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California bar exam essay outlines

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NYU Mathematics of Finance program. NYU MSMF program is offered under the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Available programs of study: Full Time Masters in Mathematics in california bar exam essay outlines Finance. Part-Time Masters in Mathematics in tuck essay Finance (accept applications for each semester) Advanced Certificate in california essay Financial Mathematics. Leslie Greengard, Director of Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Peter Carr, Director of the M.S. Program in Mathematics in Finance.

Petter Kolm, Deputy Director of the cover letter for lab entry level M.S. Program in Mathematics in Finance. Jonathan Goodman, Chair of the Committee on Mathematics in Finance. Bar Exam! Full-Time Masters in Mathematics in Finance: February 15. Applicants are encouraged to submit their applications well before the deadline. Full time students are accepted only for a Fall start date. If you have been accepted by gsce essays another program with a deadline for a reply but would prefer Courant, please contact us, as soon as possible.

Space permitting, we sometimes are able to consider applications received after the formal deadline. California Bar Exam! Non Degree and Certificate program: August 1 for Fall, December 1 for Spring. 3-Day Crash Courses. Offered by adjunct professors. Courses Offered Fall Semester. 1. Derivative Securities.

2. Tuck Essay! Risk Potfolio Mgmt with Econometrics. 3. Stochastic Calculus. 4. Bar Exam Outlines! Computing in Finance. 1. Derivative Securities. 2. Risk Potfolio Mgmt with Econometrics. 3. Stochastic Calculus. Courses Offered Fall Semester. Fellowship Northeastern! 6. Credit Markets and Models(1,4) 7. Scientific Computing (4) 5. PDE for bar exam outlines Finance (3) 6. Int Rates FX Models(1,3,4) 7. Scientific Computing (4) 8. Ib Psychology Essay! Advanced Risk Management (1, 2, 4) 9. Continuous Time Finance (1,3) Courses Offered Fall Semester.

10. Time Series Analysis And Statistical Arbitrage (1,3,4,7) 11. Case Studies in california bar exam essay outlines Financial Modeling(3,4,9) 12. Computational Methods in Finance (7,9) 13. Project Presentation. 14. Answers! Fin Eng Models for Corp Finance (1,2) 15.

Algorithmic Trading And Quantitative Strategies (2,4) 16. Mortgage-Backed Securities and Energy Derivatives (1,3) 17. California! Active Portfolio Management (1, 2, 4) Under appropriate circumstances students may substitute more advanced courses for fellowship some of those listed above. Permission is granted on a case by case basis. California Bar Exam Essay! Click here for more information on degree requirements. Click here for cover for lab level information on rooms and instructors. Offered every Tuesday, Full-time students only.

Offered every Friday, Full-time students only. Focused on california bar exam essay, networking skills, behavioral/technical interview skills. Mock interviews for 1st semester students will be conducted by 3rd semester students before the dissertation completion final of the 1st semester. Tuition for 2012-2013 is $49,752. Tuition per point, per california essay term $1,272.00. Nonreturnable registration and essay services fee: First point Fall Term 2009 $433.00. First point Spring Term 2010 $466.00. Nonreturnable registration and services fee, per point, for registration after first point $58.00. In addition, international students who are on an F-1 or J-1 visa are charged an additional fee each semester.

All courses are 3 points. Typically, full-time students take 4 courses per semester. Michelle K Shin, Program Administrator. California Outlines! New York University. Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.

Graduate Enrollment Services. P.O. Gsce Essays! Box 907, Cooper Station. New York, NY 10276-0907. Being in california outlines New York is definitely a huge plus (networking, and life in the city in general). Ib Psychology Answers! GRE Math - 800 ; Verbal - 670. Why did you choose this program (over others, if applicable) I had applied to 5 programs - Stanford, CMU, NYU, Columbia and Princeton. Bar Exam Essay Outlines! Out of these, I got calls from NYU, Columbia and CMU.

I had an interview call from gsce essays Princeton but I had already accepted CMU by then so didn't go ahead with it. Bar Exam Essay! When i had to decide on my final choice, I was looking for certain specific things - a rigorous program, good professors, small batch size and tuck essay good industry connections. NYU - a perfect amalgamation of maths and computing, best professor pool who provide a good mix of both theoretical and practical knowledge, well designed batch size (ours had 26) and fabulous industry connections. What are the weakest points about this program? Stat: Stanford, Duke. undergraduate math major and started the program right after undergrad. CMU, cornell, michigan, rutgers. in the end it was a close call between CMU and california essay NYU, mostly just based off reputation of the two programs. But in the end, i chose NYU mostly because of its location. first semester 4 required core courses. second semester 2 core courses and 2 electives.

3rd semester you get more choices. i would recommend any course taught by marco avellaneda. Tuck Essay! it varies a lot. some professors were good teachers and really involved, but others can be difficult to learn from because they're just industry professionals who are obviously very knowledgeable but dont know how to teach the material. the first computing course is essay outlines, completely in java. you use a lot of matlab and excel in almost every other course. honestly, the career services didn't do much. NYU as a school has a wasserman career center that you may be able to get some on campus interviews for, but thats about it. its a small program so you get to know almost every one in the program and its definitely a very diverse group of people. the projects are long and tough but really prepare you well for ib psychology essay answers your first job. professors teaching ability can be very hit or miss. career services isn't all that great. you're pretty much on your own to essay outlines, find a job (but the reputation of the program is very strong so it will help you to tuck essay, get interviews just by california bar exam outlines having the program name on your resume) just started working as an options trader. In Photosythesis! Weekly seminars run by practitioners in california the industry and career workshops that talk about for lab level, how to write a resume, sell ourselves, organize contacts, etc. One-to-one appointments with career consultant are arranged weekly so that students can have their personal questions answered. First semester students will go through mock interviews before real interviews.

The adjunct professors are very busy since they work full time during the california bar exam essay outlines day. Gsce Essays! So they may not always be there when you need them. (But the positive side is that they may hire you back.) Students receive frequent emails from admin about various job opportunities, and on campus interviews can be arranged. We got jobs mainly through online application, corporate connections. Some students got hired by adjunct professors. The jobs MSMF students get are quite representative of roles in the entire finance industry, such as qr, desk strats, st.

A few students got highly demanding quant positions. A large portion of students are international students, mainly from Asia, particularly China. But the majority of these international students have done a undergrad or graduate degree in the States. Over half of the students are math majors, and most students have done dual or even triple undergrad degrees. Some students join the program directly from undergrad institution, while others holding a master or phd degree, in quantitative fields like physics, ee, cs, etc.

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Essay: Defining the scientific field and essay outlines, objectives of biomimicry. This chapter aims at defining the scientific field and objectives of biomimicry, including its proposal of viewing nature as a model, measure and pigments used, mentor. Furthermore, the california, overarching principles found in all forms of life will be elucidated. Concerning cities, an inclusive perspective, viewing humans and their creations as part of the larger ecosystem will be suggested. Various Definitions of Biomimicry. ‘Biomimicry’ derives from the Greek ‘bios’ meaning life and tuck essay, ‘mimesis’ to imitate. Outlines. The Oxford English Dictionary (2011) defines biomimicry as ”the design and production of materials, structures, and systems that are modelled on biological entities and processes.’.

A more specific definition is gsce essays, provided by the Merriam-Webster collegiate dictionary (2004), which suggests that biomimicry is ‘The study of the formation, structure, or function of biologically produced substances and materials and biological mechanisms and processes especially for california bar exam essay, the purpose of synthesizing similar products by artificial mechanisms which mimic natural ones.’ In practical terms, the tuck essay, field of biomimicry encourages and emphasizes the study of california outlines, designs, processes and systems found in nature, consequently applying these natural concepts to human innovation, as stated by the renowned biomimicry pioneer Janine Benyus (2002). The field assumes that nature has already efficiently solved many of the problems with which human society is gsce essays, confronted today. Benyus describes biomim-icry as the conscious emulation of nature’s genius. Furthermore, biomimicry proposes a change of perspective, away from bar exam, viewing nature as a mere source of raw materials and used, towards a holistic approach, realizing the potential of nature as a measure, model and mentor. In a nutshell, biomimicry is innovation inspired by nature (Benyus 2002). 2.2 Nature as Model, Measure and Mentor.

According to Benyus, the first step in a biomimetic design approach must be to use nature as a model by closely examining natural structures, functions, and california bar exam essay, systems and identifying methods to apply the findings to improve current technologies or develop innovative technologies. Ib Psychology Answers. Moreover, nature should be taken as a measure by judging the sustainability of outlines, man-made innovations by ecological standards. Gsce Essays. Benyus posits that after 3.8 billion years of evolution nature’s proficiency can be trusted more than any human perception of genius, as no human technology has had the opportunity of such extensive and comprehensive field testing. The third revolutionary concept biomimicry proposes is a new way of viewing and valuing nature as a mentor. Instead of attempt-ing to extract from the california bar exam, natural world to ib psychology essay answers, the fullest extent, future efforts should focus on learning from nature and assimilating its genius as far as possible (Benyus 2002). 2.3 Life’s Principles. In order to facilitate a deeper understanding of the most important lessons to be learned from nature, Biomimicry 3.8 (2013), a cooperation co-founded by essay Benyus, developed a design lens (Figure 1). Dissertation. The lens illustrates the california essay outlines, overarching patterns found amongst all species surviving and prospering on dr george essay, Earth, following 3.8 billion years of natural selection and subsequent evolution.

The six fundamental strategies of life depicted in the lens essentially allow long lasting solutions with maximal performance using minimal resources. As raw materials are becoming increasingly scarce, this long-term objective of sustainability, which has long been achieved in nature has become the outlines, most desired in gsce essays the human world. Furthermore, it can be argued that no human technology has yet managed to function nearly as efficiently as living organisms. Therefore, the only logical conclusion to california essay outlines, be drawn is that a successful imitation of nature is only possible when using the dr george essay, following principles as aspirational ideals (Biomimicry 3.8 2013): 1. Adapt to Changing Conditions. The first of Life’s Principles states that it is inevitable to modify behavior patterns, composition and appearance to ensure survival in changing conditions. Take for instance arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) that change their fur color from white in winter, to brown in summer in bar exam outlines order to perfectly blend in with their surroundings to facilitate hunting all year around (Russell and ib psychology, Tumlison 1996). 2. Be Locally Attuned and california essay outlines, Responsive. It is essential to letter technician, be locally attuned and capable of compensating for california bar exam, potential short-comings of the ecosystem. Dr George Essay. A biological example of this is how the Namib Desert beetle (Stenocara gracilipes) manages to survive in outlines an extremely arid climate by using fog as an alternative water source. The beetle’s bumpy back surface allows for the vapor to cover letter for lab entry, materialize as water droplets, which are then drawn to the mouth (Parker 2001).

3. Use Life-Friendly Chemistry. In Nature, a diverse assembly of california, producers, consumers and decomposers successfully evolved to create closed loops, constantly cycling matter. Thus, chemicals exist in quantities beneficial to all organisms. Dr George Essay. For instance, the nitrogen cycle ensures that nitrogen, which is vital for essay, all life forms on earth as a component of amino ac, is available in tuck essay adequate quantities. This is accomplished through fixation, converting gaseous nitrogen into a plant available form, assimilation, adsorption of nitrogen by california essay outlines plants, ammonification, through the for lab technician entry level, death of an organism or excretion of feces, and finally nitrification, by conversion from ammonium to nitrate by microorganisms which is then reduced back into its gaseous form, completing the nitrogen cycle (Johnson et al. 2005). 4. Be Resource (Material and Energy) Efficient. While the objective of conserving resources such as minerals is a relatively new idea in the human world, nature has learned the importance of efficiency long ago. A prime example of energy efficiency in the natural world is passive energy recapture, a mechanism which allows the moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) to recapture some of the energy they spend on motion due to their unique contract-and-relax action (Gemmell et al. 2013).

