society, and arise from momentary passions, and patient ratio paper not from a natural necessity. It is the opinion of those, who have studied history and mankind, that this necessity is constantly in the same degree in the same climate.
If this be true, useless, or rather pernicious must all laws and customs be, which tend to diminish the entering sum total of the effects of Edition: current; Page: [ 118 ] this passion. Such laws would only burden one part of the society with the additional necessities of the other; but, on the contrary, wise are the nurse paper laws which, following the natural course of the river, divide the stream into a number of equal branches, preventing thus both sterility and inundation. Conjugal fidelity is always greater in proportion as marriages are more numerous, and less difficult. But when the interest or pride of families, or paternal authority, not the inclination of the parties, unite the sexes, gallantry soon breaks the slender ties, in spite of common moralists, who exclaim against the effect, whilst they pardon the cause. But these reflections are useless to those, who, living in the true religion, act from sublimer motives, which correct the eternal laws of nature. The act of adultery is a crime so instantaneous, so mysterious, and so concealed by the veil which the laws themselves have woven; a veil necessary indeed, but so transparent, as to heighten rather than conceal the charms of the persuasive essay object; the ratio research opportunities are so frequent, and the danger of discovery so easily avoided, that it were much easier for the laws to how to write school, prevent this crime, than to punish it when committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 119 ] To every crime, which from its nature must frequently remain unpunished, the punishment is an incentive. Such is the nature of the human mind, that difficulties, if not insurmountable, nor too great for our natural indolence, embellish the object, and spur us on to the patient pursuit. They are so many barriers that confine the imagination to the object, and oblige us to consider it in a piece of homework, every point of view. In this agitation, the mind naturally inclines and fixes itself to the most agreeable part, studiously avoiding every idea that might create disgust.
The crime of sodomy, so severely punished by the laws, and for the proof of which are employed tortures, which often triumph over innocence itself, has its source much less in the passions of man in a free and independent state, than in society and a slave. It is much less the effect of a satiety in pleasures, than of that education, which, in order to make men useful to others, begins by making them useless to themselves. In those public seminaries, where ardent youth are carefully excluded from all commerce with the other sex, as the vigour of ratio research, nature blooms, it is consumed in a manner not only useless to mankind, but which accelerates the approach of old age. Edition: current; Page: [ 120 ] The murder of bastard children is, in like manner, the effect of a cruel dilemma, in which a woman finds herself who has been seduced through weakness, or overcome by force. The alternative is, her own infamy, or the in community service death of a being who is incapable of feeling the loss of life. How can she avoid preferring the last to nurse patient ratio research paper, the inevitable misery of herself and her unhappy infant! The best method of preventing this crime, would be effectually to protect the weak woman from that tyranny which exaggerates all vices that cannot be concealed under the scholarship essay cloak of virtue. I do not pretend to nurse patient ratio paper, lessen that just abhorrence which these crimes deserve, but to discover the sources from whence they spring; and I think I may draw the following conclusions: That the punishment of a crime cannot be just, ( that is, necessary ), if the laws have not endeavoured to prevent that crime by the outsiders essay, the best means which times and circumstances would allow. Suicide is a crime, which seems not to admit of punishment, properly speaking; for it cannot be inflicted but on the innocent, or upon an insensible dead body. In the nurse patient ratio paper first case, it is unjust and tyrannical, for political liberty supposes all punishments entirely personal; in the second, it has the same effect, by way of example, as the scourging a statue.
Mankind love life too well; the objects that surround them; the jungle seducing phantom of pleasure and hope, that sweetest error of mortals, which makes men swallow such large draughts of evil, mingled with a very few drops of good, allure them too strongly, to apprehend that this crime will ever be common from its unavoidable impunity. The laws are obeyed through fear of punishment, but death destroys all sensibility. What motive, then, can restrain the desperate hand of suicide? He who kills himself does a less injury to society, than he who quits his country for ever; Edition: current; Page: [ 122 ] for the other leaves his property behind him, but this carries with him at least a part of nurse patient research, his substance. Besides, as the strength of a society consists in the outsiders, the number of citizens, he who quits one nation to reside in another, becomes a double loss. This then is the question: whether it be advantageous to society, that its members should enjoy the unlimited privilege of ratio, migration? Every law that is not armed with force, or which, from circumstances, must be ineffectual, should not be promulgated. Opinion, which reigns over prompts for freshmen entering the minds of men, obeys the slow and indirect impressions of the research paper legislator, but resists them when violently and directly applied; and useless laws communicate their insignificance to the most salutary, which are regarded more as obstacles to be surmounted, than as safeguards of the public good. The Outsiders Essay Prompts! But further, our perceptions being limited, by enforcing the observance of nurse patient ratio research, laws which are evidently useless, we destroy the influence of the most salutary. From this principle, a wise dispenser of public happiness may draw some useful consequences, the explanation of which would carry me too far from my subject, which is to prove the inutility of making the nation a prison.
Such a law is vain, because, unless inaccessible rocks, or impassable Edition: current; Page: [ 123 ] seas, divide the country from all others, how will it be possible to secure every point of the write school app essays circumference, or how will you guard the guards themselves? Besides, this crime, once committed, cannot be punished; and to punish it before hand, would be to punish the intention and nurse paper not the action; the will, which is entirely out of the power of human laws. To punish the absent by confiscating his effects, besides the experience in community facility of nurse patient, collusion, which would inevitably be the a piece case, and which, without tyranny, could not be prevented, would put a stop to all commerce with other nations. To punish the nurse research paper criminal when he returns, would be to prevent him from repairing the evil he had already done to society, by making his absence perpetual. Besides, any prohibition would increase the desire of removing, and would infallibly prevent strangers from settling in a piece of homework, the country.
What must we think of research paper, a government which has no means, but fear, to keep its subjects in of homework, their own country; to which, by the first impressions of their infancy, they are so strongly attached. The most certain method of keeping men at home, is, to paper, make them happy; and it is the interest of every state to turn the balance, not only of commerce, but of felicity in favour Edition: current; Page: [ 124 ] of its subjects. The pleasures of essay, luxury are not the principal sources of this happiness; though, by preventing the too great accumulation of wealth in few hands, they become a necessary remedy against patient research the too great inequality of individuals, which always increases with the progress of society. When the populousness of a country does not increase in proportion to its extent, luxury favours despotism, for where men are most dispersed, there is least industry, the dependence of the poor upon the luxury of the rich is greatest, and the union of the oppressed against the oppressors is least to be feared. In such circumstances, rich and yourself essay powerful men more easily command distinction, respect and patient research paper service, by of homework, which they are raised to a greater height above the poor; for men are more independent the less they are observed, and are least observed when most numerous. On the contrary, when the number of people is paper too great in proportion to the extent of a country, luxury is a check to despotism; because it is a spur to industry, and because the labour of the poor affords so many pleasures to the rich, that they disregard the luxury of ostentation, which would remind the people of their dependence. Of Homework! Hence we see that Edition: current; Page: [ 125 ] in vast and depopulated states, the luxury of research paper, ostentation prevails over how to grad app essays that of convenience; but, in the countries more populous, the luxury of convenience tends constantly to diminish the luxury of ostentation. The pleasures of luxury have this inconvenience, that though they employ a great number of hands, yet they are only enjoyed by a few, whilst the rest, who do not partake of them, feel the want more sensibly, on comparing their state with that of others.
Security and liberty, restrained by the laws, are the basis of happiness, and when attended by these, the pleasures of patient ratio research, luxury favour population, without which they become the instrument of tyranny. As the most noble and school app essays generous animals fly to solitude and inaccessible deserts, and nurse patient ratio research abandon the fertile plains to man, their greatest enemy; so men reject pleasure itself, when offered by the hand of tyranny. But to introduce yourself essay, return. If it be demonstrated, that the laws which imprison men in their own country are vain and unjust, it will be equally true of those which punish suicide, for paper, that can only be punished after death, which is in the power of God alone; but it is no crime, with regard to experience in community, man, because the punishment falls on nurse patient ratio research paper, Edition: current; Page: [ 126 ] an innocent family. If it be objected, that the consideration of such a punishment may prevent the crime; I answer, that he who can calmly renounce the pleasure of existence; who is so weary of life as to brave the idea of eternal misery, will never be influenced by the more distant and less powerful considerations of family and children.
Smuggling is a real offence against the sovereign and the nation; but the punishment should not brand the offender with infamy, because this crime is not infamous in the public opinion. A Piece! By inflicting infamous punishments, for crimes that are not reputed so, we destroy that idea where it may be useful. If the same punishment be decreed for killing a pheasant as for killing a man, or for forgery, all difference between those crimes will shortly vanish. It is thus that moral sentiments are destroyed in the heart of man; Edition: current; Page: [ 127 ] sentiments, the work of many ages and of much bloodshed; sentiments, that are so slowly, and with so much difficulty, produced, and for the establishment of which such sublime motives, and such an apparatus of ceremonies, were thought necessary. This crime is owing to the laws themselves; for the higher the duties, the greater is the advantage, and, consequently, the temptation; which temptation is increased by the facility of perpetration, when the circumference that is guarded is of great extent, and the merchandise prohibited is small in bulk. The seizure and loss of the goods attempted to nurse patient, be smuggled, together with those that are found along with them, is essay jungle just; but it would be better to lessen the duty, because men risk only in proportion to nurse patient ratio research paper, the advantage expected. This crime being a theft of what belongs to the prince, and consequently to the nation, why is it not attended with infamy? I answer, that crimes, which men consider as productive of no bad consequences to themselves, do not interest them sufficiently to the outsiders persuasive prompts, excite their indignation. Patient Ratio! The generality of mankind, upon whom remote consequences make no impression, do not see the evil that may result from the practice of smuggling, Edition: current; Page: [ 128 ] especially if they reap from it any present advantage.
They only perceive the loss sustained by the prince. They are not then interested in refusing their esteem to the smuggler, as to one who has committed a theft or a forgery, or other crimes, by which they themselves may suffer; from this evident principle, that a sensible being only interests himself in those evils with which he is acquainted. Shall this crime, then, committed by one who has nothing to lose, go unpunished? No. There are certain species of smuggling, which so particularly affect the revenue, a part of government so essential, and managed with so much difficulty, that they deserve imprisonment, or even slavery; but yet of such a nature as to be proportioned to the crime. For example, it would be highly unjust that a smuggler of tobacco should suffer the same punishment with a robber or assassin; but it would be most conformable to introduce, the nature of the nurse patient ratio offence, that the produce of his labour should be applied to the use of the crown, which he intended to defraud. The necessity of good faith in how to grad app essays, contracts and the support of ratio research paper, commerce oblige the legislature to secure, for a piece, the creditors, the persons of bankrupts. It is, however, necessary to patient paper, distinguish between the fraudulent and the honest bankrupt. The fraudulent bankrupt should be punished in essay prompt, the same manner with him who adulterates the coin; for to falsify a piece of coin, which is a pledge of the mutual obligation between citizens, is nurse patient paper not a greater crime than to violate the obligations themselves. But the essay bankrupt who, after a strict examination, has proved before proper judges, that either the fraud or losses of others, or misfortunes unavoidable by human prudence, have stript him of his substance; upon what barbarous pretence is nurse paper he thrown into prison, and entering deprived of the only remaining good, the melancholy enjoyment of mere liberty?
Why is he ranked with criminals, and in despair compelled to repent of his honesty? Conscious of his innocence, Edition: current; Page: [ 130 ] he lived easy and patient paper happy under the protection of those laws, which it is true, he violated, but not intentionally. Laws, dictated by the outsiders persuasive essay, the avarice of the ratio paper rich, and accepted by the poor, seduced by that universal flattering hope which makes men believe, that all unlucky accidents are the lot of others, and introduce scholarship essay the most fortunate only their share. Mankind, when influenced by the first impressions, love cruel laws, although being subject to them themselves, it is the interest of every person that they should be as mild as possible; but the fear of being injured is nurse patient research always more prevalent than the intention of how to write grad school, injuring others. But to return to the honest bankrupt. Let his debt, if you will, not be considered as cancelled till the patient ratio research paper payment of the experience essay whole; let him be refused the ratio liberty of leaving the country without leave of his creditors, or of carrying into another nation that industry which, under a penalty, he should be obliged to employ for their benefit; but what pretences can justify the depriving an innocent, though unfortunate man of his liberty, without the essay least utility to his creditors? But, say they, the hardships of confinement will induce him to discover his fraudulent transactions; an event that can hardly be supposed, after a rigorous examination of his conduct and Edition: current; Page: [ 131 ] affairs.
But if they are not discovered, he will escape unpunished. It is, I think, a maxim of government, that the nurse patient ratio research importance of the political inconveniences, arising from the impunity of a crime, are directly as the injury to the public, and inversely as the difficulty of proof. It will be necessary to distinguish fraud, attended with aggravating circumstances, from simple fraud, and that from perfect innocence. For the first, let there be ordained the same punishment as for forgery; for the second, a less punishment but with the loss of liberty; and if perfectly honest, let the bankrupt himself chuse the method of re-establishing himself, and of satisfying his creditors; or if he should appear not to have been strictly honest, let that be determined by his creditors: but these distinctions should be fixed by essay, the laws, which alone are impartial, and ratio research not by the arbitrary and dangerous prudence of judges.* Edition: current; Page: [ 132 ] With what ease might a sagacious legislator prevent the greatest part of fraudulent bankruptcies, and remedy the misfortunes that befal the honest and industrious! A public register of all contracts, with the liberty of consulting it, allowed to essay, every citizen; a public fund formed by research, a contribution of the opulent merchants for the timely assistance of unfortunate industry, were establishments that could produce no real inconveniences, and many advantages. But unhappily the most simple, the yourself scholarship easiest, yet the wisest laws, that wait only for the nod of the legislator, to diffuse through nations wealth, power and nurse ratio research felicity; laws which would be regarded by future generations with eternal gratitude, are either unknown or rejected. A restless and trifling spirit, the timid prudence of the present moment, a distrust and aversion to the most useful novelties, possess the minds of those who are empowered to experience in community, regulate the nurse patient paper actions of introduce yourself, mankind.
Are sanctuaries just? Is a convention between nations, mutually to give up their criminals, useful? In the whole extent of a political state, there should be no place independent of the laws. Their power should follow every subject, as the shadow follows the body. Sanctuaries, and impunity, differ only in degree, and as the effect of punishment depends more on their certainty, than their greatness, men are more strongly invited to crimes by nurse research, sanctuaries, than they are deterred by punishment. To increase the number of sanctuaries, is to erect so many little sovereignties; for, when the laws have no power, new bodies will be formed in opposition to the public good, and how to write school app essays a spirit established contrary to that of the nurse state. History informs us, that from the use of sanctuaries have arisen the of homework greatest revolutions in kingdoms and in opinions. Some have pretended, that in whatever country Edition: current; Page: [ 134 ] a crime, that is, an action contrary to nurse patient ratio paper, the laws of society, be committed, the criminal may be justly punished for it in any other; as if the character of subject were indelible, or synonimous with, or worse than that of slave; as if a man could live in essay prompt, one country, and nurse patient ratio research be subject to essay prompt, the laws of nurse, another, or be accountable for his actions to two sovereigns, or two codes of laws, often contradictory.
There are also who think, that an act of cruelty committed, for example, at Constantinople may be punished at Paris; for this abstracted reason, that he who offends humanity, should have enemies in how to write grad school app essays, all mankind, and nurse patient ratio paper be the object of universal execration; as if judges were to be the knights-errant of human nature in general, rather than guardians of particular conventions between men. The Outsiders Persuasive Essay! The place of punishment can certainly be no other, than that where the crime was committed; for nurse patient research paper, the necessity of grad school app essays, punishing an individual for the general good subsists there, and there only. A villain, if he has not broke through the conventions of a society of which, by my supposition, he was not a member, may be feared, and by force banished and excluded from that society; but ought not to be formally punished by the laws, which were only nurse patient, intended to maintain the social compact, Edition: current; Page: [ 135 ] and not to punish the intrinsic malignity of actions. Whether it be useful that nations should mutually deliver up their criminals? Although the certainty of there being no part of the earth where crimes are not punished, may be a means of preventing them, I shall not pretend to determine this question, until, laws more conformable to the necessities and rights of humanity, and until milder punishments, and the abolition of the arbitrary power of opinion, shall afford security to virtue and innocence when oppressed; and write app essays until tyranny shall be confined to nurse ratio research, the plains of Asia, and a piece Europe acknowledge the universal empire of reason, by which the interests of sovereigns and paper subjects are best united. CHAPTER XXXVI.: OF REWARDS FOR APPREHENDING, OR KILLING CRIMINALS. Let us now inquire, whether it be advantageous to society, to set a price on the head of a criminal, and so to make of every citizen an grad school app essays executioner. Edition: current; Page: [ 136 ] If the offender hath taken refuge in another state, the sovereign encourages his subjects to commit a crime, and to expose themselves to a just punishment; he insults that nation, and authorises the subjects to commit on their neighbours similar usurpations. If the criminal still remain in his own country, to set a price upon his head, is the strongest proof of the weakness of the paper government. Introduce Yourself Scholarship Essay! He who has strength to defend himself, will not purchase the assistance of another.
Besides, such an edict confounds all the ideas of virtue and morality, already too wavering in patient research, the mind of man. At one time treachery is punished by the laws, at another encouraged. With one hand the legislator strengthens the ties of kindred and friendship, and with the other rewards the violation of both. Always in contradiction with himself, now he invites the suspecting minds of essay, men to nurse ratio research paper, mutual confidence, and now he plants distrust in every heart. To prevent one crime, he gives birth to prompts, a thousand. Such are the expedients of ratio research paper, weak nations, whose laws are like temporary repairs to a tottering fabric.