5. Integrate Development with Growth. Ideal strategies promote both development and growth. Bar Exam Essay. Furthermore, they guarantee a balance between the two, ensuring that neither falls behind. For instance, in a healthy ecosystem population growth never exceeds the expansion of suitable habitat. In contrast, slums are a prime example of human failure due to tuck essay, non-compliance with this principle. While the population in some cities increased exponentially, develop-ment was not integrated leading to california bar exam, insufficient infrastructure to support the inhabit-ants (Wackernagel et al.

2002). 6. Evolve to survive. Due to natural selection only the gsce essays, best adapted organisms survive in an ecosystem. Therefore, all life on earth is constantly evolving. For instance, rat populations in Germany developed a resistance to the anticoagulant rodenticides warfarin, bromad-iolone, which allows them to consume five times the california bar exam essay, normally lethal dose without dying (Kohn et al. Dr George Essay. 2000). California Outlines. Applied to the human world, this principle shows that just like organisms, all technologies should be developing continuously. 2.4 Holistic Perspective on Cities. Over the course of tuck essay, evolution, from living as hunters and gatherers in competition with other animals, towards a modern society, where interaction with the wild has become superfluous for many individuals, humans have come to see themselves as increasingly independent from california essay, nature.

Due to the spatial separation from the dissertation completion fellowship northeastern, natural landscape, this exclusive perspective is perhaps most prevalent in bar exam outlines cities, where more than half of the human population lives today (Grimm et al. Gsce Essays. 2008). Despite the unawareness of this fact, all human settlements utterly rely on well-functioning natural ecosystem processes to be inhabitable. All services provided by bar exam outlines nature such as fresh water supply, air purification, climate regulation, waste decomposition, and the flow of vital goods such as food undoubtedly constitute an inseparable relationship between artificial and ib psychology, natural infrastructure. Moreover, cities themselves are by definition ecosystems, as they consist of interacting abiotic and biotic components which create flows of energy and cycling of matter. This ecosystem interpretation is an inclusive one which perceives humans and their creations as a fully integrated part of the natural world (Newman and Jennings 2008). However, due to our exponential population growth, which goes hand in hand with excessive resource consumption and waste production, human civilization has doubtlessly become a very destructive part of it. California Outlines. The exclusive and severely flawed mindset that humans are separated from nature resulted in dissertation completion northeastern the view of california bar exam outlines, environmen-tal destruction as the obliteration of a self-contained object. It has become inevitable for humanity to turn away from environmental degradation, which is essentially self-destruction, and towards contributing to the continuation of life for completion fellowship, a sustainable prosperity. Urban settlements, the california bar exam essay, centers of for lab technician entry, population density and california outlines, all concomitant problems, offer the highest potential for the preservation of resources and remain-ing natural landscapes (Kinver 2015).

3 Mumbai’s Slums: Issues and Opportunities. While urbanization occurred rapidly all over the world in the past centuries, countries of the global South were particularly affected. Over one third of the urban population in the developing world, 863 million people are slum dwellers. Moreover, 40% of the population in developing countries are experiencing inadequate housing, malnutrition, insufficient infrastructure and lack of education and health services. Slums are the face of urban poverty in the new Millennium (UN-Habitat 2003). In India specifically, the urban population increased approximately tenfold between the years 1901 and 2001. The 400 largest cities are home to over 68% of India’s 1.2 billion, constantly attracting more people from rural areas due to diverse employment opportunities, despite the ib psychology, fact that physical infrastructure is highly inadequate.

As a result, the quality of bar exam essay, life and dissertation completion fellowship northeastern, the environmental conditions in cities have deteriorated rapidly due to migration from rural areas, increasing the gap between the demand and supply of essay outlines, infrastructure (Registrar General of India 2001). The consequences of failed urbanization are particularly evident in Mumbai, India’s largest city, which currently ranks as the fifth largest urban settlement worldwide. Ib Psychology. Slums are a direct result of the over-strained infrastructure increasingly struggling to support its population, which increased by 400% in the past forty years, exceeding the 15 million mark (United Nations 1996). 1,959 slum settlements have been identified with a total population of 6.25 million, forming 54% of Mumbai’s total population (Census of India 2001). In addition to their enormous number, the california bar exam outlines, urban poor occupy just 3.5% of the total space, leading to high population densities of up to 400,000 persons per km?? in some of the slum enclaves (Mahadevia et al. 2005). A vicious cycle emerged out of these demographic developments, as increasing destruction of the tuck essay, environment entailed even more overburdening of the infrastructural systems. The resulting shortcomings concerning water, waste and california, energy management and air pollution control will be discussed in more detail in the following chapter. 3.1 Insufficient Water Management Infrastructure. Infrastructural underdevelopment and mismanagement pose severe threats to public health and the local ecosystem. Many issues the population in gsce essays Mumbai’s slums faces can be attributed to the lack of adequate water management infrastructure.

The current state of these as well as the california bar exam, consequences of their inadequacy will be summa-rized below. 3.1.1 Lack of Water Supply. The consequences of insufficient water supply and a lack of sanitary facilities is an insistent example of the strong linkage between living environmental conditions and human health issues. The situation in tuck essay Mumbai is bar exam essay outlines, devastating: currently the 11.48 million population is supplied with 3,000 million liters of water per day, thus meeting less than two thirds of the tuck essay, estimated demand (Bombay Municipal Corporation 2000). This demand-supply imbalance has resulted in the imposition of water supply interrup-tions and unequal distribution among consumers from different social-classes. By comparison to the 135 liters per capita and day for essay outlines, those living in privately owned houses, the urban poor living in slums are apportioned only 45 liters on average, including water consumed by factories and other industrial structures in the slums (Karn and Harda 2002). 3.1.2 Lack of Sewerage Coverage.

Concerning sewerage coverage, it is dr george essay, estimated that only 45% of Mumbai’s population is connected. California Bar Exam Outlines. Moreover, dwellers living in informal, undeclared slums and squatters is almost completely deprived of this essential service (Ruet, Saravaanan and Zerah 2002). In terms of wastewater collection and treatment, despite the fact that almost 90% of the 2456 million liters of dr george essay, wastewater per day are being collected, only 109 go through secondary treatment while the remaining 2101 million liters of the severely contaminated sewage water go directly into the ocean or local rivers and california, creeks (CPBC 1997). Furthermore, looking at gsce essays, means of human waste disposal, nearly the entire slum population in Mumbai relies on the few public toilets and is often forced to practice open defecation. Out of a total estimated demand of 36,704 public toilet seats only 12,612 are provided, with over 30% of them being inoperative due to the extremely poor conditions caused by excessive use, as reported by Karn and Harda (2002). The same study revealed that over 90% of sewage produced by municipal councils and half of sewage produced by municipal corporations are not sufficiently treated.

75 per cent of outlines, Sewage Treatment Plants are lacking operational approvals due to inadequate facilities, while the few that have these are significantly overstrained (Karn and Harda 2002). 3.1.3 Consequences for Humans and Environment. The direct consequences of these immense infrastructural shortcomings are disas-trous. Dr George Essay. As water is known to be the foundation of all life, its contamination poses a severe threat to the entire ecosystems, endangering human and animal life. Large-scale testing of water samples from california essay, various creeks and rivers in Mumbai revealed that the water quality has deteriorated significantly between the years 2006 and 2007 at 70% of all examined locations.

Furthermore, not a single water body met the im-provement targets set relatively low by the government, demonstrating clear noncom-pliance with ecological standards. One particularly alarming example of pollution is the Thane creek, which separates the city of Mumbai from the Indian mainland. Pigments In Photosythesis. Here the bar exam essay outlines, deterioration has been most severe with a fivefold increase of pollution levels between 2006 and tuck essay, 2007, posing a serious danger to marine animals and microorgan-isms (Gandy 2008). In Mumbai, mortality rates from infectious diseases are 15 times higher than in developed countries. California Bar Exam Essay. Death rates from childhood diseases such as diphtheria and polio are 33 times as high, while malaria occurs almost exclusively in the global south. Almost all of these diseases are related to inadequate water management, facilitating the uncontrolled spread of diseases (UN-Habitat 2003).

Regarding Mumbai’s slums, it is estimated that water-borne diseases account for pigments in photosythesis, over one third of california essay outlines, all deaths (Karn and Harda 2002). 3.2 Solid Waste Mismanagement. Waste is undeniably a common by-product of human activity, and its environmen-tally friendly collection and disposal require considerable effort. While most developed countries succeeded in improving their models of waste management, conditions in the global south have deteriorated. In India, the amount of solid waste produced by cities increased eightfold since the early 1950’s. In the gsce essays, case of Mumbai specifically, the increase of solid waste outpaced the population growth. Waste production increased by california outlines 41% in tuck essay ten years, amounting to over 6000 tons per day in 2001, while the population grew by a mere 20% over the same period.

As a result, the city has been progressively unable to handle its solid waste, which gave rise to california bar exam essay, environmental and public health problems (Rathi 2007). 3.2.1 Insufficient Waste Collection. Waste collection efficiency is known to differ greatly amongst localities in gsce essays Mumbai, with slums being by far the least serviced areas. This is due to the fact that slums are not considered to be rightful recipients of formal waste collection services by the local government. Fortunately, the bar exam essay, waste management system is beginning to be extended to regularized slums that are recognized officially under the census. Nonetheless, the answers, city government’s neglect of waste collection issues in slums harms the entire popula-tion’s health as well as the california bar exam essay, environment. As a matter of fact, the tuck essay, theoretic borders between the informal and formal settlements do not prevent the spread of pollutants and disease caused by insufficient waste collection (Davis 2003).

Even if areas are provided with bins, they are typically communal ones, placed far apart along busy roads, leading to the creation of unauthorized collection points. The collection efficiency of Mumbai overall is california bar exam outlines, only about 70%, leaving 30% of waste on the streets and in essay the creeks of the city. It is estimated that the efficiency of waste collection in slums is significantly lower (Sharholy et al. 2007). 3.2.2 Insufficient Waste Disposal. The problems, however, continue after collection when the california bar exam outlines, waste is transported and disposed of, as reported by Davis (2003). It is estimated that over 90% of solid waste in cities are disposed of incautiously in open dumping grounds and landfills, posing severe threats to essay answers, the environment and outlines, human health.

While dumping grounds are normally found in dr george essay the outskirts, far from human settlements and water bodies to prevent harm, in Mumbai four landfills are located next to densely populated areas, creeks with sensitive mangroves, and the ocean. Another issue of the grounds is that they are only usable for 30 years, meaning that the largest dump, Deonar, has only 5 years of california essay outlines, use left, with no alternative site allocated yet. After the waste is completion fellowship northeastern, dumped at the landfill, it is spread evenly and covered with debris. The organic waste, which also constitutes a significant percentage of waste in dumping grounds, then undergoes natural decomposition, generating so-called leachate (Davis 2003). This fluid poses severe threats to the environment and public health and will be discussed further, among other hazards, in the next chapter.

3.2.3 Consequences for Humans and Environment. The consequences of california outlines, solid waste mismanagement are one of the major problems for tuck essay, public health and bar exam essay outlines, environment alike in Mumbai. Hereby, leachate, a fluid generated by the decomposition of organic waste, constitutes one of the greatest threats. It perco-lates into the soil and, if not stopped, contaminates the dissertation completion fellowship, ground water, making it undrinkable and poisonous for bar exam, plants, water organisms and humans. Tuck Essay. Moreover, flies, mosquitoes, and other pests which spread diseases such as malaria, preferably breed on the waste fluid, making the dumps public health hazards (Davis 2003). In addition to ground water contamination, numerous creeks along Mumbai’s 600 km costal stretch are polluted. As waste is essay, disposed of surreptitiously, entire mangrove forests have been destroyed. Mangroves are vital for functioning costal ecosystems, as their leaves provide the water with oxygen for aquatic organisms and fish to tuck essay, breed. Therefore, their destruction has caused entire ecosystems of the creeks in areas like Versova, Charkop, Gorai and Mankhurd to collapse (Davis 2003).

3.3 Imbalance of Energy Supply and Demand. According to the UN, about 1.5 million people, 25% of the world’s population lacks access to electricity in developing countries. With the outlines, world’s population growing at an explosive rate, energy infrastructure struggles to keep up with demographic developments, leading to immense structural deficits and a con-stantly widening gap between demand and supply in countries like India (Modi et al. 2006). 3.3.1 Energy Supply in Slums. It is estimated that 800 million people in letter technician south Asia alone are deprived of energy supply. Bar Exam. Although many of those live in outlying, rural areas, far from electricity generators, an increasing number is believed to live in slums. 40% of the slum dwellers and urban poor supposedly suffer from insufficient energy supply due to structural deficits. In India specifically, the supply of electricity has grown by five per cent yearly, while demand exceeded the supply by pigments used more than seven per cent.

Furthermore, although the average energy consumption per california capita in India is very low at 400 kilograms of oil equivalent, the poor have access to a mere 50 kgoe on average (Modi et al. 2006) The US Agency for International Development (2006) posits that due to the inadequacy and costliness of legal energy services, an increasing percentage of electricity demand is met through thievery, with half of all households in Mumbai obtaining energy illegally. Apart from the issue of insufficient supply, India generates over two thirds from thermal plants powered by non-renewable fuels such as coal, gas or oil, while only completion fellowship northeastern, a small share of five per cent is provided by renewable energy (USAID 2006). 3.3.2 Energy Demand in Slums. As mentioned previously, the demand for energy in India grew rapidly as the popula-tion increased, exceeding supply by over seven per california essay outlines cent. Pigments In Photosythesis. Concerning slums, the fact that energy is often obtained illegally by ‘tapping off’ through illegal connections, ignoring the safety hazard of outlines, substandard, uninsulated wires, demonstrates the pressing desire of the for lab technician entry level, urban poor to benefit from electricity. This strong demand stems chiefly from the necessity of energy for the improvement of business, home and community life (Modi et al.

2006). First, regarding domestic life, electricity is required for better illumination, cooking and refrigeration. A substantial fraction of slum dwellers is currently forced to rely on biomass or dung for cooking and kerosene or battery powered lamps for lighting, while refrigeration is practically unheard of. (Modi et al. 2006). From an bar exam economic perspective, adequate power supply is a necessity for gsce essays, the estab-lishment of new as well as the scaling up of already existing businesses (Modi et al. 2006). Therefore, the desire for safe and adequately paid work evident in slums where only a third of the population is employed is california essay, strongly tied to the demand for energy which is essential for the creation of jobs (Risbud 2003).

One of the tuck essay, primary concerns of slum dwellers regarding public life is safety. The absence of public street lighting facilitates criminal activity such as robbery, thus constituting another significant reason for the strong desire among the population for utility services to be extended to slums (Modi et al. 2006). 3.3.3 Consequences of Insufficient Energy Supply. The strong ties between the outlines, expansion of energy services and poverty reduction simultaneously signify that the lack of such services has serious adverse effects on the advancement of the slum community and the environment (Modi et al. 2006). The reliance on dr george essay, biomass fuel not only causes the environmental problem of air pollution, but also constitutes a considerable safety hazard, as fires in california bar exam outlines houses built from flammable materials get out of control easily.

In addition, not insulated wires from illegal connections pose a great risk of fire. In Mumbai, fires with energy related cause claim numerous victims and destroy large areas of slums annually. Tuck Essay. While causality figures are currently not available, a survey revealed that as much as eight per cent of slum dwellers in Mumbai have lost their home in a slum fire (Subbaraman et al. 2014). 3.4 Inadequate Air Pollution Control. In the following, the sources of air pollution in Mumbai, to some of which allusion has already been made, as well as its consequences will be briefly summarized. Hereby it is necessary to underline that all previously mentioned issues in Mumbai’s slums contribute to the problem of air pollution.

3.4.1 Air Pollution Exposure. Air quality in california bar exam essay Mumbai, and even more so in Mumbai’s slums, is alarmingly low. One way to measure air pollution is the assessment of the concentration of essay answers, Respirable Particulate Matter (RSPM), one of the california bar exam, most dangerous contaminants as they provoke breathing problems similar to those caused by excessive smoking. After exceeding the prescribed limit of 60 ??g/m?? continuously for the past ten years, RSMP levels reached 202 ??g/m?? in 2008 according to dissertation completion fellowship northeastern, the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (2009). A comparison to the RSPM of a cigarette, which emits 2 ??g/m?? under laboratory conditions, implies that city dwellers inhale the california outlines, equivalent of 100 cigarettes every day (Sudhir and Ki-Hyun 2010). Another important indicator of air quality are nitrogen oxides (NOx), which primarily refers to the toxic brown gas nitrogen dioxide. Dr George Essay. Due to its contribution to global warming and negative health impact, the reduction of NOx emission is california bar exam outlines, deemed to be particularly crucial, thus reinforcing the urgency of lowering NOx levels in Mumbai. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1998). The increase of NOx and RSMP levels from 2005 to 2008 and the prescribed national air quality standards, indicated by the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (2009), are depicted in figure 4. Another approach to the assessment of air pollutants is the Air Quality Index (AQI), which incorporates various pollutants and measures the concentration the tuck essay, population of an bar exam essay area is exposed to per hour, thereby indicating the risk of respiratory diseases. Gsce Essays. By this measurement, air pollution exposure in slums is california bar exam essay outlines, approximately 16 ??gh m?? compared to less than half in more affluent areas, at 6 ??gh m. Moreover, studies of exposure burden calculated as a product of population and daily exposure revealed that the slum population, which constitutes half of the population, bears 80% of the dr george essay, exposure burden (Srivastava and Kumar 2001).

3.4.2 Sources of Air Pollution. The National Summary Report (2010) of the Central Pollution Control Board conducted a comprehensive study of air quality in Indian cities. Its result with regard to Mumbai will be summarized in the following. According to the study, prominence of sources varies greatly depending on what pollutant is assessed. Road dust from unpaved roads causes almost a third of coarse particles (PM”), which are between 2.5 and 10 micrometers small. Perhaps unsurpris-ingly given that two thirds of the 40,000 factories are classified as hazardous, industry and power plants emits over 20% of PM” (World Bank 1997). Bar Exam. Open burning of landfills, the most common method of waste disposal, as discussed earlier, is the third most prominent source of PM” at about eight per cent.

Regarding nitrogen oxides (NOx), industrial activities account for roughly half of all air pollution, area sources for 40% and vehicles for the remaining 10%. Fellowship Northeastern. As a category of area sources, domestic combustion emits 13% of the total, while landfill burning contributes less than a per cent. 3.4.3 Public Health Impact. The growing impact of california outlines, air pollution poses a severe danger to dr george essay, the environment as well as the citizens of Mumbai, already noticeable in the very high incidence of chronic respiratory problems (World Bank 1997). Hereby, particulate pollutants like RSPM and PM” are estimated to be the bar exam outlines, deadliest form of air pollution, as their small size allows them to penetrate deep into the lungs, causing permanent mutations of genetic material, heart attacks, and even death (US EPA 2010). Gsce Essays. A study conducted in nine European countries proves this claim by revealing that in fact no level of particulate matter is safe, and that with increase of 10 ??g/m’ in PM” the lung cancer rate rises directly proportional by 22% (Raaschou-Nielsen et al. 2013). Bar Exam Outlines. These numbers are all the more alarming when conveyed to Mumbai, where the for lab entry, level of bar exam outlines, air pollution is several times higher than in the most polluted European cities. As a result of the disastrous air quality, it is estimated that over 900.000 slum dwellers suffer from asthma, represent-ing almost 10% of the total inner city population. In addition, 220.000 cases of bronchi-tis in children, primarily in letter for lab entry slums, were reported (Srivastava and Kumar 2001). 4 A Biomimetic Approach to bar exam, Slum Redevelopment.

Mumbai’s infrastructure, much like most of dr george essay, today’s major infrastructural systems, was designed by california bar exam very limited human insight and currently fails to encapsulate the gsce essays, compre-hensive information provided by nature’s genius. Bar Exam Essay. Due to essay answers, the false presumption of outlines, human-designed systems being superior, ingrained since the Industrial Revolution, the impact of this incorrect perception was not recognized as a menace to humanity until the effects of environmental pollution and structural deficits lead to serious socioeco-nomic crisis (Biggs at al. 2008). Mumbai’s slums are a particularly salient example of solely man-made systems’ incapability to deliver their intended functions in tuck essay the face of today’s challenges, as described in detail in the previous chapter. As traditional methods of redevelopment have so far failed to california bar exam, improve the poor conditions in Mumbai’s slums, biomimetic technologies, which are inherently economically and environmentally sustainable, show great potential. Gsce Essays. Following this reasoning, biomimetic approaches which address infrastructural issues pervasive in Mumbai’s slums will be presented as potential redevelopment option below. For the purpose of this paper, the focus hereby will be on water, energy and waste management infrastructure and california bar exam essay, the active improvement of air quality by applying biomimetic technologies.

4.1 Bimimicry in Water Management Infrastructure. Appalling conditions like those in the slums of Mumbai undoubtedly necessitate innovative technologies for pigments, the sourcing and treatment of water. Bar Exam. Many successes in this field reached this goal by ib psychology looking at nature through biomimicry for inspiration, and could improve the health condition of slum dwellers while simultaneously alleviating environmental issues. California Bar Exam Essay. Some selected biomimetic technologies which might accomplish this will be described in the following. 4.1.1 Biomimicry in used in photosythesis Fresh Water Sourcing. The decreasing availability of clean water, a good essential to human and all other life, poses one of the most critical challenges facing 21st Century society, in california bar exam which one-fifth of the world’s population is living in areas where water is in short supply (United Nations). In Mumbai, specifically, lack of drinking water supply is an especially burdensome problem, responsible for gsce essays, thousands of essay outlines, deaths due to water-borne diseases and polluted drinking water, as discussed in chapter 3.1.2. One of the most innovative approaches to fresh water sourcing resulted from the study and emulation of the essay, Namibian Desert beetle (Stenocara gracilipes). The beetle is found in extremely arid deserts, where less than one inch of california bar exam essay outlines, rainfall per year is the norm. These incredibly hostile conditions require a different approach to tuck essay, allow sufficient hydration, which the Namibian Desert beetle has doubtlessly mastered. It does so by utilizing the bar exam essay, frequent morning fog, which is the only reliable water source in the desert.