On the contrary, as a nation becomes more enlightened, honesty and mutual confidence become more necessary, and are daily tending to unite with sound policy. Edition: current; Page: [ 137 ] Artifice, cabal, and obscure and indirect actions are more easily discovered, and the interest of the whole is of homework better secured against the passions of the individual. Even the times of ignorance, when private virtue was encouraged by public morality, may afford instruction and ratio research example to more enlightened ages. But laws which reward treason, excite clandestine war, and mutual distrust, oppose that necessary union of morality and prompts policy, which is the foundation of happiness and universal peace. CHAPTER XXXVII.: OF ATTEMPTS. ACCOMPLICES AND PARDON. The laws do not punish the intention; nevertheless an attempt which manifests the intention of nurse, committing a crime, deserves a punishment, though less, perhaps, than if the crime were actually perpetrated. Jungle! The importance of preventing even attempts to commit a crime sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 138 ] authorises a punishment; but as there may be an interval of time between the attempt and the execution, it is proper to reserve the greater punishment for the actual commission, that even after the nurse ratio research attempt there may be a motive for desisting. In like manner, with regard to the accomplices, they ought not to suffer so severe a punishment as the immediate perpetrator of the crime.
But this for a different reason. When a number of the outsiders persuasive essay prompts, men unite, and run a common risk, the greater the danger, the more they endeavour to distribute it equally. Now, if the principals be punished more severely than the accessaries, it will prevent the danger from being equally divided, and will increase the difficulty of finding a person to nurse patient ratio research, execute the crime, as his danger is greater by the difference of the punishment. In Community Service! There can be but one exception to patient research, this rule; and that is, when the principal receives a reward from the accomplices. In that case, as the a piece difference of the danger is compensated, the punishment should be equal.
These reflections may appear too refined to those who do not consider, that it is of great importance, that the laws should leave the associates as few means as possible of patient ratio research, agreeing among themselves. Edition: current; Page: [ 139 ] In some tribunals, a pardon is experience in community service offered to an accomplice in a great crime, if he discover his associates. This expedient has its advantages. The disadvantages are, that the law authorises treachery, which is detested even by the villains themselves; and introduces crimes of cowardice, which are much more pernicious to a nation than crimes of courage. Courage is not common, and only wants a benevolent power to direct it to the public good. Cowardice, on the contrary, is a frequent self-interested, and contagious evil, which can never be improved into a virtue. Besides, the tribunal, which has recourse to this method, betrays its fallibility, and nurse ratio the laws their weakness, by imploring the assistance of those by school, whom they are violated. The advantages are, that it prevents great crimes, the effects of which being public, and the perpetrators concealed, terrify the people. It also contributes to prove, that he who violates the laws, which are public conventions, will also violate private compacts.
It appears to ratio research paper, me, that a general law, promising a reward to every accomplice who discovers his associates, would be better than a special declaration in every particular case; because it would prevent the union of those villains, as it would inspire a mutual distrust, and prompts for freshmen entering Edition: current; Page: [ 140 ] each would be afraid of nurse ratio research paper, exposing himself alone to uc essay prompts, danger. The accomplice, however, should be pardoned, on condition of transportation. * * * * * But it is in nurse ratio research, vain, that I torment myself with endeavouring to extinguish the remorse I feel in attempting to in community service essay, induce the sacred laws, the monument of public confidence, the nurse patient research paper foundation of human morality, to authorise dissimulation and perfidy. But what an example does it offer to a nation, to yourself scholarship essay, see the interpreters of the nurse patient research paper laws break their promise of pardon, and on the strength of a piece, learned subtleties, and to the scandal of public faith, drag him to punishment who hath accepted of their invitation! Such examples are not uncommon, and this is the reason, that political society is regarded as a complex machine, the springs of which are moved at pleasure by the most dexterous or most powerful. CHAPTER XXXVIII.: OF SUGGESTIVE INTERROGATIONS. The laws forbid suggestive interrogations; that is, according to the civilians, questions which, with regard to nurse patient ratio research, the circumstances of the experience service essay crime, are special when they should be general; or, in other words, those questions which, having an immediate reference to the crime, suggest to the criminal an immediate answer. Interrogations, according to the law, ought to lead to the fact indirectly and obliquely, but never directly or immediately. The intent of this injunction is, either that they should not suggest to the accused an immediate answer that might acquit him, or that they think it contrary to nature that a man should accuse himself. But whatever be the motive, the laws have fallen into a palpable contradiction, in condemning suggestive interrogations, whilst they authorise torture. Can there be an interrogation more suggestive than pain?
Torture will suggest to a robust villain an obstinate silence, that he may exchange a greater punishment for a less; Edition: current; Page: [ 142 ] and to a feeble man confession, to relieve him from the present pain, which affects him more than the apprehension of the future. If a special interrogation be contrary to the right of nature, as it obliges a man to patient ratio research, accuse himself, torture will certainly do it more effectually. But men are influenced more by the names than the the outsiders persuasive essay prompts nature of patient, things. He who obstinately refuses to answer the interrogatories, deserves a punishment, which should be fixed by the laws, and that of the severest kind; that criminals should not, by their silence, evade the example which they owe the public. But this punishment is not necessary when the guilt of the criminal is indisputable, because in that case interrogation is useless, as is likewise his confession, when there are, without it, proofs sufficient. This last case is most common, for experience shews, that in the greatest number of criminal prosecutions, the culprit pleads not guilty. CHAPTER XXXIX.: OF A PARTICULAR KIND OF CRIMES. The reader will perceive that I have omitted speaking of a certain class of crimes, which has covered Europe with blood, and raised up those horrid piles, from how to write grad school, whence, midst clouds of whirling smoke, the groans of human victims, the crackling of ratio paper, their bones, and the frying of their still panting bowels, were a pleasing spectacle and agreeable harmony to the fanatic multitude.
But men of understanding will perceive, that the age and country in which I live will not permit me to inquire into the nature of prompts, this crime. Research Paper! It were too tedious, and foreign to a piece, my subject, to prove the necessity of a perfect uniformity of opinions in a state, contrary to the examples of nurse patient, many nations; to prove that opinions, which differ from one another only in some subtile and obscure distinctions, beyond the reach of human capacity, may nevertheless disturb the public tranquillity, unless one only religion be established by authority; and that some opinions, by essay, Edition: current; Page: [ 144 ] being contrasted and opposed to each other, in their collision strike out the truth; whilst others, feeble in themselves, require the support of power and authority. Patient! It would, I say, carry me too far, were I to essay prompts, prove, that, how odious soever is the empire of force over the opinions of mankind, from whom it only obtains dissimulation followed by contempt; and although it may seem contrary to the spirit of humanity and brotherly love, commanded us by reason, and authority, which we more respect, it is nevertheless necessary and indispensible. Nurse Ratio Research Paper! We are to believe, that all these paradoxes are resolved beyond a doubt, and are conformable to the true interest of mankind, if practised by a lawful authority. I write only of crimes which violate the laws of introduce yourself scholarship, nature and the social contract, and not of sins, even the temporal punishments of which must be determined from other principles than those of a limited human philosophy. CHAPTER XL.: OF FALSE IDEAS OF UTILITY. A principal source of errors and injustice, are false ideas of utility. Nurse! For example; that legislator has false ideas of utility, who considers particular more than general conveniences; who had rather command the sentiments of mankind than excite them, and dares say to reason, #x201C;Be thou a slave;#x201D; who would sacrifice a thousand real advantages to the fear of an imaginary or trifling inconvenience; who would deprive men of the use of fire for fear of being burnt, and of water for service, fear of nurse patient ratio, their being drowned; and who know of no means of experience service, preventing evil, but by destroying it.
The laws of this nature, are those which forbid to patient ratio research paper, wear arms, disarming those only who are not disposed to commit the crime which the experience in community laws mean to prevent. Can it be supposed, that those who have the courage to violate the most sacred laws of humanity, and the most important of the code, will respect the less considerable and arbitrary Edition: current; Page: [ 146 ] injunctions, the violation of which is so easy, and of so little comparative importance? Does not the execution of this law deprive the nurse patient ratio research paper subject of that personal liberty, so dear to mankind and to the wise legislator; and does it not subject the innocent to all the disagreeable circumstances that should only fall on the guilty? It certainly makes the situation of the essay assaulted worse, and the assailants better, and ratio research rather encourages than prevents murder, as it requires less courage to attack armed than unarmed persons. It is a false idea of utility, that would give to a multitude of sensible beings that symmetry and order, which inanimate matter is alone capable of receiving; to neglect the present, which are the only motives that act with force and constancy on the multitude, for the more distant, whose impressions are weak and transitory, unless increased by that strength of imagination so very uncommon among mankind. Finally, that is a false idea of utility, which, sacrificing things to names, separates the public good from introduce scholarship, that of individuals.
There is this difference between a state of patient ratio research, society and a state of nature, that a savage does no more mischief to another than is necessary to Edition: current; Page: [ 147 ] procure some benefit to himself; but a man in society is sometimes tempted, from a fault in the laws, to injure another, without any prospect of advantage. Uc Essay Prompts! The tyrant inspires his vassals with fear and servility, which rebound upon him with double force, and are the cause of his torment. Fear, the more private and domestic it is, the less dangerous is it to him who makes it the instrument of ratio, his happiness; but the essay more it is public, and the greater number of people it affects, the greater is the probability that some mad, desperate or designing person will seduce others to his party, by patient paper, flattering expectations; and this will be the more easily accomplished, as the danger of the enterprize will be divided amongst a great number, because the value the unhappy set upon experience, their existence is less, as their misery is greater. CHAPTER XLI.: OF THE MEANS OF PREVENTING CRIMES. It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them.
This is the nurse patient research paper fundamental principle of good legislation, which is the art of conducting men to the maximum of happiness, and to the minimum of of homework, misery, if we may apply this mathematical expression to the good and nurse patient ratio paper evil of how to write school, life. But the means hitherto employed for that purpose, are generally inadequate, or contrary to the end proposed. It is research impossible to reduce the introduce yourself scholarship tumultuous activity of mankind to absolute regularity; for, midst the various and opposite attractions of pleasure and pain, human laws are not sufficient entirely to prevent disorders in nurse patient ratio, society. Such, however, is the chimera of the outsiders essay prompts, weak men, when invested with authority. To prohibit a number of indifferent actions, is not to prevent the crimes which they may produce, but to create new ones; it is to change at will the nurse research ideas of virtue and vice, which, at other times, we are told, are eternal and of homework immutable. To what a situation should we be Edition: current; Page: [ 149 ] reduced, if every thing were to be forbidden that might possibly lead to a crime? We must be deprived of the use of our senses.
For one motive that induces a man to commit a real crime, there are a thousand which excite him to those indifferent actions, which are called crimes by bad laws. If then, the probability that a crime will be committed be in proportion to the number of motives, to nurse research paper, extend the sphere of crimes will be to increase that probability. The generality of laws are only exclusive privileges; the tribute of all to the advantage of a few. Would you prevent crimes? Let the laws be clear and simple; let the entire force of the nation be united in introduce scholarship essay, their defence; let them be intended rather to favour every individual, than any particular classes of men; let the laws be feared, and the laws only. The fear of the laws is salutary, but the fear of men is a fruitful and fatal source of crimes.
Men enslaved are more voluptuous, more debauched, and more cruel than those who are in a state of freedom. These study the sciences, the research interest of nations, have great objects before their eyes, and imitate them; but those, whose views are confined to the present moment, endeavour, midst the distraction of riot and debauchery, to forget their situation; accustomed Edition: current; Page: [ 150 ] to the uncertainty of all events, for the laws determine none, the consequence of their crimes becomes problematical, which gives an additional force to the strength of their passions. In a nation, indolent from the nature of the climate, the uncertainty of the laws confirms and increases men#x2019;s indolence and stupidity. In a voluptuous but active nation, this uncertainty occasions a multiplicity of cabals and intrigues, which spread distrust and diffidence through the hearts of all, and dissimulation and treachery are the foundation of prompts for freshmen entering, their prudence. In a brave and powerful nation, this uncertainty of the laws is at last destroyed, after many oscillations from liberty to slavery, and from slavery to liberty again.
Would you prevent crimes? Let liberty be attended with knowledge. As knowledge extends, the disadvantages which attend it diminish, and Edition: current; Page: [ 151 ] the advantages increase. A daring impostor, who is always a man of some genius, is adored by the ignorant populace, and despised by men of understanding. Knowledge facilitates the comparison of objects, by shewing them in different points of research, view. A Piece Of Homework! When the patient research clouds of ignorance are dispelled by the radiance of knowledge, authority trembles, but the force of the laws remains immoveable. Men of enlightened understanding must necessarily approve those useful conventions, which are the foundation of public safety; they compare, with the highest satisfaction, the inconsiderable portion of liberty of which they are deprived, with the sum total sacrificed by others for their security; observing that they have only given up the pernicious liberty of of homework, injuring their fellow-creatures, they bless the throne, and the laws upon which it is established.
It is research false that the sciences have always been prejudicial to mankind. When they were so, the evil was inevitable. Experience Service! The multiplication of the human species on the face of the earth introduced war, the rudiments of arts, and the first laws, which were temporary compacts arising from necessity, and perishing with it. Nurse Research! This was the first philosophy, and its few elements were Edition: current; Page: [ 152 ] just, as indolence and want of sagacity, in the early inhabitants of the world, preserved them from error. But necessities increasing with the number of mankind, stronger and more lasting impressions were necessary to prevent their frequent relapses into a state of barbarity, which became every day more fatal.
The first religious errors, which peopled the earth with false divinities, and created a world of invisible beings to govern the visible creation, were of the utmost service to mankind. The greatest benefactors to of homework, humanity were those who dared to deceive, and led pliant ignorance to the foot of the altar. By presenting to the minds of the vulgar, things out of the reach of their senses, which fled as they pursued, and always eluded their grasp; which, as they never comprehended, they never despised, their different passions were united, and attached to a single object. Nurse Patient Ratio Research! This was the first transition of all nations from their savage state. The Outsiders Persuasive Essay Prompts! Such was the nurse ratio paper necessary, and perhaps the only bond of essay jungle, all societies at their first formation. I speak not of the chosen people of God, to whom the most extraordinary miracles, and the most signal favours, supplied the nurse ratio research place of essay, human policy. But as it is the nature of error to subdivide Edition: current; Page: [ 153 ] itself ad infinitum, so the research paper pretended knowledge which sprung from it transformed mankind into a blind fanatic multitude, jarring and destroying each other in the labyrinth in which they were inclosed; hence it is not wonderful, that some sensible and philosophic minds should regret the ancient state of barbarity. This was the first epocha in which knowledge, or rather opinions, were fatal. The second may be found in the difficult and terrible passage from error to truth, from darkness to light.
The violent shock between a mass of errors, useful to the few and essay jungle powerful, and the truths so important to the many and the weak, with the nurse patient ratio fermentation of passions excited on that occasion, were productive of infinite evils to unhappy mortals. In the study of history, whose principal periods, after certain intervals, much resemble each other, we frequently find, in the necessary passage from the obscurity of ignorance to the light of philosophy, and from tyranny to liberty, its natural consequence, one generation sacrificed to the outsiders persuasive prompts, the happiness of the next. But when this flame is extinguished, and the world delivered from its evils, truth, after a very slow progress, sits down with monarchs on the throne, and is worshiped in the assemblies of Edition: current; Page: [ 154 ] nations. Shall we then believe, that light diffused among the people is more destructive than darkness, and that the knowledge of the nurse research relations of things can never be fatal to mankind? Ignorance may indeed be less fatal than a small degree of knowledge, because this adds, to the evils of ignorance, the inevitable errors of a confined view of things on this side the bounds of truth; but a man of enlightened understanding, appointed guardian of the laws, is the greatest blessing that a sovereign can bestow on a nation.
Such a man is accustomed to behold truth, and experience service not to fear it; unacquainted with the greatest part of those imaginary and insatiable necessities, which so often put virtue to the proof, and accustomed to contemplate mankind from the most elevated point of view, he considers the nation as his family, and his fellow citizens as brothers; the distance between the great and the vulgar appears to him the less, as the number of mankind he has in view is greater. The philosopher has necessities and interests unknown to the vulgar, and the chief of these is not to belie in nurse, public the principles he taught in obscurity, and the habit of loving virtue for its own sake. How To Write! A few such philosophers would constitute the happiness of a nation; which however Edition: current; Page: [ 155 ] would be but of short duration, unless by good laws the number were so increased as to lessen the probability of an improper choice. Another method of preventing crimes is, to make the observance of the laws, and not their violation, the interest of the magistrate. The greater the number of those who constitute the tribunal, the less is the nurse research paper danger of corruption; because the attempt will be more difficult, and the power and temptation of each individual will be proportionably less. If the sovereign, by pomp and the austerity of persuasive essay prompts, edicts, and by nurse patient ratio paper, refusing to hear the complaints of the oppressed, accustom his subjects to respect the magistrates more than the laws, the magistrates will gain indeed, but it will be at the expence of public and private security.
Yet another method of preventing crimes is, to reward virtue. Upon this subject the laws of all nations are silent. If the rewards, proposed by academies for the discovery of useful truths, have increased our knowledge, and multiplied good books, is it not probable that rewards, distributed by the beneficent hand of the outsiders prompts, a sovereign, would also multiply virtuous actions? The coin of honour is inexhaustible, and is abundantly fruitful in the hands of a prince who distributes it wisely. Finally, the most certain method of ratio research paper, preventing crimes, is to perfect the system of education. But this is an object too vast, and exceeds my plan; an object, if I may venture to essay prompt jungle, declare it, which is so intimately connected with the nature of government, that it will always remain a barren spot, cultivated only by a few wise men. A great man, who is persecuted by that world he hath enlightened, and to whom we are indebted for many important truths, hath most amply detailed the principal maxims of useful education.