The Stenocara beetle buries itself under the ground during the ib psychology essay, heat of the day in order to maintain a relatively cool temperature until the essay, night. Gsce Essays. When the damp morning breeze from the ocean arrives in the morning, it comes out of the sand and climbs to the top of a mound. It positions itself with its body angled at 45. its head facing upwind, and its hard, bumpy outer wings spread against the humid breeze. Tiny water droplets, only 15 to 20 ??m in diameter, from the fog condense on its wings where they stick to hydrophilic bumps, surrounded by waxy, hydrophobic, water repelling channels. The droplets flatten as they touch the hydrophilic protuberances, creating a larger surface for other droplets to attach to and preventing them from bar exam essay, being blown away by wind. Accumulation continues until the droplet grows to roughly 5 mm in diameter; at that point the beetle tilts its back and the droplets run down the hydrophobic channels and directly into its awaiting mouth. (Parker et al. 2001). Inspired by this process, engineers have developed artificial water collectors in various forms which follow the same principle. NBD Nano, a start-up company of pigments used in photosythesis, four recent college graduates have developed a selffilling water bottle and aspire to improve drinking water availability in developing countries with their inventions (Owano 2012).

This technology could alleviate the issue of contaminated drinking water and push back water-borne diseases in slums, as Mumbai’s humid climate is likely to allow for the harvesting of the maximum amount of three liters per hour, the bottle is capable of. Moreover, the same technology could potentially be integrated into bar exam outlines, buildings for more efficient, large-scale application. Another approach to fresh water sourcing is the used, desalination of ocean water. As only 2.5% of all water on earth is drinkable fresh water, with reserves declining, desalina-tion technologies which remove dissolved salts from saline water are estimated to rapidly gain importance. However, current technologies are energy and outlines, cost intensive, and thus do not yet provide a real alternative to traditional water sources. Especially when compared to biological membranes, their inferiority and inefficiency becomes apparent. (Kaufman and Freger 2011). Therefore, scientists have sought to accomplish a similarly fast and selective water transport as found in cover cell membranes by imitating their design, with considerable success. Biomimetic membranes for water purification have proved to enable higher salt rejection and a faster water flow at significantly lower driving pressures than traditional, non-biomimetic membranes, reducing the otherwise high cost of desalina-tion. Applied on a larger scale, it is estimated that biomimetic membranes would cost up to 88% less than currently implemented methods, representing potential savings of about $ 1.5 million p.a. for a desalination plant with a capacity of 100 ML/day. These reduction of cost make this biomimetic method of fresh water sourcing especially promising for essay outlines, Mumbai, which must take economic aspects into account as well. Moreover, the millions of cubic meters of ocean water surrounding the gsce essays, coastal city of california bar exam essay outlines, Mumbai provide the ideal conditions for desalination (Rempe 2011).

4.1.2 Biomimicry in Waste Water Treatment. Regarding the pigments used, treatment of sewage water, another serious shortcoming in california Mumbai’s slums, riparian forests along stream sides which act as natural filters by absorbing sediments and transforming excess nutrients and other pollutants. For instance, up to 90% of nitrogen and up to 50% of phosphorus are removed (Klapproth et al. 2009). Australian scientists have sought to imitate the complex interaction of organic and inorganic compounds responsible for the water purification in the form of a more efficient, biomimetic sewage treatment system. The result of their observations is a tank containing an ecosystem of fellowship, beetles, worms and microbes which transfer solid waste into essay, humus that is subsequently used to filter wastewater.

Unlike traditional sewage facilities, the Biolytix system does not necessitate aeration devices, which are normally used to pigments used, pump oxygen, vital for the microorganisms which break down the pollutants in the wastewater. Therefore, by essay outlines letting a natural ecosystem purify sewage water, the operating energy cost is reduced by over 90%. Moreover, Biolytix tanks only require one annual service versus three to four in traditional wastewater systems, reducing the costs and facilitating maintenance. Concerning the installation of Biolytix, initial investment is low as well, with a cost reduction of 50% in comparison to typical gravity sewerage systems (Fermanian Business and Economic Institute 2010). With regard to the suitability of Biolytix for Mumbai’s slums, it can be noted that the construction of an adequate traditional sewer system is estimated to be difficult, due to ocean water corroding metal pipes and the enormous effort and cost it would entail in cover entry such densely populated areas. Therefore, the fact that the Biolytix system can be installed on site and function decentralized without the need for a highly complex system of pipes is an bar exam essay outlines additional advantage (FBEI 2010). Altogether, it can be said that the low initial investment and running cost of the Biolytix System make it a credible biomimetic alternative to traditional methods to improve the sewage situation, alleviating environmental and public health issues. 4.2 Biomimicry in Solid Waste Management. While the gsce essays, adaptation of specific biomimetic technologies would presumably prove satisfactory in the fields of water and energy infrastructure redevelopment as well as air pollution control, the failed system surrounding the production and disposal of bar exam essay outlines, waste necessitates a complete revolution, as demonstrated by the poor conditions it caused in Mumbai’s slums. A crucial step towards a successful redevelopment of waste management is to tuck essay, move away from narrow, partial analysis and towards a holistic, system perspective.

A biomimetic way of achieving this is california bar exam, industrial ecology, which analyses non-human, natural ecosystems as models for industrial activity. Instead of viewing industrial firms and enterprises as the main destructors of the environment, their potential to act as agents for environmental improvement is recognized. Industrial activity is brought out of isolation and placed in the context of gsce essays, its surrounding, larger ecosystems. Industrial ecology, in a nutshell, endeavors to unite industry, which possesses immense techno-logical expertise, highly valuable for the environmentally informed production of goods and design of processes, and the genius of natural ecosystems to achieve resilience and sustainability (Ayres R. U. and bar exam essay, Ayres L. 2002). Benyus (2002) sees one of the primary factors which differentiates the human economy and the natural ecosystem in the fact, that in gsce essays nature, the augmentation of biomass is proportional to the creation of more recycling loops, in order to prevent the system from essay, collapsing on itself. By contrast, anthropogenic production lines solely convert virgin raw materials to gsce essays, unusable waste.

As resources are limited and will be exhausted eventually, she identifies an urgent need to california outlines, transform the current cradle-to-grave system to an industrial ecosystem and pigments in photosythesis, a zero waste economy by mimicking the way natural systems’ reuse of all materials. In accordance with the principle of industrial ecology, Benyus (2002) advocates an approach which prefers the creation of comparatively larger amounts of ‘wanted waste’ over california essay, the production of less, but unusable waste which must be burned or landfilled. While the human economy currently operates primarily linear, nature’s diverse assembly of producers, consumers and decomposers successfully evolved to create a constant cycling of matter. Therefore, the current system of producers and consumers must be supplemented with a sufficient amount of composers to gsce essays, close the cycle and ultimately create a system where waste does not exist. What sounds rather utopian, is already fully implemented in the city of california, Kalundborg, Denmark, where an industrial ecosystem was developed in the 1960s. Dr George Essay. Enterprises cooperate by buying and selling waste products from outlines, and to each other forming a closed cycle of industrial production. The local thermal power plant pumps its waste steam to the nearby refinery and a pharmaceutical plant, where the slightly lower heat sufficiently powers their engines. Subsequently, another pipeline supplies 3,500 homes with the cover technician entry, remaining waste steam for heating. In addition to the cycling of waste steam, the power plant provides a fish farm with its now adequately warm cooling water, while nitrogen-rich slurry, a byproduct at the pharmaceutical plant, serves as fertilizer for wheat fields (Benyus 2002). Mumbai, where 40% of Indian domestic production originates and which is frequently labeled as the commercial capital of India, is predestined to adapt a similar model.

In the slums specifically, several waste producing enterprises, such as the california bar exam essay outlines, large chemi-cals and dr george essay, pharmaceutical industry, thermal power plants, and basic engineering and metal producers are located in immediate proximity (Risbud 2003). Bar Exam Outlines. Hence, ideal preconditions are given for a collaboration modeled after the industrial ecosystem in Kalundborg, significantly alleviating the problems discussed in chapter 3.3. 4.3 Biomimicry in Energy Infrastructure Systems. The improvement of Mumbai’s energy infrastructure has an especially high priority, as it serves as a gateway for further socioeconomic developments (Modi et al. 2006).

In order to successfully develop a sufficient energy infrastructure system, it is crucial to establish a balance between the letter for lab level, demand and supply of energy by increasing productiv-ity and usage efficiency simultaneously. Renewable energy provides an effective and environmentally resilient mean to accomplish this. In recent years, engineers have gone even further by not only imitating nature’s idea of renewable energy, but also attempted to imitate natural structures in order to generate and consume electricity more efficiently. Some of the california bar exam essay, most promising biomimetic technologies which could significantly alleviate the problems of insufficient energy supply in Mumbai’s slums will be presented below. 4.3.1 Increasing Energy Efficiency. Before identifying methods to generate energy in accordance with nature, it is essential to in photosythesis, identify ways to improve domestic and industrial energy efficiency, in order to reduce demand. One biomimetic way to accomplish this is the imitation of the design of a termite mound to create passive cooling buildings, greatly reducing the california bar exam essay outlines, need for cover letter for lab entry level, energy consuming air-conditioning. Termite mounds are equipped with a series of strategical-ly placed vents that produce convection currents which help maintain a temperature between 30 and 32 degrees Celsius.

This concept was integrated into buildings in hot climate around the world, as it allows significant energy savings. The most famous example is the Eastgate center in Harare, which is known for consuming less than a tenth of an equally sized conventional building, due to california bar exam essay outlines, natural ventilation inspired by termite mounds being its primary cooling method (cf. Tuck Essay. Holbrook et al. 2010). While the maintenance of a bearable temperature indoors might not appear to be the most pressing of issues faced by california bar exam slum dwellers at first glance, a report released by the U.S.

Agency for International Development (2006) lists fans as one of the priority uses of electricity in Indian slums. This is essay answers, necessitated by california bar exam the need for repelling mosquitoes, which transmit malaria and other dangerous diseases, in hot seasons. 4.3.2 Biomimetic Energy Generation. Concerning the improvement of energy generation and cover letter entry level, supply, the U.S. Agency for International Development (2006) supports the thesis that on-site distributed genera-tion in slums is more economically feasible than the expansion of traditional services would be. Renewable energy lends itself excellently to the implementation of bar exam outlines, distrib-uted power systems, as it can be easily generated modularly and decentralized, as the tuck essay, following examples of biomimetic technologies will demonstrate. Contrary to california bar exam outlines, human civilization which predominantly generates energy from non-renewable, ‘cradle-to-grave’ resources like fossil fuels, the primary source of energy in the natural world is sunlight.

Mumbai, with its over 2500 hours of sunshine per year, would be ideal for the use of solar power (Indian Metrological Department 2008). Attempts have been made to extract energy from this inexhaustible source using various methods including the photovoltaic panels as well as tracking systems that follow the sun’s course, mimicking the way the sunflower maximizes its energy generation (Riechers 2012). One of the nature’s most efficient means of energy production, photosynthesis, a process which involves the separation of water into hydrogen and oxygen atoms allowing for efficient harvesting and storage of solar energy, is deemed to be the most desirable to replicate. Cover Technician. However, despite strong efforts to recreate this process for human use, no technology has yet accomplished enough efficiency to allow large-scale application (Benyus 2002). But that might soon change, as scientists at Stanford have developed materials to help make hydrogen, a gas which has the potential of replacing fossil fuels.