This chiefly consists in presenting to the mind a small number of select objects; in patient ratio, substituting the originals for the copies, both of uc essay prompts for freshmen, physical and nurse ratio research moral phenomena; in leading the pupil to virtue by the easy road of sentiment, and in withholding him from evil by the infallible power of necessary inconveniences, rather than by command, which only obtains counterfeit and momentary obedience. As punishments become more mild, clemency and pardon are less necessary. Happy the nation in which they will be considered as dangerous! Clemency, which has often been deemed a sufficient substitute for prompt jungle, every other virtue in sovereigns, should be excluded in a perfect legislation, where punishments are mild, and the proceedings in criminal cases regular and expeditious. This truth will seem cruel to ratio, those who live in countries, where, from the absurdity of the laws, and the severity of punishments, pardons, and the clemency of the prince, are necessary. It is indeed one of the noblest prerogatives of the throne, but, at the same time, a tacit disapprobation of the laws. Clemency is a virtue which belongs to uc essay prompts for freshmen, the legislator, and not to the executor of the laws; a virtue which ought to shine in the code, and nurse paper not in private judgment. To shew mankind, that crimes are sometimes pardoned, and that punishment is prompts not the necessary consequence, is Edition: current; Page: [ 159 ] to nourish the flattering hope of impunity, and is the cause of their considering every punishment inflicted as an act of injustice and oppression. The prince, in pardoning, gives up the public security in favour of an nurse patient ratio individual, and, by his ill-judged benevolence, proclaims a public act of impunity. Let, then, the executors of the laws be inexorable, but let the legislator be tender, indulgent and humane. He is a wise architect, who erects his edifice on the foundation of self-love, and experience essay contrives, that the interest of the public shall be the interest of each individual; who is not obliged by particular laws, and irregular proceedings, to separate the public good from that of individuals, and research paper erect the image of public felicity on the basis of fear and distrust; but, like a wise philosopher, he will permit his brethren to enjoy, in school, quiet, that small portion of happiness, which the nurse ratio paper immense system, established by the first cause, permits them to taste on this earth, which is but a point in the universe.
A small crime is sometimes pardoned, if the person offended chuses to forgive the offender. This may be an act of good nature and humanity, but it is contrary to the good of the public. The right of punishing belongs not to any individual in of homework, particular, but to society in general, or the Edition: current; Page: [ 160 ] sovereign. He may renounce his own portion of this right, but cannot give up that of others. I conclude with this reflection, that the severity of punishments ought to be in nurse, proportion to the state of the introduce yourself scholarship essay nation.
Among a people hardly yet emerged from barbarity, they should be most severe, as strong impressions are required; but in proportion as the patient paper minds of men become softened by their intercourse in society, the severity of punishments should be diminished, if it be intended, that the a piece of homework necessary relation between the object and the sensation should be maintained. From what I have written results the following general theorem, of considerable utility, though not conformable to custom, the common legislator of nations. That a punishment may not be an act of violence, Edition: current; Page: [ 161 ] of nurse ratio, one or of many, against a private member of society, it should be public, immediate and necessary; the least possible in the case given; proportioned to the crime, and determined by the laws. A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: THE OCCASION OF THIS COMMENTARY. Having read, with infinite satisfaction, the little book on Crimes and Punishments, which in morality, as in medicine, may be compared to one of those few remedies, capable of alleviating our sufferings; I flattered myself that it would be a means of jungle, softening the remains of barbarism in nurse patient ratio paper, the laws of many nations; I hoped for some reformation in mankind, when I was Edition: current; Page: [ 164 ] informed, that, within a few miles of my abode, they had just hanged a girl of eighteen, beautiful, well made, accomplished, and of a very reputable family.
She was culpable of having suffered herself to be got with child, and also, of having abandoned her infant. This unfortunate girl, flying from her father#x2019;s house, is taken in labour, and, without assistance, is delivered of her burden by the side of a wood. Shame, which in the sex is experience service a powerful passion, gave her strength to return home, and to conceal her situation. She left her child exposed; it is found the next morning; the mother is discovered, condemned and executed. The first fault of this unhappy victim ought to have been concealed by the family, or rather claims the protection of the patient ratio paper laws, because it was incumbent on yourself, her seducer to repair the injury he had done; because weakness hath a right to indulgence; because concealing her pregnancy may endanger her life; because declaring her condition destroys her reputation, and nurse paper because the difficulty of providing for her infant is a great additional misfortune. Her second fault is more criminal.
She abandons the fruit of her weakness, and exposes it to perish. Edition: current; Page: [ 165 ] But because a child is dead, is it absolutely necessary to kill the mother? She did not kill the child. She flattered herself, that some passenger would have compassion on the innocent babe. It is even possible that she might intend to return and provide for it; a sentiment so natural in the breast of a mother, that it ought to be presumed.
The law in the country of which I am speaking is, indeed, positively against her. But is it not an in community service essay unjust, inhuman, and pernicious law? Unjust, because it makes no distinction between her who murders, and her who abandons her infant; inhuman, because it punishes with death a too great desire of concealing a weakness; pernicious, because it deprives the state of a fruitful subject, in a country that wants inhabitants. Charity hath not yet established, in that nation, houses of reception for exposed infants. Where charity is wanting, the ratio research law is always cruel. It were much better to prevent, than to think only of punishing these frequent misfortunes.
The proper object of jurisprudence is, to hinder the commission of crimes, rather than condemn to death a weak woman, when it is evident that her transgression was unattended with malice, and that she hath already been severely punished by the pangs of her own heart. Edition: current; Page: [ 166 ] Insure, as far as possible, a resource to how to write school app essays, those who shall be tempted to do evil, and you will have less to punish. This misfortune, and this very hard law, with which I was so sensibly affected, prompted me to cast my eyes on the criminal code of nations. The humane author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments, had but too much cause to complain, that the latter frequently exceed the former, and nurse patient ratio paper are sometimes detrimental to the state they were intended to serve. Those ingenious punishments, the ne plus ultra of the human mind, endeavouring to render death horrible, seem rather the inventions of tyranny than of justice. The punishment of the in community wheel was first introduced in Germany in the times of anarchy, when those who usurped the nurse ratio research regal power resolved to Edition: current; Page: [ 167 ] terrify, with unheard-of torments, those who should dispute their authority. Of Homework! In England they ripped open the nurse belly of introduce yourself scholarship essay, a man guilty of high-treason, tore out his heart, dashed it in his face, and then threw it into the fire. Nurse Ratio Research Paper! And wherein did this high-treason frequently consist?
In having been, during a civil war, faithful to an unfortunate king; or, in essay, having spoken freely on the doubtful right of the conqueror. At length, their manners were softened; they continued to tear out the heart, but not till after the patient ratio paper death of the offender. The apparatus is dreadful, but the prompts for freshmen entering death is mild, if death can ever be mild. CHAPTER III.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF HERETICS. The denunciation of death to those who, in certain dogmas, differed from the established church, was peculiarly the act of research paper, tyranny.
No Christian emperor, before the tyrant Maximus, ever thought of condemning a man to yourself essay, punishment Edition: current; Page: [ 168 ] merely for points of controversy. It is true, indeed, that two Spanish bishops pursued to nurse patient paper, death the Priscilianists under Maximus; but it is also true, that this tyrant was willing to gratify the reigning party with the blood of heretics. Barbarity and justice were to a piece, him indifferent. Jealous of Theodosius, a Spaniard like himself, he endeavoured to deprive him of the empire of the nurse patient ratio East, as he had already obtained that of the West. Theodosius was hated for his cruelties; but he had found the means of gaining to a piece of homework, his party the heads of the church. Maximus was willing to nurse patient research paper, display the same zeal, and to attach the Spanish bishops to his faction. He flattered both the old and the new religion; he was as treacherous as inhuman, as indeed were all those who at that time either pretended to, or obtained empire. That vast part of the world was then governed like Algiers at present. Emperors were created and dethroned by the military power, and were often chosen from among nations that were reputed barbarous.
Theodosius opposed to his competitor other barbarians from how to write school app essays, Scythia. He filled the army with Goths, and patient research paper surprised Alaric the conqueror of Rome. In this horrible confusion, each endeavoured to strengthen his party by every means in his power. Edition: current; Page: [ 169 ] Maximus having caused the Emperor Gratian, the colleague of Theodosius, to be assassinated at Lyons, meditated the prompts for freshmen destruction of Valentinian the second, who, during his infancy, had been made successor to Gratian. He assembled at Treves a powerful army, composed of Gauls and Germans. He caused troops to be levied in Spain, when two Spanish bishops, Idacio and patient ratio paper Ithacus, or Itacius, both men of credit, came and prompt demanded of him the patient ratio blood of Priscilian, and all his adherents, who were of how to write school app essays, opinion, that souls were emanations from God; that the Trinity did not contain three hypostases; and moreover, they carried their sacrilege so far as to fast on Sundays. Maximus, half Pagan, and nurse paper half Christian, soon perceived the enormity of these crimes. Uc Essay For Freshmen Entering! The holy bishops, Idacio and Itacius, obtained leave to torture Priscilian and his accomplices before they were put to death. They were both present, that things might be done according to order, and nurse patient research paper they returned blessing God, and numbering Maximus, the defender of the faith, among the saints. Essay! But Maximus being afterward defeated by Theodosius, and assassinated at the feet of his conqueror, had not the good fortune to patient ratio research paper, be canonized. It is proper to in community, observe, that Saint Martin, Edition: current; Page: [ 170 ] bishop of Tours, who was really a good man, solicited the pardon of Priscilian; but being himself accused of heresy by the bishops, he returned to Tours, for fear of the torture at Treves.
As to Priscilian, he had the consolation, after he was hanged, of being honoured by his sect as a martyr. Nurse Patient Ratio Research Paper! His feast was celebrated, and would be celebrated still, if there were any Priscilianists remaining. This example made the entire church tremble; but it was soon after imitated and surpassed. Priscilianists had been put to death by the sword, the halter, and by lapidation. A young lady of quality, suspected to have fasted on a Sunday, was at Bourdeaux only stoned to death. These punishments appeared too mild; it was proved that God required that heretics should be roasted alive. Entering! The peremptory argument, in support of nurse patient research paper, this opinion was, that God punishes them in that manner in the next world, and that every prince, or his representative, even down to a petty constable, is the image of God in this sublunary world. On this principle it was, that all over Europe they burnt witches and prompt sorcerers, who were manifestly under the empire of the devil; and also heterodox Christians, which were deemed still more criminal and dangerous. Edition: current; Page: [ 171 ] It is not certainly known, what was the crime of those priests who were burnt at Orleans in the presence of king Robert and his wife Constantia, in the year 1022.
How indeed should it be known? there being, at that time, but a small number of clerks and monks that could write. All we certainly know is, that Robert and his wife feasted their eyes with this abominable spectacle. One of the research sectaries had been confessor to her majesty, who thought she could not better repair the misfortune of having confessed to a heretic, than by seeing him devoured by uc essay prompts entering, the flames. Custom becomes law; from that period to the present time, a space of more than seven hundred years, the church hath continued to burn those that are guilty, or supposed guilty, of an error in nurse ratio research paper, opinion. CHAPTER IV.: ON THE EXTIRPATION OF HERESY. It seems necessary to distinguish an heresy of opinion from a piece of homework, faction. Nurse Patient Research Paper! From the prompts first ages of Christianity opinions have been different. The Christians of Alexandria were, in many points, of a different opinion from research paper, those of Antioch.
The Achaians differed from the Asiatics. A Piece! This diversity of opinion existed from the beginning, and probably will continue for nurse patient ratio research, ever. Jesus Christ, who could have united all the faithful in the outsiders essay prompts, the same sentiments, did it not; and patient ratio research paper therefore we may conclude that it was not his design; but that he chose rather to exercise all his churches in acts of indulgence and of homework charity, by permitting different systems, yet all agreeing to acknowledge him their lord and patient ratio paper master. These several sects, so long as they were tolerated by grad app essays, the emperors, or concealed from their sight, had it not in their power to prosecute each other, being equally subject to the Roman magistrates; they could only dispute. If they were persecuted, they equally Edition: current; Page: [ 173 ] claimed the privilege of nature: #x201C;Suffer us,#x201D; they said, #x201C;to adore our God in peace, and do not refuse us the liberty you grant to the Jews:#x201D; Every sect may now urge the same argument to their oppressors. They may say to those who want privileges to the Jews; #x201C;Treat us as you treat the sons of Jacob; let us, like them, pray to ratio research, God according to prompts entering, our conscience. Our opinion will no more injure your state, than Judaism.
You tolerate the enemies of Jesus Christ, tolerate us who adore him, and who differ from you only in theological subtleties. Nurse Ratio Research Paper! Do not deprive yourselves of useful subjects; useful in your manufactures, your marine, and for freshmen entering the cultivation of your lands. Of what importance is it, that their creed be somewhat different from yours? You want their labour, and not their catechism?#x201D; Faction is quite a different thing. It always happens, that a persecuted sect degenerates into faction. The oppressed naturally unite and animate each other; and are generally more industrious in strengthening their party, than their persecutors in their extermination. They must either destroy or be destroyed. So it happened after the persecution excited in 304, by Galerius, in the two last years of Dioclesian. The Christians, having been favoured by that emperor Edition: current; Page: [ 174 ] during eighteen years, were become too numerous and too rich to be exterminated.
They joined Chlorus; they fought for his son Constantine, and a total revolution of the nurse patient ratio research empire was the a piece of homework consequence. Small events may be compared with great, when they are produced by the same spirit. Revolutions of a similar kind happened in Holland, in Scotland, and in Switzerland. When Ferdinand and nurse research Isabella drove the Jews out of Spain, where they were established not only how to app essays, before the reigning family, but before the nurse paper Moors, the Goths, or even the Carthaginians; if the Jews had been as warlike as they were rich, they might easily, in essay, conjunction with the Arabs, have effected a revolution. In short, no sect ever changed the government, unless excited by despair. Mahomed himself succeeded only because he was driven from Mecca, and a reward offered for his head. Would you prevent a sect from overturning the state, imitate the present wise conduct of England, of Germany, of Holland; use toleration. The only methods, in policy, to be taken with a new sect, are, to put to death the chief and all his adherents, men, women, and children, without sparing one individual; or to tolerate them, when Edition: current; Page: [ 175 ] numerous. The first method is nurse patient ratio that of a monster; the second of a wise man. Chain your subjects to the state by a piece of homework, their interest.
Let the Quaker and the Turk find their advantage in patient, living under your laws. Introduce! Religion is of God to man; the civil law is of you to your people. Lewis IX. king of France, who for his virtues was numbered among the saints, made a law against blasphemers. He condemned them to a new punishment; their tongues were pierced with a hot iron. It was a kind of retaliation; the sinning member suffering the punishment. But it was somewhat difficult to determine what was blasphemy. Expressions frequently escape from a man in a passion, from joy, or even in research, conversation, which are merely expletives, such as the sela and the vab of the Hebrews, the essay pol and the Edition: current; Page: [ 176 ] #xE6;depol of the Latins, as also per nurse patient ratio research Deos immortales, an expression frequently used, without the least intention of swearing by the immortal gods. The words which are called oaths and blasphemy, are commonly vague terms that may be variously interpreted. The law by which they are punished, seems to experience in community service essay, be founded on that of the Jews, which says: Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
The best commentators are of opinion, that this commandment relates to perjury; and there is the more reason to believe them right, as the word shave, which is translated in vain, properly signifies perjury. Now, what analogy can there be between perjury and Cabo de Dios, Cadedis, Sangbleu, Ventrebleu, Corpo de Dio, etc.? It was customary with the Jews to swear by the life of God, as the Lord liveth: the phrase was common; so that it was lying in the name of God that was forbidden. Philip Augustus, in 1181, condemned the nobility who should pronounce the words which are softened in the terms Tetebleu, Ventrebleu, Corbleu, Sangbleu, to ratio research, pay a fine, and the plebeians to be drowned. Grad App Essays! The first part of this law seems puerile, the latter abominable. It was an outrage to nature, to drown one man for a crime for which another paid a few pence of the money of those Edition: current; Page: [ 177 ] times. So that this law, like many other, remained unexecuted, especially when the king was excommunicated, and nurse his kingdom interdicted by Pope Celestine III. Saint Lewis, transported with zeal, ordered indiscriminately, that whosoever should pronounce these indecent words, should have his tongue bored, or his upper lip cut off. A citizen of of homework, Paris, having suffered this punishment, complained to nurse patient ratio research, Pope Innocent IV.
This pontiff remonstrated to the king that the punishment was too great for the crime, which however had no effect upon his majesty. Happy had it been for write school app essays, mankind, if the patient ratio research paper popes had never affected any other superiority over kings. The ordinance of Lewis XIV. says, #x201C;Those who shall be convicted of having sworn by, or blasphemed the holy name of God, of his most holy mother, or of his saints, shall, for the first offence, pay a fine; for a piece of homework, the second, third, and fourth, a double, triple, and quadruple fine; for the fifth, shall be put in the stocks; for the sixth, shall stand in the pillory, and lose his upper lip; for the seventh, shall have his tongue cut out.#x201D; This law appears to be humane and just, as it inflicts a cruel punishment only on a seven-fold repetition, which can hardly be presumed. Edition: current; Page: [ 178 ] But with regard to nurse research, more atrocious profanations, which are called Sacrilege, the criminal ordinance mentions only robbing of churches; it takes no notice of essay, public impieties, perhaps because they were not supposed to happen, or were too difficult to specify. They are left therefore to the discretion of the judge; and yet nothing ought to ratio research, be left to discretion. In such extraordinary cases, how is the judge to act? He should consider the age of the offender, the nature and service essay degree of his offence, and particularly the necessity of a public example.
Pro qualitate person#xE6;, quoque rei conditione et temporis et #xE6;tatis et sexus, vel clementius statuendum. If the law does not expressly say that such a crime shall be punished with death, what judge shall think himself authorised to nurse patient research paper, pronounce that sentence? If the law be silent; if nevertheless a punishment be required, the judge ought certainly, without hesitation, to decree the essay prompts least severe, because he is a man. Sacrilegious profanations are never committed except by young debauchees. Would you punish them as severely as if they had murdered a brother? Their youth pleads in their favour. They are not suffered to dispose of their possessions, because they are supposed to want maturity Edition: current; Page: [ 179 ] of judgment, sufficient to foresee the nurse patient ratio paper consequences of an prompts imprudent transaction.
Is it not therefore natural to suppose, that they are incapable of foreseeing the consequences of their impiety? Would you treat a wild young man, who, in his phrenzy, had profaned a sacred image, without stealing it, with the same rigour that you punished a Brinvilliers, who poisoned his father and his whole family? There is no law against the unhappy youth, and you are determined to make one that shall condemn him to the severest punishment! He deserved chastisement, but did he deserve such excruciating torture, and the most horrible death? But he had offended God! True, most grievously. Imitate God in your proceedings against him. If he be penitent, God forgives him.
Impose a penance, and let him be pardoned. Your illustrious Montesquieu hath said: It is our duty to honour the Deity, and not to revenge him. Let us weigh these words. They do not mean, that we should neglect the maintenance of public decorum; but, as the judicious author of the preceding Essay observes, that it is absurd for an insect to pretend to revenge the Supreme Being. A village magistrate, or the magistrate of a city, is neither a Moses nor a Joshua. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE INDULGENCE OF THE ROMANS IN MATTERS OF RELIGION.
The amazing contrast between the Roman laws, and the barbarous institutions by which they were succeeded, hath often been the subject of conversation among the nurse patient speculative part of mankind. Doubtless the a piece Roman senate held the supreme God in as great veneration as we; and professed as much esteem for their secondary deities as we for our saints. Ab Jove principium was their common formule. Pliny, in his panegyric on the good Trajan, attests, that the Romans never omitted to begin their discourse and affairs by patient ratio research paper, invoking the Deity. Cicero and Livy tell us the same thing. No people were more religious; but they were too wise, and how to too great, to descend to the punishment of patient paper, idle language or philosophic opinions. They were incapable of how to write grad, inflicting barbarous punishments on those who, with Cicero, himself an augur, had no faith in auguries; or Edition: current; Page: [ 181 ] on those who, like C#xE6;sar, asserted in full senate, that the gods do not punish men after death. It hath often been remarked that the senate permitted the chorus in nurse, the Troad to sing, There is nothing after death, and death itself is prompts entering nothing. You ask, what becomes of the dead?
They are where they were ere they were born. Ratio Research Paper! * Was ever profanation more flagrant than this? From Ennius to Ausonius all his profanation, notwithstanding the respect for divine worship. Why were these things disregarded by how to grad app essays, the senate? Because they did not, in any wise, affect the patient research government of the state; because they disturbed no institution, nor religious ceremony. The police of the Romans was nevertheless excellent; they were nevertheless absolute masters of the best part of the world, till the reign of Theodosius the second. It was a maxim of the Romans, Deorum offens#xE6;, Diis cur#xE6;, Offences against the gods concern the gods only. The senate, by the wisest institution, being at the head of religion, were under no apprehensions that a convocation of priests should force them to jungle, revenge the priesthood under a pretext of revenging Heaven. They never said, let us tear the impious asunder, lest we ourselves Edition: current; Page: [ 182 ] be deemed impious; let us shew the nurse patient ratio priesthood, by our cruelty, that we are no less religious than they. But our religion is more holy than that of the Romans, and consequently impiety is a piece of homework a greater crime. Ratio! Granted.
God will punish it. The part of uc essay entering, man is, to punish that which is criminal in the public disorder which the nurse research paper impiety hath occasioned. But if in the act of impiety the delinquent hath not even stolen a handkerchief; if the in community service essay ceremonies of religion have been in no wise disturbed, shall we, as I said before, punish the impiety as we would punish parricide? The Marshal d#x2019;Ancre had caused a white cock to be killed when the moon was at full: ought we therefore to burn the Marshal D#x2019;Ancre? Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines; Nec scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. CHAPTER VII.: ON THE CRIME OF PREACHING; AND OF ANTHONY. A Calvanist teacher, who, in certain provinces, preaches to his flock, if he be detected, is punished with death; and those who have given him a supper, or a bed, are sent to the gallies for life.
In other countries, if a Jesuit be caught preaching, he is hanged. Patient Ratio Research! Is it to avenge God that this Calvinist and this Jesuit are put to death? Have both parties built upon the following Evangelical law? If he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. But the Evangelist does not order that this heathen and this publican should be hanged.
Or have they built on this passage in Deuteronomy:* If among you a prophet arise; and that which he hath said come to pass; and he sayeth unto you, let us follow strange gods; and if thy brother, or thy son, or thy wife, or the friend of thy heart, say unto thee, Come, let us follow strange gods: let them Edition: current; Page: [ 184 ] be straightways killed, strike thou first, and all the people after thee. But neither this Jesuit nor the Calvanist said unto you, Come, let us follow strange gods. The counsellor Dubourg, the monk Jehan Chouvin, named Calvin, the Spanish physician Servetus, the Calabrian Gentilis, all worshipped the same God: and yet the president Minard caused counsellor Dubourg to be burnt; and Dubourg#x2019;s friends caused president Minard to be assassinated; Jehan Calvin caused the physician Servetus to be roasted; and had likewise the consolation to be a principal means of bringing the Calabrian Gentilis to the block; and the successors of Jehan Calvin burnt Anthony. Was it reason, or piety, or justice, that committed these murders? This history of Anthony is a piece of homework one of the most singular which the annals of phrenzy hath preserved.
I read the following account in a very curious manuscript; it is in part related by nurse patient ratio research paper, Jacob Spon. Anthony was born at yourself Brieu in Lorrain, of catholic parents, and he was educated by the Jesuits at Pont a Mousson. The preacher Feri engaged him in the protestant religion at Metz. Having returned to Nancy he was prosecuted as Edition: current; Page: [ 185 ] a heretic, and, had he not been saved by a friend, would certainly have been hanged. He fled for refuge to Sedan, where, being taken for a Papist, he narrowly escaped assassination. Seeing by what strange fatality his life was not in safety, either among Papists or Protestants, he went to research, Venice and turned Jew. He was positively persuaded, even to the last moments of his life, that the religion of the Jews was the only true religion; for that, if it was once true, it must always be so. The Jews did not circumcise him, for fear of offending the state; but he was no less internally a Jew.
He now went to Geneva, where, concealing his faith, he became a preacher, was president of the persuasive essay prompts college, and finally what is called a minister. The perpetual combat in his breast between the religion of Calvin, which he was obliged to preach, and that of Moses, which was the only religion he believed, produced a long illness. He became melancholy, and at last quite mad, crying aloud, that he was a Jew. The ministers of the gospel came to visit him, and endeavoured to bring him to himself; but he answered, #x201C;that he adored none but the God of Israel; that it was impossible for God to change; that God could never have given a law, and inscribed it with his Edition: current; Page: [ 186 ] own hand, with an intention that it should be abolished.#x201D; He spoke against Christianity, and afterwards retracted all he had said, and even wrote his confession of faith, to escape punishment; but the unhappy persuasion of his heart would not permit him to sign it. The council of the city assembled the clergy, to consult what was to be done with the unfortunate Anthony. The minority of these clergy were of opinion, that they should have compassion on him, and rather endeavour to cure his disease than punish him. Nurse Patient Ratio! The majority determined that he should be burnt, and he was burnt. This transaction is of the scholarship year 1632.* A hundred years of reason and patient ratio research virtue are scarce sufficient to expiate such a deed.
CHAPTER VIII.: THE HISTORY OF SIMON MORIN. The tragical end of Simon Morin is not less horrible than that of poor Anthony. It was midst the feasting, pleasures, and gallantry of a brilliant court; it was even in the times of the greatest licentiousness, that this unfortunate madman was burnt at Paris, in the year 1663. Imagining that he had seen visions, he carried his folly so far, as to how to write grad school app essays, believe that he was sent from God, and that he was incorporated with Jesus Christ. The Parliament very wisely condemned him to be confined in a mad-house. What was very remarkable, there happened to be confined in the same mad-house another fool, who called himself God the Father. Simon Morin was so struck with the folly of his companion, that he acknowledged his own, and appeared for a time to have recovered his senses. He declared his repentance, and, unfortunately for nurse ratio research paper, himself, obtained his liberty. Edition: current; Page: [ 188 ] Some time after, he relapsed into service his former nonsense, and began to dogmatize.
His unhappy destiny brought him acquainted with St. Patient Ratio Paper! Sorlin Desmarets, who, for some months, was his friend, but who afterwards, from jealousy, became his most cruel persecutor. This Desmarets was no less a visionary than Morin. His first follies indeed were innocent. He printed the Tragi-Comedies of Erigone and Mirame, with a translation of the Psalms; the Romance of persuasive essay prompts, Ariane, and the Poem of patient ratio paper, Clovis, with the office of the holy Virgin turned into essay prompt verse. He likewise published dithyrambic poems, enriched with invectives against Homer and Virgil. Nurse Ratio Research! From this kind of follies he proceeded to others of a more serious nature. He attacked Port-Royal, and after confessing that he had perverted some women to atheism, he commenced prophet. He pretended that God had given him, with his own hand, the key to the treasure of the Apocalypse, that with this key he would reform the whole world, and that he should command an army of an hundred and the outsiders persuasive prompts forty thousand men against the Jansenists.
Nothing could have been more reasonable and more just, than to have confined him in the same place with Simon Morin; but can it be Edition: current; Page: [ 189 ] believed, that he found credit with the Jesuit Annat, the king#x2019;s confessor? whom he persuaded, that this poor Simon Morin would establish a sect almost as dangerous as the Jansenists themselves. In short, carrying his infamy so far as to turn informer, he obtained an order to seize the person of his rival. Shall I tell it! Simon Morin was condemned to be burnt alive? In conducting him to the stake, there was found, in one of his stockings, a paper in which he begged forgiveness of God for all his errors. Paper! This ought to have saved him; but no: the sentence was confirmed, and he was executed without mercy. Such deeds are enough to make a man#x2019;s hair bristle with horror. Yet where is the country that hath not beheld such shocking spectacles?
Mankind universally forget that they are brothers, and persecute each other even to death. Let us console ourselves with the hope, that such dreadful times are passed, never more to return. In the year 1748, in the bishopric of Wurtsburg, an old woman was convicted of witchcraft and scholarship essay burnt. This was an extraordinary phenomenon in the present century. But how incredible it seems, that a people, who boasted of their reformation, and of having trampled superstition under their feet, and who flattered themselves that they had brought their reason to nurse patient ratio paper, perfection; is it not wonderful, I say, that such a people should have believed in witchcraft; should have burnt old women accused of this crime, and that above a hundred years after the essay prompt pretended reformation of their reason?. In the year 1652, a country woman, named Michelle Chaudron, of the little territory of Geneva, met the devil in her way from the city. The devil gave her a kiss, received her homage, and imprinted on her upper lip and on her right breast, the mark which he is wont to bestow upon his favourites. This seal of the devil is a Edition: current; Page: [ 191 ] little sign upon the skin, which renders it insensible, as we are assured by all the demonographical civilians of those times. The devil ordered Michelle Chaudron to bewitch two young girls.
She obeyed her master punctually. The parents of the two girls accused her of dealing with the devil. The girls, being confronted with the ratio research paper criminal, declared, that they felt a continual prickling in some parts of their bodies, and that they were possessed. Physicians were called, at least men that passed for physicians in those days. They visited the girls. They sought for the seal of the devil on the body of Michelle, which seal is in community service essay called, in the verbal process, the Satanical mark. Patient Ratio Paper! Into one of these marks they plunged a long needle, which was already no small torture. Blood issued from the wound, and Michelle testified by her cries that the part was not insensible. The judges not finding sufficient proof that Michelle Chaudron was a witch, ordered her to be tortured, which infallibly produced the proof they wanted. A Piece Of Homework! The poor wretch, overcome by torment, confessed at last every thing they desired.
The physicians sought again for the Satanical mark, and found it in a little black spot on one of her thighs. Into this they plunged their Edition: current; Page: [ 192 ] needle. The poor creature, exhausted and almost expiring with the pain of the torture, was insensible to nurse ratio research paper, the needle, and did not cry out. Prompts! She was instantly condemned to be burnt; but the world beginning at ratio research paper this time to be a little more civilized, she was previously strangled. At this period every tribunal in Europe resounded with such judgments, and fire and faggot were universally employed against witchcraft as well as heresy. The Turks were reproached with having amongst them neither sorcerers, witches, nor demoniacs; and the want of the latter was considered as an infallible proof of the falsity of their religion. A zealous friend to the public welfare, to humanity, and to true religion, in one of of homework, his writings in favour of innocence, informs us, that there have been above a hundred thousand witches condemned to die by ratio paper, Christian tribunals. If, to these lawful massacres, we add the much superior number of heretics sacrificed, our part of the globe will appear one vast scaffold covered with executioners and victims, and surrounded by judges, guards, and spectators. CHAPTER X.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH.
It hath long since been observed, that a man after he is how to hanged is good for nothing, and that punishments invented for the good of society, ought to be useful to society. It is evident, that a score of stout robbers, condemned for life to some public work, would serve the state in nurse patient ratio paper, their punishment, and that hanging them is a benefit to nobody but the executioner. Thieves, in England, are seldom punished with death, but are transported to the colonies. This is also practised in Russia, where not one criminal was executed during the whole reign of the autocratical Elisabeth. Catherine II. who hath succeeded her, with much more genius, follows her example; yet crimes are not multiplied by this humanity; and experience service it generally happens that the patient ratio research paper criminals sent to prompts for freshmen, Siberia in time become honest people. The same is observed in the English colonies. We are astonished at the change, and yet nothing can be more natural. The condemned are forced to Edition: current; Page: [ 194 ] continual labour for nurse patient ratio paper, a livelihood. How To Write Grad School! The opportunities of vice are wanting. They marry and multiply.
Oblige men to work, and you certainly make them honest. It is well known, that atrocious crimes are not committed in the country, unless when there is too much holiday, and consequently too much idleness, and consequently too much debauchery. The Romans never condemned a citizen to death, unless for crimes which concerned the safety of the nurse patient paper state. These our masters, our first legislators, were careful of the blood of their fellow-citizens; but we are extravagant with the blood of ours. The question hath been frequently debated, whether a judge ought to have the a piece power to punish with death, when the punishment is undetermined by the law? This question was solemnly agitated in the presence of the Emperor Henry VII. who decreed that no judge should have such a power.* There are some criminal cases which are either so new, so complicated, and so unaccountable as to ratio research paper, have escaped the provision of the laws, and which, therefore, in some countries are left to the discretion of the judge. But for one case in which the laws permit the the outsiders persuasive prompts death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 195 ] whom they have not condemned, there are a thousand wherein humanity should save whom the nurse patient ratio paper laws have condemned to suffer. The sword of justice is in introduce yourself essay, our hands, but we ought rather to blunt than to sharpen its edge. It remains within its sheath in the presence of kings, to inform us that it ought seldom to be drawn. There have been some judges who were passionately fond of spilling human blood; such was Jefferies in England, and such in nurse patient research, France was the man whom they called Coupe-tete.
Nature never intended such men for magistrates, but for executioners. Must we go to the end of the world, must we have recourse to the laws of China, to learn how frugal we ought to be of human blood? It is service essay now more than four thousand years that the patient ratio paper tribunals of that empire have existed; and it is also more than four thousand years that the Edition: current; Page: [ 196 ] meanest subject, at the extremity of the empire, hath not been executed without first transmitting his case to the emperor, who causes it to be thrice examined by one of his tribunals; after which he signs the death warrant, alters the sentence, or entirely acquits. But it is unnecessary to travel so far for examples of this nature; Europe will abundantly supply us. In England, no criminal is put to death, whose death warrant is not signed by the king. It is also practised in grad app essays, Germany, and in most parts of the north.
Such likewise was formerly the custom in France, and such it ought to be in nurse ratio, all polished nations. Grad! A sentence, at a distance from the throne, may be dictated by cabal, prejudice, or ignorance. Such little intrigues are unknown to monarchs, who are continually surrounded by great objects. Patient Research Paper! The members of the supreme council are more enlightened, less liable to prejudice, and the outsiders persuasive prompts better qualified than a provincial judge, to determine whether the state require severe punishments. Ratio Research Paper! In short, when inferior courts have judged according to the letter of the law, which possibly may be rigorous, the council mitigates the sentence according to the true spirit of all laws, which teaches, never to sacrifice a man, but in evident necessity. All mankind being exposed to the attempts of violence or perfidy, detest the crimes of which they may possibly be the victims: all desire that the principal offender and his accomplices may be punished; nevertheless, there is a natural compassion in the human heart, which makes all men detest the cruelty of torturing the accused in order to extort confession. The law has not condemned them, and yet, though uncertain of their crime, you inflict a punishment more horrible than that which they are to suffer when their guilt is confirmed. A Piece! #x201C;Possibly thou mayst be innocent; but I will torture thee that I may be satisfied: not that I intend to make thee any recompence for the thousand deaths which I have made thee suffer, in ratio, lieu of that which is preparing for introduce scholarship essay, thee.#x201D; Who does not shudder at nurse patient ratio research paper the idea? St. Augustin opposed such cruelty. The Romans tortured their slaves only; and Quintilian, recollecting that they Edition: current; Page: [ 198 ] were men, reproved the Romans for such want of humanity. If there were but one nation in the world which had abolished the essay prompts use of torture; if in that nation crimes were no more frequent than in others; and if that nation be more enlightened and more flourishing since the abolition, its example surely were sufficient for the rest of the world.
England alone might instruct all other nations in this particular; but England is not the only nation. Torture hath been abolished in other countries, and with success; the question therefore is decided. Shall not a people, who pique themselves on their politeness, pride themselves also on their humanity? Shall they obstinately persist in their inhumanity, merely because it is an ancient custom? Reserve, at least, such cruelty for the punishment of nurse patient research paper, those hardened wretches, who shall have assassinated the in community service father of a family, or the father of his country; but that a young person, who commits a fault which leaves no traces behind it, should suffer equally with a parricide; is not this an useless piece of barbarity? I am ashamed of ratio research, having said any thing on this subject, after what hath been already said by introduce yourself scholarship essay, the author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments.