The process, again copied from plants, uses sunlight to induce a chemical reaction that creates the california essay outlines, gas, which is derived from water and materializes to pure water again when burned as a fuel. The newly developed materials are the first to split water into hydrogen and oxygen successfully, but unfortunately corrode quickly. Therefore, although it is more efficient than anything comparable before, the system will not be economical until it will be operable for at least five years (Bullis 2013). Another source of renewable energy is the ocean, as the waves are in gsce essays constant motion which can be converted to electricity. Unfortunately, all currently operational Wave Energy Converters, which cope with this task, encounter difficulties in stormy sea. The enormous force of the bar exam, water masses often damages the wave power plants, rendering their performance uneconomic. Pigments In Photosythesis. The Australian company BioPowerSystems, however, has designed innovative wave converters called bioWAVE, mounted on sea beds, which manage to overcome this problem through biomimicry.

Inspired by marine vegetation such as giant kelp, the system avoids extreme wave conditions by changing into a sheltered position horizontal to bar exam essay outlines, the ocean floor. Thereby potential dangers are eliminated, granting high durability for an economically and essay answers, environmentally sustaina-ble method of california bar exam outlines, biomimetic energy harvesting (Australian Trade Commission 2010). This biomimetic technologies, too, would be applicable in Mumbai, which is surrounded by the Indian Ocean. In fact, the location is ideal for wave energy generation, as the problem of dissertation completion fellowship northeastern, storage and essay outlines, transportation of electricity would be eliminated with such a large consumer right at the coast. Increasing the efficiency of already common renewable energy technologies is another major point of interest, capable of cover letter entry, improving living and environmental conditions in Mumbai’s slums, which could be accomplished by looking at nature as a measure, model, and mentor. An example where the bar exam outlines, application of entry, biomimetic principles significantly increased efficiency was the development of more efficient aero-dynamic wind turbines, inspired by the fins of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). The upper edge of the whale’s flipper is framed by a series of bumps that allow it to make very tight turns due to outstanding fluid dynamics compared to smooth edged flippers. Engineers have applied this concept to wind turbines achieving more reliability when winds are light, better performance in turbulent weather and bar exam, an increase in efficiency by almost half (Fish 2011). Wind energy, especially in the form of improved biomimetic generators, is especially suitable for application in a distributed power system, as it can be produced by small-scale wind turbines on site. This theory was successfully put into practice in an isolated community called EL Alumbre in Peru, as described by Ferrer-Marti et al. (2010).

As the dispersed nature of El Alumbre prohibited the dr george essay, extension of the california bar exam outlines, general electrical grid to supply its population, a micro electrification system served as an excellent alternative. At $US 3, the monthly tariff for each household equipped with a 100 W turbine was 60% lower than the previous expenditures for other energy source like kerosene or candles. Although the slums in Mumbai might not be isolated in terms of distance, the immense infrastructural deficits and their reasons, discussed in tuck essay chapter 3.3, similarly hinder the expansion of traditional grid systems. Essay Outlines. Thus, adapting an on-site distributed generation system comparable to the one in Peru, but with the inclusion of solar and wave energy in order to meet the higher demand, would presumably solve the problem imbalance between demand and supply in Mumbai’s slums. 4.4 Biomimetic Air Quality Improvement. Although the biomimetic technologies addressing problems of infrastructure misman-agement, presented above, would certainly entail a significant improvement of air quality, the extent of tuck essay, air pollution in Mumbai’s slums would presumably require active air purification. Two methods of achieving this, bioremediation which exploits micro-organisms in order to reduce environmental pollution, and its biomimetic successor, an imitation of california outlines, these processes imbedded in cement, will be discussed in gsce essays the following. 4.4.1 Bioremediation of california essay, Air Pollution. Bioremediation is an application of biotechnology which describes the process of exploiting biological agents to answers, reduce the environmental burden of toxins caused by human activity. Essay Outlines. Hereby, pollutants serve microorganisms, which are used primarily in bioremediation, as nutrients and energy source (Srivastava and dissertation fellowship northeastern, Kumar 2011).

While this biological treatment process has found wide-scale application in solid waste and sewage water treatments for centuries, efforts devoted to the control of air pollution are relatively new. Stringent regulations of emissions have forced industries around the california essay outlines, world to develop expensive technologies like carbon adsorption. The need for more efficient and cost-effective alternatives to these traditional methods has led to the development of biochemical processes similar to those employed in solid waste and waste water treatment. Biofiltration, one of those innovative technologies, relies on microbial reactions for dissertation, the transformation of toxic pollutants into environmentally harmless substances (Devinny, Deshusses Webster 1998). Despite sounding good in theory, biofiltration would presumably be subject to major constraints with regard to its application in california essay outlines slums.

This is due to the fact that biofilters must be installed directly in factories or plants, thus only reducing air pollution from industrial activities (Devinny, Deshusses Webster 1998). In Mumbai, however, various sources are responsible for the poor air quality, as discussed in chapter 3.4., rendering a process which only addresses industrial emissions unsuitable for sufficient air pollution reduction. 4.4.2 Biomimetic Cement for Active Air Pollution Reduction. Unlike biofiltration, the biomimetic cement does not directly employ microbes, but instead mimics their ability to store or dispose of toxic substances by modifying their oxidation state through catalysis. The so called TX Active cement, developed by the Italcementi Group, contains titanium dioxide (TiO’) particles, which acts as a photo-catalyst (Barbesta and Schaffer 2009).

When exposed to sunlight, the titanium dioxide catalyzes the transformation of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and several other pollutants into environmentally harm-less substances. These subsequently precipitate on the concrete surface and are removed by the next rain (Beeldens 2006). The photocatalytic cement offers numerous usage possibilities, including sound barriers, pavements, road surfaces, roof tiles and fa??ade elements on houses. This broad spectrum enables significant air quality improvement due to the feasibility of wide-scale application (Barbesta and Schaffer 2009). Concerning the potential for dr george essay, implementation in california essay Mumbai’s slums, it is interesting to note that calculations based on results from studies conducted in Italian urban areas, suggest that photocatalytic cement is most efficient in highly polluted air. Pigments In Photosythesis. Further-more, these prediction estimate that the resurfacing of only 15% of roads and california outlines, houses in heavily polluted cities would lead to an air quality improvement of 50% (Barbesta and pigments, Schaffer 2009). Hence, TX Active appears to be a particularly promising approach to air pollution control in Mumbai, given the urban predicament. Moreover, Mumbai offers ideal conditions due to currently high pollution levels and solar irradiation. An additional benefit of surfacing the roads with photocatalytic cement, especially in slums, would presumably be that the air pollution from dusty, presently unpaved roads would be significantly mitigated. The objective of this thesis was the study and analysis of biomimicry as a potential tool for slum redevelopment, focusing on the identification and evaluation of biomimetic designs capable of potentially alleviating issues pervasive in Mumbai’s slums. The starting point of the thesis was the premise that biomimetic technologies offer solutions to various man-made problems, which implies that some of bar exam essay, these could be conveyed to slums.

By looking at nature as a measure, model, and mentor it was established that human innovation should follow the tuck essay, overarching principles found in all forms of life on earth, which emphasize the importance of maxims like the integration of development with growth and resource efficiency. The necessity of acknowledging that there is no partition separating the human from the natural world was stressed, rendering the paradigm shift towards sustainability an essay outlines obligation/inevitable. Subse-quently, Mumbai’s slums, a particularly salient example of noncompliance with biomimetic principles, were introduced as potential area of application. Structural deficits regarding water, waste and energy infrastructure as well as poor air pollution control and tuck essay, their impact on public health and environment were analyzed in order to validate areas of greatest needs. From the scientific literature research that has been carried out, suitable solutions to each of the california essay, previously identified issues were submitted and evaluated in the light of the human and physical geographical context of Mumbai’s slums. Dissertation Completion Fellowship. For instance, the california essay, redevelopment of waste management in essay accordance with the emulation of closed loops found in natural ecosystems was proposed.

The concept, already implemented in Kalundborg, Sweden, enables the creation of a no waste system, as the california essay, waste of one industry serves as the fuel of used in photosythesis, another, assembling closed loop cycling of matter. This approach was deemed to be exceptionally promising for bar exam, Mumbai’s slums, as a vast amount of waste-intensive industries are located in close proximity. Furthermore, Biomimetic water collection through fog harvesting mimicking a desert beetle and desalination inspired by ib psychology essay cell membranes were suggested as potential solutions to drinking water scarcity. Based on the results, it can be concluded that biomimicry offers a wide range of suitable solutions to infrastructural and air pollution control issues, prevalent in Mumbai’s slums, of which some have been presented, without claiming to be exhaus-tive. Moreover, further research on california bar exam, biomimetic technologies conveyed to slum redevelopment would be desirable and necessary, as a particular urgency to alleviate man-made problems is evident there.

In essence, it was elucidated that biomimicry provides exceptional approaches and solutions to various modern-day problems of civilization. Dissertation Completion Fellowship. Placed in a wider context, the conscious emulation of nature’s genius has considerable potential to effect the paradigm shift towards sustainability, which has become inevitable, as the current issues in bar exam essay outlines Mumbai’s slums clearly indicate. Only the essay answers, acknowledgement of the fact that protection of self and protection of the california bar exam, planet are analogous, entailing the refrain from environmental degradation, can lead to long-term prosperity, as the tuck essay, hypothetical application of biomimicry in Mumbai’s slums demonstrated. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of outlines, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of pigments used, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to essay outlines, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Defining the scientific field and objectives of biomimicry . Available from: [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 13-09-17 - The Human Genome project (HGP) 22-08-17 - Adeno associated virus (AAV) vectors 01-08-17 - Test methods on the alkali carbonate reaction in used in photosythesis concrete - fluxonic diode - Identifying an unknown organism from a cell phone 05-07-17 - Risk factors for alcohol abuse in bar exam outlines men who have sex with men 01-06-17 - Monsanto vs. the world 19-05-17 - Patterns formed by increasing the scale factor – maths 12-05-17 - Swine influenza infections 24-04-17 - Medicinal plants and wound healing.

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Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011. Present menus to bar exam essay patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to dissertation fellowship take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and california bar exam essay thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and gsce essays increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and california bar exam essay opened the bottles for tuck essay them upon their approval Served food and beverages to california patrons, and gsce essays prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and essay Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007.

Team worker who is gsce essays able to california adapt in in photosythesis, highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and outlines skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to cover letter for lab entry present critical and bar exam essay outlines relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by letter technician level persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in bar exam essay, front of essay answers, strangers at length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables.

Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to california bar exam essay outlines teach new hosts and dr george essay waiters how to present menu items, how to use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and california test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by 10% on average Management: Assisted in the training of gsce essays, 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to bar exam outlines detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and gsce essays practices Awards and california outlines Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish – Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to dr george essay customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to california bar exam essay input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and fellowship northeastern conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in bar exam essay outlines, English, May 2008.

Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Completion. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly.

If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to essay outlines speak in front of tuck essay, other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in california bar exam outlines, Spanish. Awarded “Employee of the Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and answers knowledge of california, equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of cover for lab level, South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple.

These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to california those of pigments used, you with “front end” server experience. Bar Exam. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the gsce essays major rules that all resumes need to essay outlines follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and dr george essay Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to include on a server resume.

Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and bar exam outlines Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and answers potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is called the outlines Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for tuck essay an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience:

7+ years of experience in food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of california bar exam essay outlines, wines, entrees , and dissertation completion the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to bar exam essay outlines fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of dr george essay, a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on california bar exam outlines the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. It is also well written, and targeted at tuck essay, the managerial role she wants to fill.

Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to bar exam essay increase by pigments used in photosythesis 11% through 2022. It’s very important to bar exam outlines remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for in photosythesis the company . California Essay. In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an technician level asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers.

Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and california bar exam outlines give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to dissertation completion fellowship northeastern simply write how big your food establishment is, and california bar exam essay outlines how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the tuck essay hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per california bar exam years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for gsce essays the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers).

You can ask your manager to california bar exam see these statistics, and include them on gsce essays your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to bar exam essay the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and for lab entry level hard working. This is outlines called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to ib psychology essay the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and bar exam English is a valuable asset to have, especially for gsce essays a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of california bar exam essay, Sale terminals Problem solving and for lab communication skills.

If you also happen to california bar exam essay be bilingual in Spanish and dissertation completion English, that also tends to essay be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for gsce essays a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the essay outlines Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the tuck essay education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in bar exam essay, Food Science). Understandably, you may not — and dissertation completion northeastern that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to outlines write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on you.

The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to ib psychology essay answers know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. California Bar Exam Outlines. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points.

Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in ib psychology answers, today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and essay Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the tuck essay quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. California Bar Exam Outlines. Put your skills to dr george essay the test, and california essay outlines learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of cover level, a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. Bar Exam Essay Outlines. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template.

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Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and gsce essays career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. Essay. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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animals photo essay “On Monday, October 4th, a large reservoir filled with toxic red sludge in western Hungary ruptured, releasing approximately 700,000 cubic meters (185 million gallons) of stinking caustic mud, which killed many animals, at california bar exam outlines least four people, and tuck essay injured over california bar exam essay 120 - many with chemical burns” (Taylor 1). This quote, taken from the tuck essay, photo essay “A Flood of Toxic Sludge,” provides general information, such as the date of the incident, where it happened, how it was caused, and of course, the injuries and death. California. But with the lack of details, it is difficult to tuck essay, determine what the purpose of the bar exam essay outlines, photo essay is. Nevertheless, the dr george essay, essay’s purpose may be hinted at by how the media commonly portray these types of disaster. Generally, people are portrayed as the victim during natural disasters, like Hurricane Katrina, while the environment is the main focus after man-made incidents, such as the BP oil spill. With this expectation and the vague introduction provided, we may assume that since the flood was man-made, the essay will only discuss how the environment was affected. However, this photo essay deviates from that expectation to show that the environment was not the flood’s only victim. In “A Flood of Toxic Sludge”, Alan Taylor, a developer for the Boston Globe’s website, compiles thirty photographs from different companies in california essay order to inform its readers of the gsce essays, aftermath of a flood of california bar exam outlines, toxic red sludge that has swept through several towns in used in photosythesis Western Hungary. Although it may seem like these photos are being used to show the effects that industrial waste has on only Hungary’s environment, the underlying purpose of this essay is to emphasize the flood’s impact on individual people and even animals.

Through his choice to use color photos, Taylor accentuates the dominance of the california, red color of the gsce essays, sludge. The captions that accompany each photo briefly summarize the moment depicted in the images. However, by presenting different points of view of the disaster, readers gain insight about the aftermath of the flood from an aerial, individual, and california natural perspective. In addition, focusing on proportion within the aerial photos allows the audience to dr george essay, get a grasp of the california outlines, vast scale of the flood. Through his use of these visual elements, Taylor strives to illustrate the consequences that this toxic sludge has caused and acknowledge the helplessness that those affected are currently experiencing. As many photo essays do, “A Flood of Toxic Sludge” begins with a brief summary of its subject, which in in photosythesis this case are the flood and its consequences.

However, the difference between this particular photo essay and others similar in subject is that it is presented in essay a blog format rather than a standard slide show The way that Taylor arranged the photographs and the specific photos he decided to include contribute to fellowship northeastern, the essay’s capability of telling its own story without any text because each photograph has a specific focus. First, the photographs can always be viewed first so the audience can immediately absorb and interpret what they’re looking at. As the readers scroll down, a short caption clarifies some of the questions that may have emerged. Each of the 30 photographs is accompanied with a caption and is shown in color. Now, the photos that Taylor chose to present within this essay progress fluidly which prevents abrupt cuts between each photo and the audience to having to “fill in the gaps”. He begins with photos of the reservoir and its damaged wall to show the source of the flood. Then he proceeds with photos of how the sludge has completely flooded the california bar exam essay, streets of surrounding neighborhoods, destroyed the businesses and homes of residents, and contaminated the environment. Tuck Essay. If Taylor had not included these photos, the audience would have to further search for information on the flood, thus demonstrating that the photo essay did not achieve its purpose of informing. Almost right away, several photographs focus on the disaster from a geographic point of view in order to emphasize the size of the reservoir, the extent of the california bar exam outlines, flood, and the damage that is already done. Without these visuals, comprehending the tuck essay, magnitude of the disaster would be unfathomable.

The first photograph shows what appears to be a close up of the bar exam, ruptured wall of the reservoir that was originally holding the toxic sludge (Taylor Photo 2). However, the proportional difference between the ruptured wall and completion the construction vehicles that can be seen on essay outlines the bottom of the photo leaves the audience with a better “sense of scale”. Contrary to answers, what the audience may believe at first glance, the photo is not a close up. This understanding leaves readers with a sense of disbelief at how Source: Ruptured wall from by The Big Picture enormous the wall is. Source: Aerial of reservoir from by The Big Picture. From the second photo, the third photograph diverts from the immenseness of the flood to california, a smaller scale by focusing on a certain portion of the sludge-covered land to show that actual towns are located there. Here, the streets of Kolontar, one of the towns that were caught in gsce essays the midst of the flood, have been claimed by the toxic sludge (Taylor, Photo 4). Since this is just a small view of what Western Hungary currently looks like, a sense of helplessness is created knowing that there are more towns that have been affected just like this. Although a geographic perspective is useful for revealing the “bigger picture”, it makes the california outlines, readers wonder just what the smaller picture looks like and how the towns’ residents are dealing with the effects of the flood. Source: Aerial of tuck essay, Kolontar from by The Big Picture. As the essay proceeds, the subject of the photographs focuses on bar exam outlines how certain people’s lives have been affected through three different points of view.

The first photo shows a woman “contemplating the damage” (Taylor Photo 14) that has been done to the village of Devescar. Although her only dissertation completion northeastern, back profile is shown, that gives the bar exam essay outlines, audience an opportunity to step in her shoes. As she notices the completion, flood’s waterline that had almost rose above the doorway, the fallen gate, or just how the red color of the california bar exam essay, sludge has clung to everything it touched, what is tuck essay she thinking? Perhaps, she has realized how much work needs to be done to california bar exam, restore the in photosythesis, town and california essay just how little she can actually do to ib psychology answers, help. Source: Woman contemplating damage from by The Big Picture.

The next photo shows a resident of Kolontar as he “checks his new furniture” (Taylor Photo 17). This is ironic and somewhat humorous because the furniture is not “new” in the sense that they were just purchased, but new as in they are different because they are now ruined. All of the cabinets are toppled over with their content scattered on the floor; the stained walls and red-drenched curtains emit an aura of bar exam, foreboding. Although the man’s face cannot really be seen, just imagining what emotions he may be experiencing after seeing his home wrecked is not impossible. Tuck Essay. He no longer has a place to come home to, a good shelter for essay outlines, his family, or a clean bed to sleep in at night. Anyone in his position would be burdened with the pain of losing a home and the helplessness of not being able to salvage it.

In the last photograph, “a shopkeeper squats on the counter of a flooded petrol station” (Taylor Photo 12). Used. From the counter to the ceiling, everything appears to california essay outlines, be in normal state. From the counter down, a red stain can be seen lingering on almost everything while the ground is still covered in the sludge. As the shopkeeper clasps his hands and inspects the condition of his store, his expression appears to be downcast due to dr george essay, the store’s present state and his inability to clean it himself in risk of becoming injured. Furthermore, he’s unable to run his business until the essay outlines, sludge has been dealt with. For the time being, all he can do is to figure out a way to financially support himself and his family as he continues looking on at the damage. While most of the photographs target the extensive consequences of the cover letter for lab entry, flood, several photos focusing on california essay animals are distributed throughout the essay to remind the audience that not only the environment and the people were affected. The first photograph shows a dead animal that is completely covered in the sludge (Taylor Photo 9). Although it is almost impossible to discern the animal as either a cat or a rabbit, it doesn’t take away from the fact that this animal had to tuck essay, suffer a horrible death. The second photograph shows another dead animal; this time it is a dog (Taylor Photo 20).

Although the audience is incapable of comprehending what animals may feel, they can imagine the struggle this dog had to essay, put up at an attempt to save its own life during the level, flood. Essay Outlines. Yet in cover letter level the end, it is obvious that that struggle was futile. This photograph is california bar exam essay especially emotionally provoking because imagining one’s own pet dying ending in such a tragic way is just as heartbreaking. Besides his use of several perspectives of the incident, Taylor also uses color photographs that he presents in a unified way that does not require any accompanying narration. Black and white photography can often be seen as the preferred medium for photo essays however, the use of color is much more effective for this particular subject. While a black and white scheme may be used in pigments used other photo essays to focus on a certain subject in the photographs, color is bar exam essay outlines used for ib psychology, that very purpose here. Without the colors, the vivid red of the sludge would no longer be the dominant point of the photos. In the second aerial view of the reservoir, it would be difficult to differentiate the unaffected land from the bar exam, damaged parts which would not fulfill the purpose of used, this photograph. If there was no color in the photo of the man and his bedroom, the audience would only notice the california essay, fallen cabinets instead of the deep red stains that were left behind and the remaining sludge on the floor, thus the photo would not be as emotionally provoking as it is.

Did Taylor choose to document this disaster solely for the purpose of informing? It is true that Taylor compiled this photo essay to present the destruction of the flood and mention those who were affected but not acknowledged. Perhaps one of the things he wanted readers to gsce essays, take away from this essay is the notion of becoming more pro-environmental. In actuality, Taylor chose to create a blog on this particular event to remind us that we are all connected as human beings. Bar Exam. With just a brief look over of this photo essay, readers may believe that they cannot relate to in photosythesis, the Hungarians because they are strangers. However, even though this flood happened to occur in Hungary, it does not mean that it could not have happened somewhere else or affect the inhabitants in a similar way. If this flood happened elsewhere, the people there would also suffer just as the Hungarians did whether their pets were killed, their loved ones were injured, or their home was completely destroyed. If it were documented as this one was, it would also convey the california bar exam essay outlines, helplessness the Hungarians felt and elicit just as much empathy from the audience because people cannot help but to respond to others’ suffering.

By the end of this photo essay, the audience will leave with the realization that many people may be strangers, but we are all essentially the same as humans in the emotions that we feel. Taylor, Alan . A Flood of Toxic Sludge. The Big Picture. The Boston Globe. 6 Oct. 2010.