Edition: current; Page: [ 199 ] I ought to have been satisfied with wishing, that mankind may read with attention the work of that friend to humanity. CHAPTER XIII.: OF CERTAIN SANGUINARY TRIBUNALS. Is it credible, that there formerly existed a supreme tribunal more horrible than the Inquisition, and that this tribunal was established by patient paper, Charlemagne? It was the judgment of Westphalia, otherwise called the service essay Vhemic Court. Nurse Research! The severity, or rather cruelty, of this court, went so far as to punish with death, every Saxon who broke his fast during Lent. Write! The same law was also established in Franche-Comte, in the beginning of the ratio research seventeenth century. In the archives of a little place called St. Claude, situated in a remote corner of the scholarship most mountainous part of the county of Burgundy, are preserved the particulars of the sentence and verbal process of execution of a poor gentleman named Claude Edition: current; Page: [ 200 ] Guillon, who was beheaded on the 28th of July, 1629. Being reduced to the utmost poverty, and urged by the most intolerable hunger, he eat, on a fish-day, a morsel of horse flesh, which had been killed in nurse ratio, a neighbouring field. This was his crime.
He was found guilty of sacrilege. Had he been a rich man, and had spent two hundred crowns in a supper of sea-fish, suffering the poor to die of persuasive essay prompts, hunger, he would have been considered as a person fulfilling every duty. The following is a copy of nurse research paper, his sentence: #x201C;Having seen all the papers of the process, and heard the opinions of the of homework doctors learned in the law, we declare the said Claude Guillon to be truly attainted and convicted of having taken away part of the flesh of a horse, killed in the meadow of that town; of having caused the said flesh to be dressed, and of eating the nurse patient same on Saturday the 31st of March,#x201D; etc. What infamous doctors must these have been, who gave their opinions on this occasion? Was it among the Topinambous, or among the Hottentots, that these things happened? The Vhemic Court was yet more horrible. Grad School App Essays! Delegates from this court were secretly spread over all Germany, taking informations unknown to the accused, who were condemned without being heard; and frequently, Edition: current; Page: [ 201 ] in want of an nurse ratio research paper executioner, the prompt jungle youngest judge performed the office himself.* It was requisite, in order to be safe from the assassination of this court, to procure letters of exemption from the emperor; and even these were sometimes ineffectual. This chamber of assassins was not entirely abolished till the patient reign of how to write app essays, Maximilian I. It ought to patient ratio, have been dissolved in the blood of its members. The Venetian Council of in community service, Ten was, in nurse patient paper, comparison with this, a court of mercy.
What shall we think of such horrid proceedings? Is it sufficient to bewail humanity? There were some cases that cried aloud for vengeance. CHAPTER XIV.: ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLITICAL AND NATURAL LAWS. I call natural laws, those which nature dictates in all ages to all men, for the maintenance of that justice which she (say what they will of her) hath implanted in our hearts. Theft, violence, homicide, ingratitude to beneficent parents, perjury against entering innocence, conspiracies against one#x2019;s country, are crimes that are universally and justly punished, though with more or less severity. I call political laws, those that are made in compliance with present necessity, whether it be to give stability to the government, or to patient ratio research paper, prevent misfortune. For example; being apprehensive that the enemy may receive intelligence from the inhabitants of the city, you shut the uc essay prompts for freshmen gates, and forbid any one to pass the ramparts on pain of death. Or, fearful of a new sect of patient ratio, people, who publicly disclaim all obedience to uc essay for freshmen, their sovereign, Edition: current; Page: [ 203 ] and secretly consult of means to divest themselves of nurse paper, that obedience; who preach, that all men are equal, and that obedience is due to God alone; who, accusing the reigning sect of superstition, mean to destroy that which is consecrated by the state; you denounce death against those who, in publicly dogmatizing in favour of this sect, may instigate the people to revolt. Or, two ambitious princes contend for a crown: the strongest gains the essay jungle prize, and punishes with death the partizans of the weaker.
The judges become the instruments of vengeance of the new sovereign, and the supports of his authority. When Richard the Third, the murderer of his two nephews, was acknowledged king of England, the jury found Sir William Collinburn guilty of having written to a friend of the Duke of Richmond, who was at that time raising an nurse patient paper army, and who afterwards reigned by the name of Henry VII. How To Write Grad! They found two ridiculous lines of Sir William#x2019;s writing, which were sufficient to condemn him to a horrible death. History abounds with such examples of justice. The right of reprisal is also a law adopted by nations.
For example, your enemy has hanged one of your brave captains, for having defended an old ruined castle against a whole army. One Edition: current; Page: [ 204 ] of his captains falls into ratio your hands; he is in community a worthy man, and you esteem him; nevertheless you hang him by way of reprisal. You say it is the law: that is to say, because your enemy has been guilty of an enormous crime, you must be guilty of another. These political sanguinary laws exist but for a time; they are temporary, because they are not founded in truth. They resemble the necessity which, in cases of extreme famine, obliges people to nurse patient research paper, eat each other: they cease to a piece, eat men as soon as bread is to nurse patient research paper, be had.
CHAPTER XV.: ON THE CRIME OF HIGH-TREASON. ON TITUS OATES, AND ON THE DEATH OF AUGUSTIN DE THOU. High-treason is an offence committed against the security of the how to write grad app essays commonwealth, or of the king its representative. It is considered as parricide, and therefore ought not to be extended to offences which bear no analogy to that crime. Edition: current; Page: [ 205 ] In making it high-treason to commit a theft in any house belonging to research, the state, or even to speak seditious words, you lessen the persuasive horror which the crime of high-treason ought to inspire.
In our ideas of great crimes, there should be nothing arbitrary. Ratio Paper! If a theft from, or imprecation against, a father be considered as parricide, you break the bond of filial piety; the in community son will then regard his parent as a terrible monster. Every exaggeration in a law tends to its destruction. In common crimes, the laws of patient ratio research paper, England are favourable to experience in community essay, the accused; but in cases of high-treason they are against him. The Jesuit Titus Oates being legally interrogated in the House of Commons, and having upon his oath declared, that he had related the whole truth, yet afterwards accused the secretary of the Duke of York, and nurse research paper several others, of high-treason, and his information was admitted. He likewise swore before the king#x2019;s council, that he had not seen the secretary, and for freshmen afterwards that he had.
Notwithstanding these illegalities and contradictions, the secretary was executed. The same Titus Oates and another witness deposed, that fifty Jesuits had conspired to assassinate Charles II. and nurse patient ratio paper that they had seen commissions, Edition: current; Page: [ 206 ] signed by of homework, father Oliva, general of the Jesuits, for the officers that were to command an nurse research paper army of rebels. This evidence was sufficient to authorize the tearing out the hearts of several people, and dashing them in essay jungle, their faces. But seriously, can two witnesses be thought sufficient to convict a man whom they have a mind to destroy? At least one would imagine they ought not to be notorious villains; neither ought that which they depose to be improbable. Let us suppose that two of the most upright magistrates in the kingdom were to accuse a man of having conspired with the Mufti, to circumcise the whole Council of State, the Parliament, the nurse patient Archbishop and the Sorbonne; in vain these two magistrates might swear, that they had seen the letters of the Mufti: it would naturally be supposed that they were wrong in their heads. It was equally ridiculous to imagine, that the general of the Jesuits should raise an army in yourself scholarship, England, as that the Mufti intended to circumcise the Court of France.
But unhappily Titus Oates was believed; that there might remain no species of atrocious folly, which hath not entered into patient ratio paper the heart of man. The laws of the outsiders persuasive essay prompts, England do not consider as guilty of conspiracy those who are privy to it, and ratio research paper do Edition: current; Page: [ 207 ] not inform. They suppose the informer as infamous as the conspirator is culpable. In France, if any one be privy to a conspiracy, and does not reveal it, he is punished with death. Lewis XI. against whom conspiracies were frequent, made this law; a law which a Lewis XII. or a Henry IV. could never have imagined. It not only obliges an honest man to divulge a crime, which, by a piece of homework, his resolution and advice, he might possibly prevent; but it renders him liable to be punished as a calumniator, it being easy for the accused to nurse patient ratio research paper, manage their affairs in essay, such a manner as to elude conviction. This was exactly the case of the truly respectable Augustin de Thou, counsellor of patient research, state, and son of the only good historian of which France can boast; equal to Guicciardini in point of abilities, and perhaps superior in point of impartiality. This conspiracy was against Cardinal de Richelieu, rather than against Lewis XIII. The design was not to betray France to an enemy; for the king#x2019;s brother, who was the principal author of the plot, could never intend to betray a kingdom to which he was the presumptive heir, there being only between him and the crown a dying brother, and two children in the cradle. Edition: current; Page: [ 208 ] De Thou was neither guilty in the sight of how to grad app essays, God nor man. One of the agents of the king#x2019;s brother, of the Duke of Bouillon, sovereign prince of nurse patient ratio paper, Sedan, and of the grand Equerry d#x2019;Effiat St.
Mars, had communicated their intention to de Thou, who immediately went to St. Mars, and prompts for freshmen endeavoured to ratio, dissuade him from the enterprize. If he had informed against him, he had no proof, and must inevitably have fallen a sacrifice to the resentment of the presumptive heir of experience service essay, a sovereign prince, of the ratio research king#x2019;s favourite, and to public execration. In short, he would have been punished as a malignant calumniator. The chancellor Seguier was convinced of this in confronting de Thou with the grand Equerry, when de Thou asked the latter the following question: #x201C;Do you not remember, Sir, that there never passed a day, in which I did not endeavour to dissuade you from the attempt?#x201D; St. Mars acknowledged it to be true. So that de Thou deserved a recompence, rather than death, from a tribunal of Equity. He certainly deserved to uc essay for freshmen, have been saved by Cardinal Richelieu; but humanity was not his virtue. There is in this case something more than summum jus summa injuria. Nurse Patient Research Paper! In the sentence of this worthy man we read, #x201C;for having had knowledge and participation Edition: current; Page: [ 209 ] of the said conspiracy.#x201D; It does not say for not having revealed. So that his crime was, his having been informed of a crime; and he was punished for having had ears and in community service eyes.
All that we can say in extenuation of the severity is, that it was not the patient research paper act of Justice herself, but of essay jungle, a delegated power. The letter of the law was positive; but I appeal not only to the lawyers, but to all mankind, whether the spirit of the law was not perverted? It is a melancholy absurdity, that a small number of people should condemn as criminal, a man judged innocent by a whole nation, and worth their esteem! CHAPTER XVI.: OF RELIGIOUS CONFESSION. Jaurigny and Balthazar Gerard, who assassinated William I. Prince of Orange; Clement the nurse patient paper Dominican, Chatel, Ravaillac, and all the other parricides of those times, went to confession before they committed their crimes. Fanaticism, Edition: current; Page: [ 210 ] in prompt, that deplorable age, was carried to such excess, that confession was an additional engagement to the perpetration of villainy; an engagement deemed sacred, because confession is a sacrament. Strada himself says, that Jaurigny non ante facinus aggredi sustinuit quam expiatam necis animam apud Dominicanum sacerdotem c#xE6;lesti pane firmaverit. It appears in the interrogatory of Ravaillac that coming from the Feuillants, and going towards the Jesuits college, he addressed himself to the Jesuit d#x2019;Aubigny; that after talking to him of several apparitions which he had seen, he shewed him a knife, on the blade of which was engraved a heart and a cross; and that he said, this heart signifies, that the heart of the king should be induced to make war against the Huguenots. If this d#x2019;Aubigny had informed the king of these words, and described the man, the best of kings might possibly have escaped assassination. On the 20th of August, 1610, three months after the death of Henry IV. whose wounds were yet bleeding in the hearts of his subjects, the advocate-general Servin, of illustrious memory, required that the Jesuits should be obliged to sign the four following articles: I. That the Council is superior to the Pope.
Edition: current; Page: [ 211 ] II. Nurse Ratio Paper! That the Pope cannot deprive the king of any of his rights by excommunication. III. Uc Essay! That the ecclesiastics are, like other people, entirely subject to the king. IV. That a priest who, by confession, is patient research paper apprized of a conspiracy against the king or the state, should reveal it to the magistrates. On the 22d, the parliament published an arret, forbidding the Jesuits to instruct youth, until they had signed those four articles. But the court of Rome was at that time so powerful, and that of France so weak, that the arret was disregarded.
It is worth notice, that this court of yourself, Rome, which would not suffer confession to be revealed when the life of a sovereign was concerned, obliged the confessors to inform the Inquisition in case any female should accuse another priest of having seduced or attempted to seduce her. Paul IV. Pius IV. Nurse Paper! Clement VIII. and Gregory XV. ordered this revelation. It was a dangerous snare both for the confessor and the outsiders persuasive essay the penitent.
It was converting a sacrament into a register of accusations and sacrilege; for by the ancient canons, and particularly by the Lateran council, under Innocent III. every confessor who reveals confession, of nurse research paper, whatsoever nature it may be, shall be interdicted and imprisoned for life. Edition: current; Page: [ 212 ] Thus we see four different Popes, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, ordering the revelation of a sin of impurity, and forbidding it in cases of service, parricide. A woman confesses, or supposes in her confession to a Carmelite, that a Cordelier attempted to seduce her; the patient research paper Carmelite must impeach the Cordelier. A fanatical assassin, believing that he shall serve God by killing his prince, consults his confessor on this case of conscience; the confessor is guilty of sacrilege if he save the experience life of his sovereign. This horrible absurdity is one of the unhappy consequences of the nurse paper continual opposition, which hath subsisted for a piece, so many ages, between the ecclesiastical and civil law. Mankind have in a thousand instances been suspended between the crimes of sacrilege and high-treason, and the distinctions of right and wrong have been buried in a chaos, from which they are not yet emerged.
Confession of sins hath been authorised in all times and in all nations. Patient Research Paper! The ancients accused themselves in the mysteries of Orpheus, of a piece, Isis, of Ceres, of Samothrace. The Jews confessed their sins on the day of solemn expiation, and still continue the same practice. Nurse Patient Ratio Research! Each penitent chuses his confessor, who becomes his penitent in turn, and each receives from his companion Edition: current; Page: [ 213 ] thirty-nine lashes whilst he is repeating, three times, the formule of confession, which consists only in persuasive essay prompts, thirteen words, and which consequently must be general. None of these confessions were particular, and consequently could never serve for a pretence to those secret consultations, under the patient ratio research paper shadow of which fanatical penitents think to sin with impunity; a pernicious practice, by which a salutary institution is corrupted. Service! Confession, which was intended as a curb to iniquity, hath frequently, in times of confusion and seduction, become an incentive to wickedness. Patient Ratio Research Paper! Probably it was for this reason, that so many Christian states have abolished a holy institution, which appeared to be as dangerous as useful. The crime of coining false money is deemed high-treason in the second degree, and justly. Introduce Yourself Scholarship Essay! To rob all the people is to be a traitor to the state. But it is asked whether a merchant who imports ingots of gold from America, and privately converts them into good money, be guilty of high-treason, and merit death? which is the punishment annexed to this crime in almost all countries.
Nevertheless, he has robbed nobody; on the contrary, he has done service to the state by increasing the currency. But he hath defrauded the king of the small profit upon the coin. He hath indeed coined good money; but he hath led others into the temptation of coining bad. Ratio Paper! Yet death is a severe punishment. I knew a lawyer who was of opinion, that such a criminal should be condemned, as a useful hand, to work in the royal mint, with irons to his legs. In countries where a trifling domestic theft, or breach of trust, is punished with death, is experience in community service not the paper disproportioned punishment dangerous to society?
Is it not even an encouragement to larceny? If, in this case, a master prosecutes his servant, and the unhappy wretch suffer death, the whole neighbourhood hold the master in abhorrence: they perceive that the law is contrary to nature, and consequently that it is a bad law. What is the result? Masters, to avoid opprobrium, content themselves with discharging the thief, who afterwards steals from another, and gradually becomes familiar with dishonesty. The punishment being the same for a small theft as for a greater, he will naturally steal as much as he can, and at last will not scruple to turn assassin to prevent detection. If, on the contrary, the punishment be proportioned to the crime; if those who are guilty Edition: current; Page: [ 216 ] of a breach of trust be condemned to labour for the public, the master will not hesitate to bring the uc essay entering offender to justice, and the crime will be less frequent: so true it is, that rigorous laws are often productive of crimes.
The celebrated Du Verger de Hauranne, Abb#xE8; de St. Cyran, one of the founders of Port Royal, in the year 1608, wrote a treatise on suicide, which is become one of the scarcest books in Europe. #x201C;The Decalogue,#x201D; says that author, #x201C;forbids us to patient, commit murder; in which precept self-murder seems no less to introduce scholarship, be understood, than the murder of another: if, therefore, there be cases in which it is lawful to kill another, there may be cases also wherein suicide may be allowed. But a man ought not to attempt his own life, till after having consulted his reason. Public Edition: current; Page: [ 217 ] authority, which is the representative of God, may dispose of our lives. The reason of man may also represent that of the Deity, it being a ray of the eternal light.#x201D; St. Patient Ratio Research! Cyran extends his argument to a great length, which after all is a mere sophism. But when he comes to exemplify, he is not quite so easily answered. #x201C;A man may kill himself,#x201D; says he, #x201C;for the good of his prince, for the good of his country, or for the good of his parents.#x201D;
It does not appear, that we could with justice condemn a Codrus, or a Curtius. What prince would dare to punish the family of a man who had sacrificed himself for uc essay prompts for freshmen entering, his service? Or rather, is nurse ratio paper there any prince who would dare not to reward them. St. Uc Essay Prompts For Freshmen! Thomas, before St. Cyran, said the same thing. Patient Paper! But there was no need of either of Thomas, of Bonaventure, nor of Huranne, to inform us, that a man who dies for his country deserves our praise. St. Essay Jungle! Cyran concludes, that it is lawful to do for one#x2019;s own sake, that which is praise-worthy if done for another. Nurse Paper! The arguments of Plutarch, of Seneca, of Montaigne, and a hundred others, are well known.
I do not pretend to apologise for an action which the laws have condemned; but I do not recollect, that either the Old or Edition: current; Page: [ 218 ] New Testament forbid a man to relinquish his life, when it is no longer supportable. By the experience essay Roman laws, suicide was not forbidden; on the contrary, in a law of Mark Antony, which was never repealed, we find it thus written: #x201C;If your brother or your father, being convicted of no crime, hath put himself to death, either to avoid pain, or being weary of life, or from despair or madness, his will shall nevertheless be valid, or his heirs inherit according to law.#x201D; Notwithstanding this humane law of our ancient masters, we ordain, that a stake shall be driven through the corps of the offender, and his memory becomes infamous. We do all in our power to dishonour his family. We punish a son for having lost a father, and a widow because she is deprived of her husband. We even confiscate the effects of the deceased, and rob the living of that which is justly their due. This custom, with many others, is derived from our canon law, which denies Christian burial to nurse patient ratio research, those who are guilty of suicide, concluding thence, that it is not lawful to inherit on uc essay prompts for freshmen entering, earth from one who hath himself no inheritance in heaven. The cannon law assures us, that Judas committed a greater crime in hanging himself, than in betraying Jesus Christ. CHAPTER XX.: ON A CERTAIN SPECIES OF MUTILATION. We find, in the Pandect, a law of nurse ratio paper, Adrian, which denounces death to the physicians who should make an eunuch, either by castration or by bruising the testes. By the same law, the possessions of those who suffered castration were confiscated.
Origen ought certainly to prompts entering, have been punished, who submitted to this operation, from the rigid interpretation of that passage in St. Matthew, which says, There be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven#x2019;s sake. Things changed in the reigns of succeeding emperors, who adopted the patient ratio research luxury of Asia; especially in the lower empire of Constantinople, where eunuchs became patriarchs and generals of armies. In these our own times, it is the custom at Rome to castrate young children, to render them worthy of being musicians to his Holiness; so that Castrato and Musico del Papa are synonimous. It is not long since you might have seen at Naples, Edition: current; Page: [ 220 ] written in great letters over the doors of certain barbers, Qui si castrano mar avigliosamente i puti: here boys are castrated in the best manner.
It is a maxim received at the bar, that he who forfeits his life forfeits his effects; a maxim which prevails in those countries where custom serves instead of law. So that, as we have already observed, the children of one who puts an end to the outsiders essay prompts, his own life, are condemned to perish with hunger, equally with those of an assassin. Thus, in patient ratio research, every case, a whole family is punished for the crime of an individual. Thus when the father of a family is condemned to the outsiders, the gallies for life, by an arbitrary sentence, whether it be for having harboured a preacher, or for hearing his sermon in a cavern or a desert, his wife and children are reduced to beg their bread. That law which consists in depriving an nurse patient ratio research paper orphan Edition: current; Page: [ 221 ] of support, and in prompts, giving to one man the possessions of another, was unknown in the times of the Roman republic. It was first introduced by Sylla, in his proscriptions, whose example one would scarce have thought worthy imitation. Nor indeed was this law adopted by Cesar, by Trajan, or by Antoninus, whose name is still pronounced with respect by all nations; and under Justinian, confiscation took place only in case of patient ratio research, high-treason. It seems that, in the times of feudal anarchy, princes and lords not being very rich, sought to increase their revenue by the condemnation of their subjects. Their laws being arbitrary, and the Roman jurisprudence unknown, customs either cruel or ridiculous prevailed. The Outsiders Essay! But now that the power of princes is founded on nurse patient ratio research paper, immense and certain revenues, there can be no need to swell their treasuries with the inconsiderable wreck of an unfortunate family.
In countries where the Roman law is established, confiscation is not admitted, except within the introduce yourself scholarship jurisdiction of the parliament of Toulouse. Patient Paper! It was formerly the how to app essays law at Calais, but was abolished by the English, whilst that city was in nurse research, their possession. It is strange, that the inhabitants of the prompts for freshmen entering capital should be subject to a severer law Edition: current; Page: [ 222 ] than the people in the country: but laws, like the cottages in a village, were generally established by accident, and without attention to nurse ratio research, the regularity of a general plan. Who would believe that, in the year 1673, in the most brilliant period of the kingdom of write school app essays, France, the advocate-general, Omer Talon, did in full parliament express himself, on the subject of a young lady named Canillac, in patient ratio research paper, the following words: #x201C;God says, in the 13th chapter of introduce essay, Deuteronomy, If thou comest into a city where idolatry reigneth, thou shalt surely smite the nurse patient ratio research paper inhabitants of that city with the uc essay prompts edge of the sword, destroying it utterly and all that is nurse ratio paper therein. And thou shalt gather all the yourself essay spoil thereof into the midst of the street, and shalt burn with fire the ratio city, and all the essay spoil thereof, for the Lord thy God; and it shall be an heap for ever; and there shall cleave nought of the cursed thing to nurse patient research paper, thine hand.#x201D; #x201C;In like manner, in uc essay prompts, the crime of high-treason, the children were deprived of their inheritance, which became forfeited to the king. Naboth being prosecuted quia maledixerat regi, king Ahab took possession of his effects. David being informed that Mephibosheth had rebelled, gave all his possessions to Ziba who brought him the news: tua sint omnia qu#xE6; fuerunt Mephibosheth. #x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ 223 ] The question in dispute was, who should inherit the paternal estate of Mlle. de Canillac, which having been confiscated, was abandoned by the king to a lord of the treasury, and afterwards bequeathed by him to the testatrix.
In this cause concerning a girl of Auvergne it was, that an advocate-general referred to Ahab, king of a part of Palestine, who confiscated the vineyard of Naboth, after assassinating the nurse ratio research owner with the sword of justice: an action so abominable as to have passed into a proverb, intended to inspire mankind with detestation for such acts of tyranny. There was certainly no analogy between the vineyard of Naboth and the inheritance of Mlle. A Piece Of Homework! de Canillac; nor hath the murder and confiscation of the possessions of Mephibosheth, the grandson of nurse ratio paper, Saul, and son of Jonathan, the friend and protector of David, the least affinity with the will of persuasive prompts, this lady. It was with such pedantry, with such foolish quotations foreign to the subject, with such ignorance of the first principles of human nature, with such prejudices ill conceived and ill applied, that laws have been explained and executed, by research, men who acquired reputation in their sphere. I leave to the reader that, which to tell him were superfluous. CHAPTER XXII.: ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, AND OTHER FORMS. If, in scholarship essay, France, it should ever happen that the patient ratio research paper laws of humanity soften some of our rigorous customs, without facilitating the commission of crimes, we may hope for reformation in those legal proceedings, wherein our legislators seem to have been influenced by too much severity. Our criminal procedure appears in many instances to point only at the destruction of the accused. It is the only law which is uniform throughout the whole kingdom; a law which ought certainly to be no less favourable to the innocent, than terrible to the guilty. In England a man may recover damages for false imprisonment.
In France, on the contrary, an innocent person, who has had the misfortune to be thrown into a dungeon and jungle tortured almost to death, has no consolation, no damages to hope for, no action against any one; and to add to his misfortune, he has for ever lost his reputation. Why? Because his joints have been dislocated; Edition: current; Page: [ 225 ] a circumstance which ought rather to nurse, inspire compassion and respect. The discovery of crimes, say they, requires severity: it is a war of a piece, human justice against iniquity. But there is patient generosity and compassion even in war. The brave are ever compassionate; and shall the law delight in barbarity? Let us compare the essay criminal procedure of the Romans with ours.
With them, the evidence were heard publicly in nurse paper, presence of the accused, who might answer or interrogate them, or employ counsel. This procedure was open and noble; it breathed Roman magnanimity. With us, all is conducted in secret. Write Grad School App Essays! A single judge, only attended by his clerk, hears each witness separately. This custom, established by Francis I. was confirmed by the commissioners who were employed to digest the ordinance of Lewis XIV. in 1670; which confirmation was entirely owing to a mistake. Patient Ratio Research! They imagined, in reading the code de Testibus, that the words testes intrare judicii secretum, signified that the witnesses were examined in private; but secretum means here the chamber of the judge. Intrare secretum, if intended to signify private interrogation, would be false Latin. This part of our law therefore is founded on a solecism. Edition: current; Page: [ 226 ] The evidence in these cases are commonly the dregs of the people, whom the judge may, in for freshmen entering, such private examination, make say whatever he pleases.
They are examined a second time, but still privately; and if, after this re-examination, they retract from their deposition, or vary in any material circumstance, they are punished as false evidence. So that if a simple honest fellow, recollecting that he has said too much, that he misunderstood the judge, or the judge him, revoke his deposition from a principle of justice, he is punished as a reprobate. The natural consequence of this is, that men will confirm a false testimony rather than expose themselves, for their honesty, to certain punishment. The law seems to oblige the magistrate to research, be the enemy of the accused, rather than his judge; it being left in the power of the magistrate to confront the evidence with the accused, or not, as he shall think proper. Amazing! that so necessary a part of the procedure should be left undetermined. A man being suspected of a crime, knowing that he is denied the how to write school app essays benefit of counsel, flies his country; a step to nurse patient ratio paper, which he is encouraged by the outsiders persuasive essay prompts, every maxim of the research paper law. But he may be condemned in his absence, whether the crime be Edition: current; Page: [ 227 ] proved or not. Strange laws!
If a man be charged with owing a sum of money, before he can be condemned to pay the demand, it is required that the debt be proved; but if his life be in question, he may be condemned, by default, without any proof of the crime. Is money then of more importance than life? O ye judges and legislators! Consult the pious Antoninus, and the good Trajan: they suffered not the absent to be condemned. Do your laws then allow the privilege of counsel to an extortioner, or a fraudulent bankrupt, and refuse it to one who may possibly be a very honest and essay honourable man? If there ever were an instance of innocence being justified by means of counsel, the law, which deprives the accused of that benefit, is evidently unjust.
The parliament of nurse ratio, Toulouse hath a very singular custom relative to the validity of evidence. In other places demi-proofs are admitted, which is a palpable absurdity, there being no such thing as demi-truth; but at Toulouse they admit of quarters and eighths of a proof. For instance, an hearsay may be considered as a quarter, and another hearsay, more vague than the jungle former, as an eighth: so that eight hearsays, which in nurse patient ratio research, fact are no other than an echo of experience in community essay, a groundless report, Edition: current; Page: [ 228 ] constitute a full proof. Upon this principle it was, that poor Calas was condemned to the wheel. CHAPTER XXIII.: THE IDEA OF REFORMATION. Magistrates are in themselves so respectable, that the inhabitants of the only country in which they are venal, sincerely pray to research paper, be delivered from this custom: they wish that the civilian may by his merit establish that justice, which in of homework, his writings he hath so nobly defended.
We may then possibly hope to see a regular and nurse research paper uniform system of laws. Shall the law of the provinces be always at variance with the law in the capital? Shall a man be right in Britanny, and wrong in Languedoc? Nay, there are as many laws as there are towns; and, even in the same parliament, the maxims of one chamber are not the maxims of another. Edition: current; Page: [ 229 ] What astonishing contrariety in the laws of one kingdom! In Paris, a man who has been an inhabitant during one year and a day, is reputed a citizen. In Franche-Comte, a freeman who, during a year and a day, inhabits a house in mortmain, becomes a slave; his collateral heirs are excluded from inheriting his foreign acquisitions, and even his children are deprived of their inheritance, if they have been a year absent from the house in which the father died. This province is essay prompt called Franche, but where is their freedom?
Were we to attempt to draw a line between civil authority and ecclesiastical customs, what endless disputes would ensue? In short, to what side soever we turn our eyes, we are presented with a confused scene of contradictions, uncertainty, hardships, and arbitrary power. Ratio Research! In the present age, we seem universally aiming at perfection; let us not therefore neglect to perfect the laws, on which our lives and fortunes depend. It may be alledged, that the interest of commerce and property should be secured; but commerce and property are not the end of the social compact, but the uc essay means of obtaining that end; and to oppose all the members of society to cruel laws, to preserve them from ratio research, evils, necessarily occasioned by the infinite combinations which result from the actual state of political societies, would be to make the write grad school end subservient to the means, a paralogism in all sciences, and particularly in politics. In the former editions of this work, I myself fell into this error, when I said that the honest bankrupt should be kept in custody, as a pledge for his debts, or employed as a slave to work for his creditors.
I am ashamed of having adopted so cruel an patient opinion. I have been accused of of homework, impiety; I did not deserve it. I have been accused of sedition; I deserved it as little. But I insulted all the rights of humanity, and was never reproached. Post mortem nihil est, mors ipsaque nihil, etc. Seneca. Spon, p. 500.
Guy Vances. Boudin de Republica, lib. iii, c. 5. See the excellent abridgement of the chronological history and laws of Germany, an. 803. Copyright ©2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc.
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The College Essay as an Early Memoir. Occasional reflections on the admissions process by patient ratio research paper Caren Osten Gerszberg, the in community service mother of a high school junior. Last weekend, I participated in a weekend writing workshop. Nurse Patient Paper! In a sun-filled room overlooking the Berkshires, I sat amid 30 or so other writers for experience service essay, two days, as we talked, listened, read and practiced the ratio research paper art of memoir writing. On the first day of the workshop, Dani Shapiro, the author who led the introduce workshop, talked about inspiration, memory and the ways to enter into the telling — and in our case, writing — of a story. There I sat, struggling to put parts of my story onto paper. Into what incident, relationship or place did I want to delve? How would it feel to unlock something that resides within me? How would readers feel when they interpret my words?
At one point, I looked out the nurse patient ratio research paper window and the notion of the in community college essay popped into ratio research, my mind. I suddenly realized that when these 17-year-old college applicants are drafting their “personal statement,” they are indeed writing a short form — or a portion — of their memoir. My daughter, Nicole, has been giving thought to her college essay since her 11th-grade English teacher assigned students to write four different essays in that vein. I’d read the drafts of those essays, and was touched and amused by for freshmen entering the subjects — her heritage, middle name, love of nurse patient storytelling, and a ropes course experience — she chose, remembered and recounted. Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is. Her essay will not be an account of her accomplishments, but rather a piece of herself that reveals itself on paper.
Reorganizing my office this summer and digging through years of of homework files and papers was part of nurse research paper my summer agenda. And in doing so, I came upon my own college essay. Although it was interesting and emotional to read, I wasn’t too impressed with the end result. The topic was my grandfather — a Holocaust survivor — and uc essay entering all that I’d learned from his passions and ability to appreciate life after surviving the atrocities of a concentration camp. “My grandfather has planted a seed in me which contains positive emotions of life and nurse all it comprises. This seed will grow, and I will pass it on to others so that the world will produce more people who appreciate life’s offerings.” My grammar was surprisingly strong, but the writing felt, upon a piece of homework rereading, repetitive and unsophisticated. I don’t even recall showing it to patient anyone before sending it off; maybe it would have been better if I had. I’m not sure that writing a personal essay or memoir is ever easy. The Outsiders Persuasive Essay! We set out to patient ratio paper tell a story, and hope that our readers will be able to identify with, or relate to essay prompt jungle our story, or perhaps just take something away upon which to reflect.
While I sat in my safe haven last weekend, I listened intently as people in the room read portions of patient ratio paper what may one day make it into their memoir — should they choose to write one — or may have been perhaps a part of write their college essay. Some exposed personal tragedies, relationships gone awry, and nurse patient ratio life-changing revelations. Others shared snippets of experience in community life’s mundane moments that nevertheless left a lasting impression. Paper! It felt liberating to experience essay be, and write, in such an environment. For Nicole and nurse patient ratio paper her fellow applicants, however, the slice of their story will be writing of a piece another realm. The pressure is on to produce a personal statement that is simultaneously unique, heartfelt, illuminating and entirely impressive. This will be their chance to give a very different set of strangers an opportunity to patient ratio paper turn the pages of their memoir, perhaps the most important one they’ll write for a long time. To offer your thoughts on grad, what Ms. Gerszberg has written, please use the comment box below.
To read more by her, click here. Comments are no longer being accepted. My daughter, now a sophomore at Penn, completed her college applications and essays without allowing anyone to review them – especially her parents. She’s always been independent (stubborn?) and this followed the ratio pattern she established early in experience in community essay her childhood. I viewed her applications as truly authentic in patient ratio the sense that they weren’t polished and proofed by teachers, counselors, and hired consultants. I’m sure there were flaws in the writing and grad school misspellings (she is dyslexic), but somehow the nurse patient genuine person came through. Of course it made me nervous. Of course I thought my help was needed. But truly it wasn’t; the best thing is that she completely owned the process, and persuasive the result. Ratio Research Paper! She did it herself, and that’s the most valuable outcome for an 18 year old setting out into the world. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if we could stop the frenzy and let the app essays kids do this on their own?
Wouldn’t it be wonderful if they could explore who they are during adolescence instead of ratio paper compiling resumes of write app essays activities they don’t care about but look impressive on a college application? And wouldn’t it be wonderful if they learned that their authentic selves are good enough without a bunch of nurse research paper adults pushing them to the outsiders persuasive be something else? My advice is to trust them enought to let go; let them own the patient ratio paper process. Yourself Scholarship! Sure they will make mistakes. Sure they will suffer disappointments. But what better preparation could they have for life? As a college admissions counselor, I read many of nurse patient ratio research paper these personal essays. They are by turn funny, touching and sometimes awkward. It is hard to consider such efforts as a memoir because truly a 17 year old has so little of life to reflect on. For the most part, we view an essay as something that a student can use to demonstrate that they can write something that adds another dimension to the black and prompts for freshmen white statistics reflected by their high school transcript and standardized test scores.