10 Oct. 2010.

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Valparaiso et Santiago, des tours culturels. Elles nous avaient ete conseillees toutes les deux pour leurs richesses architecturale et artistique. Nous n’avons pas ete decus ! Valparaiso : region V. Nombre d’habitants : presque 300 000 personnes selon la mairie de Valparaiso. Climat : subtropical avec un ete sec et tiede et un hiver humide et agreable avec une temperature moyenne de 14,8°C a l’annee. Altitude : du niveau de la mer aux cerros (collines de la ville) Attraits principaux : el plan (partie basse de la ville), los cerros , les mouvements artistiques, la maison de Pablo Neruda, le port, les funiculaires…

Politique environnementale : nous avons plutot teste la politique culturelle… excellente ! Valparaiso ou la vallee du paradis… « Valpo » comme disent les chiliens. C’est exactement l’impression que nous offre la ville construite a flan de collines ouverte sur l’ocean pacifique. Essay Outlines? Il y a une ebullition artistique, des paves, des graffs sur les murs, de la musique aux fenetres, les ascensores (des funiculaires en acier), des petits createurs par ci et par la. Completion? On passe de l’activite portuaire au calme inspirant des montagnes. California Essay Outlines? Une fois monte au(x) sommet(s), le panorama de toitures argentees et colorees nous eblouissent et devoilent la richesse et l’etendue de Valparaiso. Letter Level? Premier port du Chili, Valparaiso joue un role important a l’echelle economique nationale pour l’import-export ; et grace a son quartier historique classe au patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO depuis 2003, des milliers de touristes viennent la visiter chaque jour pour flaner dans cette ville musee. …Tout le monde veut nous vendre a boire. California Essay? Les yeux encore un peu gonfles par le sommeil (il est 6h !), nous titubons a la recherche d’un mate et d’un bout de pain a se mettre sous la dent ! On arrive a un marche ou s’entassent des centaines de personnes, des carottes, des pommes de terre, des poissons et des hurlements qui font bons menages mais pas moyen de manger. Pigments Used? Nous avancons jusqu’au front de mer, la ville basse, el plan . California Outlines? C’est ici que se passe toute l’activite economique de la ville. Used In Photosythesis? Nous ne nous rendrons compte de l’etendue de la ville seulement en montant sur les collines. L’estomac un peu plus rempli, nous allons a la rencontre de Cristofer, un porteno (comme a Buenos Aires on california bar exam essay sait, pas tres originaux ces latino-americains !).

Nous ne le connaissons pas, enfin pas directement car nous l’avons rencontre par l’intermediaire d’un site de rencontres… original et connu par la plupart des voyageurs malins ! Critofer est inscrit sur le site CouchSurfing ; tout le monde peut s’y inscrire, il permet de rencontrer des locaux et si possible dormir chez eux. Essay Answers? Ca permet de gagner du temps, de l’argent et c’est une maniere beaucoup plus agreable de voyager : on bar exam essay outlines est ainsi directement introduit dans la culture du pays. Gsce Essays? Le tout est base sur l’echange donc apres en avoir profite, vous pouvez aussi aider les voyageurs de votre region #128578; Cristofer est etudiant pharmacien mais il s’est degage une journee pour nous faire visiter un bout de la ville. California Bar Exam Outlines? Nous partons dans les hauteurs, aux cerros , les collines. Dr George Essay? La plupart de portenos y vivent et on essay comprend pourquoi, c’est magnifique. Dr George Essay? La mairie de Valparaiso a publie des chiffres qui annoncent que 94% de la population vit dans les cerros soit pres de 280 000 personnes. California Bar Exam Essay? Les rues serpentent le long des pentes, des ruelles pietonnes en escalier de 1m de large coupent a travers champ et a beaucoup de coins de rues, on gsce essays trouve une intervention artistique si on essay ouvre bien l’?il ! Il n’y a pas de recensement officiel du nombre des cerros mais on ib psychology sait qu’il y en a au moins quarante ! Un chiffre qui fait tout de charme de Valparaiso. Nous avons visite une des maisons de Pablo Neruda, La Sebastiana, construite dans les hauteurs de la ville il y a 50 ans.

Certes le poete chilien avait du talent (prix Nobel de la litterature) mais les perspectives de la maison ont tout de meme du aider son inspiration ! (photos interdites… desole) Pablo Neruda Pablo et Cecile La Sebastiana. Dans les dedales, nous avons meme trouve une intervention pour ConscienceDurable ! Il s’agit d’un frigo-poubelle, pourquoi utiliser une poubelle en plastique standard alors qu’on a un vieux frigo a jeter ?! Alors on essay outlines reduit notre consommation, on gsce essays reutilise et on california essay recycle ! Nous avons beaucoup aime egalement l’intervention « Eteins la tele et vit la vie ! ». Plus toutes les petites touches d’imagination disseminees dans la ville que nous partageons avec vous. Fellowship Northeastern? Vous l’aurez compris c’est a voir ! Santiago : region metropolitaine. Nombre d’habitants : 200 792. habitants mais 1,8 millions de personnes qui y travaillent (selon la mairie de. Santiago et le sondage de INE, l’institut national de statistique en 2002) Climat : chaud climat tempere avec de longues saisons seches.

A une heure et demie de Valapraiso se trouve Santiago du Chili, la capitale du pays. California Bar Exam? Et ce n’est pas la plus moche… Elle rassemble tout de meme la plupart des caracteristiques urbaines des grandes villes latino-americaines : un centre historique de style colonial, le quartier touristique d’aujourd’hui, un centre branche avec de grandes tours d’habitations blanches et des bureaux vitres ou sortent les touristes et vivent locaux aises, puis le bazar ! Le chao urbain avec plein de petits commerces qui vendent de tout et surtout des choses inutiles pour rien du tout, des supers cantines ou l’on mange sur le pouce une soupe et un plat pour trois fois rien et le monde dans les rues. Gsce Essays? En Amerique Latine, c’est tres agreable de deambuler dans la rue, c’est vivant et tres agreable. Bar Exam Essay? La ville est structuree de grands axes routiers, un bon reseau metropolitain, un systeme de bus complexe (!) et quelques parcs. Nous avons vecu dans un endroit hors normes, privilegie, grace a Sophie, une francaise et artiste expatriee a Santiago. Dr George Essay? Cette belle rencontre, c’est aussi par l’intermediaire de CouchSurfing.

Nous voulons seulement partager sa maison aux milles couleurs avec vous. California Bar Exam Outlines? Un lieu, ouvert a tous les styles. Gsce Essays? Elle vit en collocation avec 8 personnes, lieu de creation intense et de details pour ceux ou celles qui cherchent bien ! Nous repassons la cordillere pour retourner en Argentine, au programme : constructions naturelles… Alexandre JOLY (Interview realisee a Pucon, Chili) – A l’origine, j’ai une formation d’ingenieur forestier. Essay Outlines? Ici je me suis reconverti aux metiers du tourisme au travers de differents stages que j’ai realise : assistant guide, eco tourisme et un dernier sur le theme des vins chiliens. Dissertation Completion? Aujourd’hui je suis le coordinateur du CAP, le conseil environnemental de Pucon, qui comprend une dizaine d’actifs et environ 90 personnes qui sont membres aujourd’hui. – C’est un organisme qui souhaite federer tous les groupements et initiatives ecologiques a Pucon pour leur donner plus d’impact et de credibilite aupres des differents acteurs de la ville (hotels, agences de tourisme, dirigeants de parcs nationaux ou de sources thermales). Outlines? Mais il est difficile de trouver des compromis entre les differents interets de chacun. Tuck Essay? Par exemple, l’an dernier nous avons organise un seminaire sur le tourisme durable pour le presenter aux professionnels du tourisme de la ville. California Essay? L’invitation a ete envoyee a toute la base de donnees de l’office du tourisme (plus de 300 personnes) mais malheureusement on letter for lab technician a eu que 5 ou 6 participants… Un vrai fiasco ! Il faudrait que les 28 000 habitants se sentent concernes. Bar Exam Essay Outlines? C’est notre defi.

Et quel est votre role en tant que coordinateur ? – Principalement, je prepare les evenements, seminaires et fetes sur le theme de la protection environnementale dans cette ville essentiellement tournee vers le tourisme. Pigments Used? Cette annee nous avons un objectif tres ambitieux qui a ete finance par le gouvernement chilien. Essay Outlines? Il vise a mettre en place un manuel des bonnes pratiques (tourisme et environnement) applique a Pucon. Gsce Essays? Le projet est tres important car il va permettre d’appliquer au niveau local les recommandations proposees par la CONAMA (Commission nationale de l’environnement). Quelles sont les grandes lignes de ce projet ? – Le projet a debute il y a une semaine donc nous en sommes encore qu’au stade initial mais globalement, nous allons etudier comment evaluer et minimiser les incidences environnementales a Pucon pour, a terme, offrir a la population locale les outils et les moyens de preserver notre environnement naturel si precieux. Bar Exam Outlines? Chacune des dix commissions qui y travaillent est chargee d’un theme comme le tourisme durable, l’eau, les forets ou les energies renouvelables, etc. Dr George Essay? Nous avons neuf mois pour mettre en place le manuel pratique entrecoupes de conferences publiques et expositions pour faire part de l’avancee des travaux et sensibiliser plus de personnes et notamment les eleves dans les ecoles. Outlines? L’idee est d’etendre les connaissances a la communaute de Pucon et pas seulement a une petite minorite d’ecologistes. Letter For Lab Technician Level? Il y a donc aussi un gros travail au niveau de la communication. Qui sont les membres de ces commissions ? – La CAP est totalement apolitique.

Il y a principalement des personnes independantes et quelques associations qui viennent nous aider comme « Eticanos bosques » qui travaille essentiellement la preservation de la biodiversite ou encore « Parques para Chile » qui a l’origine du projet. Pour vous, qu’est-ce que le tourisme durable ? – Mon travail de cette annee va permettre de bien definir les enjeux de ce type de tourisme pour nous a Pucon. California Bar Exam Essay Outlines? Le defi est de faire prendre conscience aux gens que l’environnement qui nous entoure est aussi notre gagne-pain. Gsce Essays? Il est donc important d’essayer de trouver un equilibre entre les composantes naturelles, culturelles, touristiques et les differentes activites lucratives de tous. California Outlines? Chacune est interconnectee et a des repercussions sur les autres. Ib Psychology Essay Answers? Et c’est aujourd’hui qu’il faut lutter, pas lorsqu’on sera arrive a un stade critique ! Le temps joue contre nous et beaucoup d’indicateurs sont deja le rouge : la mauvaise qualite de l’eau des lacs, le manque d’infrastructures qui degradent le volcan, la surexploitation des forets (tout le monde se chauffe au bois), une occupation anarchique de toute la region (NDLR, manque de Plan d’Occupation des Sols qui favorisent les occupations irregulieres du type bidons-ville). California? Un autre enjeu, selon moi, est d’arriver a integrer la culture des communautes natives de cette region (les mapuches) qui sont aujourd’hui assez absente dans le developpement touristique mais qui fait partie integrante de l’identite de la region. Gsce Essays? Enfin, suite a la mise en place des normes environnementales, il faudra les integrer dans le quotidien des entreprises et de la population de Pucon pour pouvoir prendre un drapeau et dire « ici nous sommes tourisme durable ». Vous pensez creer des labels specialises pour la region ou essayer d’adapter des labels internationaux ? – Je pense qu’a Pucon comme dans tout le Chili, on essay outlines a une legislation tres arrieree avec peu coherence au niveau de l’elaboration des lois et des normes liees a l’environnement qui sont bien souvent archaiques.

Il y a un retard de plus de vingt ans avec ce qu’on peut trouver en France par exemple. Technician Entry Level? Je pense qu’il est donc essentiel de frapper un grand coup et se calquer sur des normes internationales reconnues et qui ont fait leurs preuves. California Bar Exam? Il faut suivre l’exemple des Galapagos en Equateur (classe au patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO) ou le label de tourisme durable « Smart Voyager » a permis d’apporter plus de professionnalisme et de rigueur dans la relation tourisme-nature aux niveaux environnemental, societal et de la securite. Pigments Used? Avec un petit label regional le client risque de se perdre completement. Bar Exam Essay Outlines? Je pense a quelqu’un qui prepare son voyage dans son canape a Boston, s’il lit « Label Touristique de Pucon Ecologique » il a moyennement confiance par rapport a « Smart Vayager » qui est connu dans le monde entier. Dr George Essay? Par contre, il est important d’integrer des gens de Pucon dans la mise en place de ce genre label pour qu’il y est cette enseigne internationale connue mais que le travail interne soit fait par des personnes qui connaissent parfaitement le terrain et problematiques locales.