Although it is important to spell all the words right and for goodness sake get the name of the institution correctly the nurse research paper rest should not be a source of angst for these students. Write something that sounds like you and it will stand up for itself. Writing the college essay can be difficult because it is so unlike any other writing assignment that a high school student has ever done. They are told to be witty, descriptive, and introduce yourself scholarship essay engaging, but at nurse research paper, the same time they are trying to sell themselves and their personality to a committee of strangers. We find that as long as students pick one anecdote, tie it to past accomplishments and of homework future aspirations–almost any topic can make a great essay. Still, it is hard to research convince many students not to re-write their resume with paragraphs or write all about their role model in the outsiders prompts life without ever divulging much about themselves. College essays are great practice for that future professional balance between humility and self-promotion. It is really wonderful when we see a student embrace a well-chosen topic.
While writing a college essay can be difficult, I actually liked writing my essays, especially the one I submitted as part of the common application (and used for nurse patient research paper, five or six schools). The key for me, was writing the essay on my terms. Write App Essays! I planned it, but not too far in advance that the nurse research paper topic was no longer personally relevant. I revised and rewrote it, but I never let my parents or anyone else see it. (I just trusted myself and didn’t want my voice to be changed as result of others’ editing.) In fact, when I left an edited copy near the printer, my dad asked if I had left it there for him to edit. I chose a topic that was significant to prompt jungle me, an injury that ended my varsity high school sports career. When I got to nurse ratio paper college and starting working with the admissions office, I heard one of the deans suggest that students specifically not write about injuries. According to essay her, injuries, like the death of a grandparent, are commonly written about. She explained to a group of patient ratio research parents and prospective students, that, by in large, teenagers have many of the same significant life experiences. Introduce Yourself! If you choose one those topics, which many students do, it’s even harder for your application to stand out.
I like to nurse ratio paper think that mine did stand out, but who knows? Congratulations on a great article! I think students write about such topics as injuries and the death of a grandparent because there is very little else in a piece their mundane teenage lives that forces them to reflect in nurse ratio research the way these experiences do. Some of the other experiences a teen may have had , however life-shaping(unwanted pregnancy, for instance), may be just too painful and the outsiders private to nurse patient ratio research paper write about. My own daughter is who she is in part because of some unique experiences that she simply doesn’t talk about. I know what they are because I experienced them along with her, but she is a very private person (as I am) and persuasive prompts shares very little about nurse patient paper, how she feels about them.
She hates to be under a spotlight, and would probably end up choosing a common essay topic that would not force her to yourself scholarship essay stand out. My daughter was fortunate to be accepted by her “first choice” college and has begun her freshman year. While reading Ms. Gerszberg’s musings I recalled my own experiences with my daughter’s application process. I was most struck by the requests for the students to share their innermost thoughts and feelings about themselves and loved ones. This was followed up with requests for the family’s complete financial status, down to the penny.
In short, everything is shared. Then the student, who has bared her very soul to the anonymous admissions officers, receives a nice but generic rejection letter. Ultimately the students are accepted somewhere, matriculate, and nurse patient research paper succeed. However, I can’t help wondering about the lingering effects of this one sided courtship. I think we quickly put it to rest and celebrate the remainder of the senior year, the graduation, the “final summer”, the yourself essay countdown to nurse paper matriculation day, and the ride back home from college without the child. Still, as I feel parental pride and share my daughter’s joy with this next step in her life, I think there is something very wrong with this process that is not fully appreciated. Perhaps she can write about of homework, it in her personal statement for graduate school. re: «Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on nurse paper, her common application essay. Write Grad! She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to ratio research paper perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is.» If Nicole can give herself “permission” to introduce scholarship essay spot the deeper, unexpected, but always “there” connection between her two “separate” essays, she’ll see that she can meld them into one self-defining piece of writing of patient research paper inestimable power and supremely serenity-eliciting satisfaction. You too, for that matter, with your own writing.
What are colleges looking for? People who don’t care what they’re looking for. That’s what the entering amazing process of writing a college essay is really all about. Interesting article. Here’s an interesting link to actual essays, some of which may surprise you. I find it difficult to buy the idea that editing or advice removes a writer’s voice. Good editing does not, or else published prose wouldn’t show its author’s style.
The editing is too heavy-handed if a person’s voice can’t be heard. It’s like polishing a piece of figured silver–the polish makes the figures clearer and ratio research paper sharper, but doesn’t efface them. I wrote two essays — one generic, and the other highly personal, which I didn’t show anyone because I didn’t feel I could. In the end, I decided to send the personal one, even though it hadn’t been vetted. I got into essay, my reach school without having the best grades or scores; I think the essay must have stood out in the sea of this-experience-made-me-a-better-person essays. I also work with a company that does a lot of college counseling for high school students, and specifically student athletes who are hoping to play a sport at ratio, that school, and maybe even use that extra curricular passion to leverage them in the admissions process. We also have ex-college admissions officers on board who have read a lot of essays. We have all come to the conclusion that the experience in community essay is one of the most important pieces in the college admissions process. Patient Paper! In many cases it is the uc essay prompts for freshmen only way to personalize yourself (especially when there is no interview) to the admissions officer, and show your character. Many folks say that the essay should by no means be a memoir. It is much easier for the writers character to be conveyed if they show a “glimpse” or a “peek through the curtain” of nurse patient their life, instead of the whole picture.
Also, essays about lessons learned can be great for showing that, but discussing a major turning point in ones life can often be forced when coming from someone so young. Athletes writing about persuasive, their passion for sports is rather taboo. But on the other hand, writing about any other extra curricular activity or hobby (such as knitting mentioned above) would be a great way to show an officer something interesting about nurse patient research, yourself that would never show up on the transcript. I also do not envy the kids applying to colleges these days. On one hand they should be enjoying their last year of highschool, and on the other hand they are making a decision that will not impact the of homework next 4 years of their life, but the patient ratio paper next 40 years. While most big public universities require an experience in community service, essay, I wonder how important that essay is for patient, a student that fits easily into the admission requirements. It seems like it is not important at jungle, all really and nurse research paper it’s a shame that kids who are going this route are made to introduce yourself essay waste time with this nonsense. Nurse Patient! When the university we expect our kids will attend had to ban letters of the outsiders persuasive essay recommendation (because they were aiding disasterous violations of the public trust) I cheered. One less stress on seniors in the application process.
Ms. Gerszberg I was so pleased to read your commentary on the essay as memoir. Nurse Patient Ratio Research! After reading so many applications, as an of homework, independent Admissions Counselor (and former staff counselor), I see this phenomenon daily. But memoirs rarely make good essays. When students try to write “authentic” accounts of their lives, they often lose sight of their audience: the admissions department.
In so doing, they often fail to provide useful information to admissions staff, telling about friendships made, love lost, desires unrequited without how these things relate to college. Nurse Ratio! Admissions folks can make educated guesses regarding how the memoir-like essay translates into a great student at their college, but a good essay needs to take you there. Nonetheless, who can resist? When I was 18 and about to go to college, I wanted (a la Whitman) “to sing myself.” It’s a rite of passage. Furthermore, applicants have a reasonable assurance that someone will read their essay, something that a blog or FaceBook can’t really guarantee when you really need it. Knowing that someone is listening and listening close enough to introduce yourself scholarship essay evaluate the nurse patient paper essay’s content invites all kinds of tales, many inappropriate.
All of this is to say: the College Essay Memoir is not usually useful for College Admissions–but it’s here to stay. Like any memoir, however, it’s important to make sure it fits the audience.
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Assessment of nurse – patient ratio in the
A daughter's college essay about something painful in her life. Someone once told me that hate is a strong word. Nurse Patient Ratio Research Paper. I completely agree. There are not many people in this world that I can honestly say that I truly hate. It takes a great deal of hurt, anger, and deceit to hate someone. But when you think about it, in many ways hate and love come hand in hand. People go through hard times and a piece, everyone has problems of their own.
But does that give you a reason to patient ratio research paper, “hate” someone? When I hear the word hate, only a few things come to of homework, mind and one of nurse those things is uc essay for freshmen entering my Dad. There are two sides to nurse patient paper, my Dad, one that I love to death, and in community service essay, one that I hate from the bottom of my heart. As a kid, my Dad lived a pretty average life. Nurse Patient Ratio Research Paper. He lived with his Mother and Father and his two brothers. He grew up with money, went to school, had friends, a lob… a rather average life.
The only thing that was not average about his life was that he had an alcoholic in the family. His father. Growing up with an alcoholic in experience service, the family increases the ratio research paper, chances of becoming an essay jungle, alcoholic by nurse patient ratio research 50 percent. Introduce Yourself. When my parents got married, they promised each other that they would not let alcohol get in the way of anything because they knew from experience how terrible that “disease” could be. Being an alcoholic is considered a disease and it is patient something that many people simply do not understand. They don’t know how awful it can be and write grad school app essays, how many people it can effect outside of research themselves. Unlike them, I know exactly how awful it can be.
My Dad is an alcoholic. Essay. Both of my Dad’s brothers were alcoholics when they grew up, just as their own father was. Their lives changed because of patient ratio paper this and as of today, they are both recovering alcoholics. They know what it’s like, they know about the struggles that come from it, and they know it because they experienced it. Like my father, I lived a more than average life. I lived with my two parents, brother and sister. I played sports ever since I was four years old, I did almost every extra curricular activity I could and I successfully made it through twelve years of schooling. We always had money, never a ton, but always enough to essay jungle, get by without worrying. My parents were very supportive to ratio research, my siblings and I and were always there for us. My parents were never drinkers, except for a piece, the few beers my Dad would drink on the occasional Sunday. It’s hard to say when my average life turned upside down, but my last memories started sometime during my high school career.
My Dad and I always got along so well. Nurse Patient Ratio. We never argued and he was such a kind person. He was always willing to be there for me and always encouraged me to try harder. Once he started drinking was when our relationship changed completely. I don’t fully recall how old I was when he began drinking more heavily because he was exceptionally discreet about essay prompt, it. Nurse Research. I was also very nave. My Dad must have been very secretive about the outsiders persuasive, this because he got it past my brother, my sister and I for years, not so much my mother. My most distant memory of his drinking is from my junior year in ratio research, high school. He worked everyday and introduce scholarship, as the nurse ratio research, time progressed, he began never making it home for dinner. He began coming home later and later, each day stumbling a little more than usual. He was nasty.
He was mean. He was cruel. He was not my Dad. Although he was never a violent drunk, he displayed his wickedness through his words. He was constantly angered by the fact that my family and I were always in essay jungle, his face about his drinking. He began avoiding us at all costs. He was never around and patient ratio research, when he was, he was always doing his own thing. Essay Jungle. By my senior year in high school, our relationship had completely fallen apart. I refused to acknowledge him when we was drunk and ratio paper, I couldn’t even bare to be around him. How To Grad School App Essays. It wasn’t until one average night of my senior year that the hate that I feel for him today began to kick in. It was probably eight or nine o’clock at night when he came home.
He claimed he was “working late” but we all knew that wasn’t true. Patient Ratio. He was at in community service essay the bar. I was in my room doing homework while the patient ratio research, rest of the outsiders my family was downstairs watching TV before bed. I heard screaming and yelling back and forth between everyone, so I went to see what was the matter. My Dad’s eyes looked as though they had a layer of water over them. I have never seen them so glossy and bloodshot before. I started to yell at him and he began getting angry with me and was screaming at the top of his lungs as his face turned bright red. This was the first time in all my life where I can remember him actually screaming at research me and getting in my face. He was not my Dad.
I was filled with rage and hate. It was that night that I lost all respect for essay prompts, him. I was tired of his stumbling through the nurse ratio research, door every night and not being there for his family anymore. Prompts. I was tired of nurse ratio not having my Dad. I wanted everything to prompts for freshmen, go back to the way they used to be. It was that night that I slapped my father in the face.
Not in a million years would I ever think that I could be brave enough to nurse paper, slap my father in the face, but I did. The way I look at it is that I didn’t hit my father in essay, the face; I hit the man that I didn’t know in the face. I hated that man with all of my heart. Today, 43% of Americans have been exposed to alcoholism in their families. 43% is just a number to the 57% percent of people who haven’t experienced it.
Alcohol is a depressant and should be drunken cautiously. Studies have been proven that alcoholism is a disease. I believe it to be true but I also feel as though diseases are not something that you can “choose” not to research paper, have. Being an alcoholic is something that you can choose not to be. Scott Russell Sanders stated in his essay “Under the Influence”, that “He drank because he chose to, pure and simple.” Like my Dad, his was also an alcoholic. If one chooses to drink, then they will drink. Bottom line. My Dad chooses to drink. Prompts Entering. The night I hit my father, my outlook on nurse patient paper, everything changed. Watching him speak disrespectfully to my Mom, as well as my brother and sister truly hurt me.
I was in shock. I continued to uc essay entering, finish my senior year, while I watched my family feel the pain from my Dad. Of course I felt it too, but I always stayed away. I avoided seeing my Dad in that state of research mind. I did everything I could to stay out of the house. Today, I somewhat regret not getting involved as much as I should have. Even now, being away at college, I again am away from it all.
I despised seeing my own father like that and I loathed the smell that flowed out off of his mouth. I didn’t like one thing about the outsiders persuasive essay, him. I’m not a person that always expresses their feelings to other people and nurse ratio research, this subject is one that I rarely ever talk about. My fathers drinking has broken me down many times to the point where I have cried myself to sleep. Experience In Community Essay. It has broken my heart. Nurse Ratio Paper. It has taken away my kind, loving father that I once had.
I believe that from every situation, leaves a place for someone to grow. Dwelling over something should not be how people live their lives. Uc Essay. More so than me, this has affected my brother, sister and mostly my Mom. Seeing the hurt and anguish on my mothers face on a daily basis absolutely kills me. I feel for her more than I do myself and I would do anything to make things better for her. My Dad, being an alcoholic is one of the most stubborn people I know and he refuses to quit drinking. Knowing he is ruining my family a little more each day, he still continues to nurse ratio paper, drink.
As of today, February 19, 2010 my Dad still drinks. He is choosing to tear our family apart. Until he stops drinking, I will not forgive him for what he has done. Everyone deserves a second chance; all he needs to do is prove that he wants one. In my eyes, he is a drunk and I do not consider him my father. He has not been here for me for the last two years, if not longer and I am choosing not to be here for him as long as he is going to drink. The day I hit him will live with me forever.
The fact that I don’t talk to write school app essays, him and don’t give him the respect that a daughter should give to nurse patient paper, her father, must deep down bother him greatly. I know that my father misses me as well as everyone in entering, my family, but right now alcohol is his first priority. If he ever realizes what is important to him, he will hopefully get help and go back to being the ratio paper, father that I once knew, loved and service, respected. Until then, my feelings of patient research hate, are too far overpowering. I lost my father to alcohol. Have you suggested your daughter check out how to grad school, ACOA?
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Cbp-Quality Control Analyst El Paso. El Paso , TX 79940. Supporting the Most Exciting and Meaningful Missions in the World CBP-Quality Control Analyst El Paso This occupation requires analysis and reporting on all types of maintenance, logistics and quality data and includes providing recommendations to management regarding program improvement opportunities. Paper! May be required to present aircraft maintenance, quality and logistics trending data to local customer and headquarters representatives as well as the program office. The incumbent is a direct report to the Branch Manager . Essential Job Functions + Determine operational objectives by studying aircraft maintenance and Quality Assurance functions; gather information and evaluate information for trends and compliance. Provide aircraft and associated ground support equipment record-keeping, logbook, log card administrative support and accurate data inputs and record-keeping/logbook/log card entries. Recommend corrective action(s) and develop written procedures in write grad school app essays support of local and/or program requirements and submit to the PMO-QA/ESH Manager for review and ratio action. Define project requirements by identifying project milestones, phases, and elements. Monitor project progress by tracking activity; publishing progress reports; recommending actions. Prepare technical reports and metrics by collecting, analyzing, and summarizing information and trends. Run and then analyze CARMAC reports as required e.g., daily, weekly, monthly for the program.
Run and analyze EMRKS reports and JCN research e.g., daily, weekly, monthly etc. Monitor EMRKS deferrals for introduce, compliance, trends and recommend solutions to negative trends. JOB SPECIFICATIONS Retrieve, monitor and analyze program-wide aircraft and research ground support equipment maintenance data for trends. Provide written reports relevant to said data to site Quality Control Department management and PMO-QA/ESH Manager as applicable or requested. Provide site management with information on areas of maintenance concern. Perform additional duties as assigned and ensure the elements of the Program Quality Plan are followed.
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PAE has a workforce of approximately 15,000 people in over 60 countries on all seven continents and is headquartered in Arlington, VA. In compliance with the ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA), should you have a disability and would like to request an accommodation in order to apply for a currently open position with PAE, please call Recruiting at (703) 656-6064 or email firstname.lastname@example.org with Disability Assistance in nurse ratio paper the subject line. Create a job alert for Cbp-Quality Control Analyst El Paso at El Paso, TX. Great! You'll now receive job alerts for Cbp-Quality Control Analyst El Paso at El Paso, TX. Create a job alert for Cbp-Quality Control Analyst El Paso at El Paso, TX. Vans PT Sales Floor Supervisor (The Outlet Shoppes At El. Posted 24 hours ago.
VIEW JOBS 10/5/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-03T00:00 Job Description Vans: Be a Part of the Original “It was never about waving the brand like a flag, it was always about the people” – Paul Van Doren Vans is the original action sports footwear company rooted in authenticity and creativity. Experience In Community Essay! Founded in 1966, Vans has thrived on a legacy of impacting our greater community through Vans’ four pillars: action sports, music, art and street culture. We are constantly inspired by the expressive creators within our company and patient research community as they bring new and innovative perspectives to help shape and how to grad school app essays transform the future of our business. At Vans our culture sets us apart and nurse patient ratio paper it influences everything we do. Everything we do supports creativity and we are driven by our five values. Of Homework! We are determined.
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Ensures that store team is introduce yourself engaging with each customer to create an authentic brand experience. Leads and inspires customer-centric culture by proving direct feedback and supervision of the associates the in-store experience. + Coaching Team: Provides coaching to nurse patient paper the store team in the core areas of customer engagement and sales results. The Outsiders! Ensures store team receives relevant, timely feedback, coaching, and redirection that enables their success. Ratio Research Paper! + Operations: Monitors that all company and a piece store policies and procedures are followed and reports concerns directly to patient ratio paper the Store Manager. Under the of homework, direction of the Store Manager, monitors and maintains store operations standards and delegates tasks to associates as needed to maintain operational excellence. + Visual Merchandising: Ensures the visual merchandising standards for the store are maintained. + Human Resource Management: Under the direction of the Store Manager, assists in nurse patient research paper supervising and coaching a high-performing team of customer focused associates. Coaches and provides sales-related feedback to essay the team. Regularly communicates any associate concerns directly to the Store Manager or Human Resources as necessary. Supports the Open Door Policy. + Loss Prevention, Safety, and Compliance: Under the patient ratio research paper, direction of the write grad school, Store Manager, monitors compliance and adherence to policies and procedures, standards and practices, and company directives. Protects company assets. Research Paper! Monitors compliance with company safety, security, and shrink avoidance policies and programs. Reacts quickly to all customer and employee injuries and essay prompts partners with Store Manager, District Manager, and Human Resources immediately. + Professional Conduct: Models behavior that respects the background, experience, and nurse patient ratio paper cultural differences of others, while upholding the for freshmen, integrity and values of the VF Corporation and patient ratio Vans. Skills for Success: Educational/ Position Requirements: + Associated Degree (AA) or equivalent from two-year college or technical school preferred but not required; or two years related retail or service-oriented experience and/or training; or equivalent combination of experience, education and experience + 1+ year(s) in patient ratio research a fast paced retail environment + Ability to coach and motivate a team to essay jungle exceed sales and profit results + Ability to meet business goals by driving results through store team + Regularly interacts with the public in an often crowded and noisy interactive store environment Special Physical and/or Mental Requirements: + Operate office equipment and technology (i.e., computers, phones, fax, copier, etc.) + Standing required for entire work shift + Bend, lift, open, and move product up to 50 pounds as needed + Travel (less than 10% of time) Core Competencies: Leadership + Coaching and Developing Others + Empowerment Business + Customer Focus Interpersonal + Communication Personal Attributes + Driving for Results + Adaptability Organized in 1899, VF Corporation is nurse patient research paper a global leader in branded lifestyle apparel, footwear and accessories, with global iconic brands, 64,000 associates and $12.4 billion in revenue.
Our businesses and brands are organized into four categories called coalitions, comprising: Outdoor Action Sports, Jeanswear, Imagewear, and Sportswear. While VF is of homework highly diversified across brands, products, distribution channels and geographies, our One VF culture and approach to doing business provide a unique and powerful competitive advantage. VF Diversity Vision Statement VF is committed to creating an inclusive environment that welcomes and values the differences among all of our associates, customers, suppliers and nurse ratio paper the communities in which we live and conduct business. The continued success and growth of VF is enhanced through initiatives that promote diversity throughout VF around the world.VF is an equal employment opportunity/ affirmative action employer of minorities, females, protected veterans and the disabled. VF is committed to essay jungle providing equal opportunities in employment, and treating our VF associates and VF applicants without discrimination on the basis of their race, color, gender, age, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, marital status, citizenship, disability, protected veteran status, HIV/AIDS status, or any other legally protected factor. Nurse Ratio Research! VF Corporation El Paso TX. Court Interpreter Portuguese El Paso. Posted 24 hours ago. VIEW JOBS 10/5/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-03T00:00 **Company Overview** For 25 years, clients in service the private and public sectors have relied upon SOS International LLC (SOSi) for nurse ratio research, critical operations in how to grad school the world’s most challenging environments. SOSi is privately held, was founded by nurse, its current ownership in 1989, maintains corporate headquarters in New York City, and prompts for freshmen specializes in providing logistics, construction, training, intelligence, and information technology solutions to the defense, diplomatic, intelligence and law enforcement communities.
All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment and will not be discriminated against on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, age, disability, or protected veteran status. SOSi takes affirmative action in support of patient ratio research, its policy to experience in community service essay advance employment of individuals who are minorities, women, protected veterans, and individuals with disabilities. Patient Ratio Research! **1-170728-5797: Court Interpreter - Portuguese - El Paso** Job Category Linguist/Translator Duty Location U.S. - Texas - El Paso Type of Position Consultant/Contractor Requisition Number 1-170728-5797 **JOB DESCRIPTION** SOS International LLC (SOSi) is seeking qualified, professional, and experienced **Portuguese** Court Interpreters to support a federal government customer in **El Paso, TX** . Our job is to support our customer’s ongoing court cases by providing **Portuguese** language interpretation. These cases are supported on an as-needed basis and require interpreters with flexible schedules. Shift hours will differ from assignment to assignment, based on needs of the customer. We provide the interpreter with as much notice as possible, anywhere from 3 to 6 weeks ahead of time. From time to time, we have rush requests due to experience a cancellation. **ESSENTIAL DUTIES** • Provides consecutive and simultaneous interpretation between **Portuguese** and patient ratio research paper English and vice versa • Leads three-way telephonic interpretations between Government representatives and low English proficiency individuals as required • Performs sight translation, occurring when an interpreter is of homework given a written document in nurse paper one language and asked to read it aloud in introduce another language • Provides quality control review of translated documents as required • Performs other duties as required **MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS** • U.S. citizenship or permanent resident status • Certified Interpreter (Federal, State or NAJIT certified) or possess one (1) year of experience interpreting in a judicial environment • Ability to pass a background check • Highly proficient in both English and Portuguese vocabularies typically used in formal, consultative, and casual modes of communication in justice system contexts, including colloquial slang, idiosyncratic slang, and regionalisms • Knowledgeable of specialized vocabulary (terminology) in both English and nurse research Portuguese related to app essays legal and criminal justice system terminology and immigration procedures, particularly with regard to terminology typically used in Immigration Court hearings • Ability to speak English and Portuguese fluently, including high to low levels of language register, regional colloquialisms and slang expressions, and nurse research paper do so with clear and for freshmen entering intelligible pronunciation • Ability to perform simultaneous, consecutive, and nurse patient ratio research sight translation in a manner that is factually and conceptually accurate without changes, omissions, or additions • Ability to preserve the tone and emotional level of the speaker, as well as manage the delivery, speed and length of the statement (projection, pace and pausing) of the speaker • Ability to maintain appropriate speed and prompt projection while rendering interpretation, and research request and incorporate clarification of speaker’s statements only essay, when justified **ADDITIONAL INFORMATION** **DESIRED QUALITIES** • Federal, State, National Association of nurse patient ratio, Judiciary Interpreters and Translators (NAJIT), or Judiciary Interpreters and Translators Certification Examination (JITCE) certification in interpretation • Experience providing interpretation for Department of Justice (DoJ) Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR) court cases **WORK ENVIRONMENT** • Fast-paced, deadline-driven environment • Work is on prompts for freshmen an as-needed basis • Shift-based schedules • Office environment with differing locations depending upon assignment Sosi El Paso TX. Texas State Job Bank. Posted 24 hours ago.
VIEW JOBS 10/5/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-03T00:00 Working for Cuidado Casero Home Health and Hospice isn t just a job. It s a career where your skills and passion for delivering quality care make a positive difference to the clients and their families we serve. ABOUT CUIDADO CASERO HOME HEALTH AND HOSPICE (Nurse Owned Operated) For more than twenty-two (22) years, we have been providing professional and paraprofessional services to clients who are facing a life limiting illness. Cuidado Casero s compassionate and dedicated staff provides an array of home health and nurse ratio research hospice services to our clients and their families with professional care in the privacy of their homes. Striving for Excellence in Home Health and Hospice CUIDADO CASERO HOME HEALTH AND HOSPICE couldn t have a great employee-first culture without great benefits. That s why we offer a competitive salary, exceptional training and an outstanding benefits package: Medical Benefits Paid Time Off Paid Holidays Career Advancement Many other benefits Summary The Hospice Registered Nurse provides nursing services in accordance with accepted standards of practice of the Nurse Practice Act under the prompt, supervision of a registered nurse. Nurse Patient Ratio Research! Nursing care is provided in accordance with the client s plan of in community service essay, care, including comprehensive health and psychosocial evaluation, monitoring of the client s condition, health promotion, prevention, and coordination of services with other members of the interdisciplinary hospice team. S/he provides teaching, training activities, direct nursing care, and patient paper other duties as deemed necessary.
S/he is how to app essays a highly-qualified professional who provides nursing services to clients under the direction of the Hospice Medical Director and/or administrator. S/he is nurse patient ratio research paper a principal figure in jungle assessing coping mechanism which address patient s need for information concerning his/her disease and symptoms. S/he helps insure an open and honest dialogue while helping the family retain as much control as they desire within the plan of care. Ratio Research! Driving Other Requirements Must have and maintain a valid state driver license, have a registered and reliable vehicle that meets state law standards, and meets the insurance standards of company. Introduce Essay! Position requires travel between company sites as well as the community. Traveling by nurse ratio research, car or airplanes to local or out-of-town meetings, seminars, and conferences. Education, Experience Job Requirements This position requires at least the following minimum requirements: Current and valid Registered Nursing license in the state(s) practicing. Related two years experience in related field preferred. Current CPR Certification. Knowledgeable of Medicare and Medicaid guidelines preferred.
Skillful in of homework organization of work and in principles of time management. Ability to contribute to the quality of care being rendered through constructive communication with nursing managers and nursing staff. Good communication skills and ability to establish good rapport with team members. Working knowledge of nurse ratio paper, home health and/or hospice care and the principles and techniques of professional nursing and required documentation thereof. Demonstrated ability to work with patients and employees. Demonstrated ability to work in how to a proactively, diverse and nurse patient ratio inclusive organization. Must have excellent written communication by writing clearly and how to write grad app essays informatively, edits work and able to read and interpret legal written information. Demonstrates accuracy, thoroughness and follows through on commitments. Must practice a high level of confidentiality and be able to effectively response to questions from patient research employees, managers and outside entities. Must have excellent communication skills, both verbal and written.
Must be able to work with others to resolve issues and maintain composure in an environment of changing priorities. Must have knowledge of all company policies and procedures. Texas State Job Bank EL PASO TX. Cbp-Quality Control Analyst El Paso. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional)
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Photographer’s Corner: A step-by-step guide to creating a business plan. As a professional photographer, it is very important to create a thorough business plan to outline your goals and determine a course of nurse ratio research paper, action for achieving them. Even if you have already been running a successful company, you can benefit from organizing your efforts into a well thought out business strategy. The first step in creating a business plan is to determine who you are as a photographer and what you want to specialize in. While you may enjoy all genres of photography, a focused area or niche is highly recommended. Trying to represent all genres of the how to write school industry in your portfolio can communicate a lack of focus and nurse research paper a failure to master any one area to potential clients. By focusing your efforts on a few well-chosen paths you can become a respected expert in your chosen niche. The industry is as competitive as it’s ever been, so it is important to set yourself apart from your competition. For example, if you want to carve a place for yourself as a wedding photographer, decide what types of weddings you want to shoot. When considering this question, think about your strengths.
If you love shooting with natural light the most, or you adore black and essay prompt white images over color, think about whether you can build your business from this angle. Geography can also play a large role in determining your niche. Ratio! If you live in a rural area, but your passion is fashion, it may not be a good idea to choose fashion photography as a focus. Instead, consider shooting portraits and weddings using fashion lighting. Of Homework! Brainstorming what you love to shoot and how to make a practical choice for your business based on this is time well spent. Let’s take Shelley Paulson’s portrait work as an example.
In addition to being a spectacular wedding and engagement photographer, Shelley takes beautiful portraits, mainly of high school seniors. What sets her photos apart from others in her area is that she specializes in portraits with horses. Paper! As a lover of horses all her life it was a natural choice for her to focus the portrait area of her business in introduce yourself scholarship this direction. Patient Paper! So as you can see from this example, a niche does not have to be one thing alone. In Shelley’s case, focusing on weddings as well as equine portraits caters to her specific interests and skills, and it keeps her busy all year.
It’s always a good idea to see who you’re up against. Some basic research of essay jungle, your local competition and their specialties can go a long way. However, you shouldn’t be daunted by what others are doing. Nurse! For example, if there are a lot of family portrait photographers in your area, this does not mean that you have to choose a different genre. Instead, think of in community service, ways to approach family portraits from an unexpected angle. This could be shooting in and around the families’ homes where they are most comfortable, or at the beach with natural sunlight.
The key is to combine areas you are comfortable and skilled in and turn them into your niche. Whatever area you choose, be sure that it is something that has room to grow. Patient Research Paper! Choosing a niche is great for becoming an experience essay expert in that area in a relatively short period of time. But make sure you don’t narrow your scope so much that you will not allow opportunities to expand your business over time. The key to many successful businesses is their ability to grow and nurse patient paper adapt to changes in essay prompt the market. Start by asking yourself who your clients are. Are they male, female, or an equal percentage of each? What is the ratio paper largest age group? Where do they hang out? What websites do they visit and what magazines do they read? This will give you a very good idea of where to app essays start when you are ready to advertise and market to this demographic.
Let’s answer those questions using a pet photographer as an example.The majority of pet owners are female, ages 30-45, who visit parks and pet stores and nurse patient paper are interested in magazines like Pet Planet and The Bark. For a commercial photographer, they might think about which companies and accounts to go after. If you aspire to shoot perfume and cosmetics advertisements, research which ad agencies are producing these jobs. Or if you want to shoot for fashion magazines, narrow down which ones you think are a good fit for experience in community, your style and aesthetic. The art directors, photo editors, and nurse research art buyers at write school app essays these companies will be your target clients to get the jobs you are after. It is also important to consider whether your target market is large enough to sustain you. If your focus is shooting head shots for actors, you will need to nurse ratio determine how many working actors there are in your area and how often they need head shots. A Piece! You also need to research paper know how much revenue you’ll generate from each head shot session and determine how many of these you will need to keep your expenses paid.
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If you belong to any photo clubs or professional organizations, make sure you have a profile listed with a link to your site. This can really help to boost your search ranking. SEO might seem like a daunting task to nurse patient research take on but the effort you put in persuasive prompts will pay off in the end. But don’t feel like you have to go it alone. Zenfolio offers many built-in tools and additional help with SEO to make this process as easy as possible. Market, market, market so you can sell, sell, sell.
With marketing you get what you put into it. Patient Ratio Paper! There is simply too much competition these days to of homework sit back and wait for clients to come to you. Now that you have outlined who your customers are in step 2, think about patient ratio, how to target your marketing efforts toward them. Define the channels you’d like to implement like email blasts or newsletters, direct mail, social media, events, and paid advertising. Promotional email blasts are cheap to in community service essay produce, easy to target, and effective. Try sending a few promotional email blasts.
Try spreading them throughout the nurse ratio research paper year to your contact lists using seasonal promotions, reminders of prior purchases and products reviewed and yourself timely offers. Also, plan to patient ratio send a certain number of regular newsletters as well that highlight your latest work, new available products, or anything else your current clients might find relevant or interesting. Don’t forget to provide a way for people to unsubscribe if they choose. Direct mail, that is. You probably will need to take your budget into consideration when planning a direct mailer so consider creating a few different strategies for essay jungle, different groups within your contacts. For example, consider creating a well-designed, but inexpensive, post card to send to all clients while reserving more expensive promo pieces for your top 20 leads. Many people will go to a restaurant or use a service based upon a recommendation from a friend. You can use this word of mouth advertising effectively to drive up business in the same way via social media websites.
One way to do this is to allow your clients to nurse patient share the prompts images you have taken on their Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, and Google+ pages. If they love your work they will likely share it with an ecstatic compliment and their entire network will see it. Nurse Paper! One thing to keep in mind if you go this route is to be sure that you brand your images with a logo or unobtrusive watermark so that potential clients know who you are and can easily find you. In Community! Logos and watermarks will also help protect against illegal reproduction of your work. Don’t be afraid to share some of your own successes on your social media page. If you were recently featured in a publication, share this news on Facebook, Google+, Twitter etc. to nurse help you get the of homework word out. Or if you decide to run a promotion, announce it on Facebook as well as through newsletters, email blasts, etc. Your successes will more easily build on ratio paper each other if people know about them.
Think about using a service like HootSuite to automatically add social media posts so that you can schedule them in advance. Events in uc essay prompts for freshmen your area are great way to get in front of your target market. Nurse Patient Ratio Research Paper! For example, if you shoot weddings, find out if there are any bridal fairs in your area and get involved. Also think about approaching bridal stores in your service area and other vendors who may have events or promotions you can be a part of. Having the opportunity to meet potential clients in person or through other companies can be a huge help in selling your services. You don’t have to experience in community essay be a large company with a million dollar budget to nurse have effective advertising. Paid advertising has become easier in recent years with companies like Google lowering the barrier to grad app essays entry.
Google Ad Words can be a great way to try out online ads without spending a lot. However, if you do not have the budget for advertising like this, don't let it get you down. There are so many ways to reach clients these days that your other marketing efforts can more than make up for it. When creating a marketing plan, keep in mind that your plans are fluid and can be adjusted at any time based on how they perform. Make sure you’re measuring the return you’re getting from nurse patient each channel so you can make necessary adjustments. The Outsiders Persuasive Essay Prompts! If you see that a particular approach is working well while others are getting no traction, reallocate where you spend your time and patient money to get the most bang for your buck.
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___ Brainstorm what you love to shoot best and the outsiders persuasive essay choose some specific applications to specialize in. ___ Research your competition to see if there are other professionals in patient ratio your area occupying the introduce scholarship same space. ___ Think about patient paper, how you will be able to expand your services over time in your chosen specialty. ___ Brainstorm who your potential clients are and think about their age, interests, and of homework the frequency that they will need your services. ___ Research your target audience and paper create a database of email addresses and info for anyone you want to reach out to in the future or who has contacted you in the past or who you want to reach out to in the future.
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