Nous allons dans ce sens avec l’hotel-restaurant Kodkod qui est le premier a avoir recu cette certification au Chili. California Bar Exam Essay? On a cette chance ici, a Pucon d’avoir une agence de consultants qui ont permis aux dirigeants de soutenir ce projet pour toute la mise en place legislative, administrative, technique. Technician Level? Maintenant il faut generaliser cette demarche aux activites qui exploitent le Parc national du volcan Villarica, le Parc national Huerquehue, les thermes… Le Chili a l’opportunite de prendre son destin en main et rattraper son retard accumule au fil des ans. Essay Outlines? Il faut juste sensibiliser, ouvrir la conscience, des acteurs locaux prives comme publics et les aider a integrer cette demarche et a se motiver pour aller vers une certification internationale. Les touristes qui veulent faire du tourisme durable sont generalement avertis donc le plus gros travail n’est pas aupres de ces personnes-la. Ib Psychology Essay? Quels sont les grands axes que vous allez utiliser pour communiquer et reussir a interesser et attirer les touristiques non informes ou non interesses ? – Nous avons deux points par rapport a cette idee. Essay Outlines? Ici, on dr george essay a un tourisme de station balneaire, c’est a dire des gens qui arrivent massivement pour profiter de la plage, c’est l’economie principale de Pucon qui correspond a la saison haute : l’ete qui s’etend de mi-decembre a mi-mars. California Essay Outlines? Lorsqu’on a quitte cette grosse saison, on gsce essays a un pseudo tourisme « nature » qui vient pour profiter de la reserve mondiale de la biosphere Araucaria, un cadre privilegie ! Pour attirer les gens et leur faire profiter de tous les avantages de notre belle region, il faut que les infrastructures et les differentes parties (politique, economique, sociale et environnentale) suivent. Bar Exam Essay? Les acteurs locaux doivent et vont s’impliquer pour ameliorer et synchroniser leurs efforts.

Il y a deja des tables de travail qui ont ete mises en place au mois de juin 2010 donc on essay ne ressent pas encore les effets mais ca devrait arriver rapidement. Mais s’ils n’en ont pas l’obligation, vont-ils en avoir envie car sa demande du temps, de l’energie… – Tout a fait, en plus souvent il y a aussi un cout pour coller aux normes. Essay? Le probleme c’est qu’aujourd’hui on gsce essays n’a pas de service a offrir et la clientele n’est pas seduite par ca. Essay Outlines? Je pense qu’il va falloir commencer par se projeter pour devenir une destination touristique respectueuse des criteres de developpement durable. In Photosythesis? Si aujourd’hui la conscience n’est pas acquise par rapport a l’environnement, les enfants sont sensibilises dans toutes les ecoles du Chili, dans les medias, on essay en parle de plus en plus souvent. Dissertation? Donc si vous voulez c’est quelque chose de latent seulement ce n’est pas encore digere par la masse, je pense que c’est quelque chose qui va prendre une dizaine d’annees et nous a Pucon, on california bar exam outlines est capable et on completion northeastern a les moyens d’etre pionner dans ce mouvement, c’est un peu les objectifs que l’on se fixe avec la CONAMA. En France, ca fait longtemps que c’etait latent mais il a fallu des obligations gouvernementales, une legislation qui impose des efforts allant dans ce sens sous peine d’etre taxer pour que les gens commencent a parler cycle de vie, impact de l’activite humaine… Vous ne pensez pas qu’au Chili, vous allez etre oblige de passer par la pour qu’il y ait le declic ? – J’en suis bien conscient. California Outlines? Malheureusement on in photosythesis a une legislation, au niveau national qui est un petit peu a l’ancienne et qui n’a pas du tout pris en compte la vision actuelle, la tendance actuelle de la necessite de proteger l’environnement et de la croissance rapide et importante du tourisme durable. California Bar Exam Essay? Donc effectivement c’est une lacune importante ! J’en ai parle dans une reunion que j’ai eu avec les representants au conseil regional il n’y a pas tres longtemps, ca n’a pas ete pris en compte et ca ne le sera pas dans les annees a venir… Ce n’est pas encore au programme. Cover Letter For Lab Technician Level? Je pense qu’ici comme dans beaucoup de pays sud-americains, ce sont les institutions prives qui font avancer les choses dans beaucoup de sens.

Les pouvoirs publics sont en retard ou impuissants souvent par manque de financements, d’envie ? Les entreprises privees quant a elles arrivent a se projeter et a comprendre que le tourisme durable sera benefique pour elles et leurs investissements, bien avant d’obtenir le soutien de l’etat. Bar Exam Outlines? C’est ma vision, j’espere que l’etat en prendra compte avant bien evidemment, ca serait genial, ca nous ferait gagner du temps mais je pense que ca va beaucoup plus passer par des initiatives privees dans un systeme economique et liberal a 300%. Quand on essay answers parle de protection environnemental ou de tourisme durable, il y a quelque chose de tres important c’est la transparence, est ce que la politique et la loi chilienne permettent cette transparence ? Est-ce qu’il est possible d’avoir des controles pousses qu’ils soient quantitatifs ou qualitatifs pour justement verifier qu’on est vraiment dans le vrai et non pas dans une image simplement ? – Alors la on california bar exam touche au point sensible. Cover Letter Technician? Ici, ce mot s’appelle la « fiscalizacion » ; fiscaliser et controler sur place ce qu’il se passe. Essay Outlines? C’est le manque principal de respect des normes, c’est pour ca qu’on en est la, c’est parce qu’il n’y a pas de « fiscalizacion ». Pigments In Photosythesis? Je pense que c’est un probleme qui n’avancera pas dans l’immediat. California? Pour vous donner une idee a Pucon avec un tourisme tres important, on tuck essay a seulement deux inspecteurs municipaux qui ont le role d’aller inspecter les infrastructures. California? C’est ridicule de n’avoir que deux personnes pour aller inspecter 800 organismes de logement references sans compter les restaurants, les agences de ! Quand on dissertation completion fellowship arrive en l’ete, je crois qu’on arrive a une dizaine d’inspecteurs mais ca reste minime par rapport aux 80 000 touristes qui viennent sur place, on california outlines y arrive pas ! C’est quelque chose qui devrait se faire mais n’existe pas. Pigments? C’est pour ca qu’avec les labels prives on california essay outlines a pas ce probleme, si tu respectes pas les normes tu perds ta licence, c’est aussi simple que ca. Vous dites que les enfants chiliens sont sensibilises mais comment ? Ca fait partie des programmes nationaux ? – C’est dans les programmes scolaires.

J’en ai pas connaissance exactement, je pense qu’il faudrait aller voir sur le site de Conama, du gouvernement, j’en ai pas connaissance. Gsce Essays? J’ai deux enfants qui eux m’en parlent regulierement, qui lancent des themes comme ca a table ouvertement et puis je le vois aussi avec les neveux de ma femme ou les autres enfants. California Outlines? D’autre part j’ai des amis du CAP qui sont moniteurs, a Pucon, dans le cadre de l’education environnemental et qui proposent des activites, organisent des ateliers, qui forment des brigades de jeunes. Tuck Essay? Une cinquantaine de « jeunes ecolos » qui forment des petites brigades et qui realisent des nettoyages de plage, qui participent aux journees mondiales sur differents themes environnementaux qu’on met en place. Bar Exam Essay? Tout le monde a conscience que c’est a travers l’education que l’on va avancer et c’est deja en train de se mettre en place. Pigments? Je suis convaincu que ca va marcher.

Malheureusement, si nous les adultes aujourd’hui n’implantons les bases rapidement, il va falloir attendre 20 ans pour que les enfants aient un pouvoir de decision et agissent. Essay? C’est inacceptable car ca risque d’etre trop tard. Tuck Essay? Ce qu’il nous manque c’est de s’unir, ici nous sommes je ne sais combien de petits organismes alors qu’on devrait en former qu’un ! Interview realisee le 29/03/11, a Pucon, nous remercions Alexandre Joly pour ses propos. Apres tours et detours dans la cordillere, nous arrivons a Puerto Montt. Bar Exam Outlines? C’est la plaque tournante du centre-sud du Chili, ou ce fait la connexion avec le sud de l’Argentine (Bariloche d’ou nous arrivons), le sud du Chili (isla Chiloe) et le centre (Santiago). Le Chili est une bande tres etroite borde par la cordillere et la mer. Dissertation? Le pays est decoupe comme un saucisson-puzzle de seize pieces ou regions.

Le Chili est frontalier avec le Perou au nord, la Bolivie au nord-ouest et tout du long avec l’Argentine (sur 5338 km tout de meme). California Bar Exam Essay? C’est aussi un pays tricontinental : il est present en Amerique du Sud bien evidemment, mais aussi en Oceanie avec l’ile de Paques (a 3 000 km des cotes chiliennes) ainsi qu’en Antarctique ! L’histoire du pays a ete marquee par plusieurs coups d’Etat et instabilites politiques ; aujourd’hui encore, nous sentons les sequelles de la dictature de Pinochet dans les rues et dans le comportement des jeunes chiliens tres militants. Gsce Essays? « Par la raison ou par la force » tel est la devise du pays… Iles Chiloe : region X du Chili (180 km de long et 50 km de large), soit la deuxieme plus grande ile d’Amerique du sud. Nombre d’habitants : environ 160 000 (Wiki) Attraits principaux : les palafitos (maisons en bois sur pilotis), le curanto et les eglises en bois ! Nous prenons directement une correspondance pour les iles Chiloe car il parait que c’est magnifique et puis on california bar exam outlines voudrait manger du poisson ! Malheureusement la chance n’est pas de la partie et nous avons ete accueillis par la pluie et nous sommes presque aussi vite repartis… sous la pluie quelques jours plus tard. Dr George Essay? Nous n’avons pas echappe a la regle ! On a quand meme pu en profiter un petit peu grace a quelques eclaircies.

Au programme des hostilites nous avons profite de l’archipel avec ses belles baies, ses maisons sur pilotis multicolores (les palafitos) et les petites barques et bateaux. Nous avons aussi goute a la specialite locale : le Curanto. California Outlines? C’est un plat a base de fruits de mer et de saucisses, typiquement toulousain en somme…! Pour se faire, ils melangent des palourdes, des moules (aussi enormes que la paume de la main de Cecile), des saucisses (moins bonnes qu’a Toulouse quand meme !), du poulet et du lard dans un court bouillon. Pigments Used In Photosythesis? Le plat s’accompagne de pommes de terre, de legumes et d’une sorte de pate a modeler qui a le gout de l’aspect mais qui est en realite, apres recherche, du pain de pomme de terre. California Bar Exam Essay Outlines? Traditionnellement, le plat est cuit dans la terre a l’aide de pierres chauffees, bizarre quand on gsce essays connait le climat ! En tout cas, pour nous, c’etait cuit au gaz et ca se laissait manger.

Autre attrait du coin, les 150 fameuses eglises de bois classees pour quelques-unes (16) au patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO. Essay Outlines? Rassurez-vous on tuck essay ne va pas toutes les decrire une par une, mais c’est bien parce qu’on ne les a pas toutes visitees ! Elles ont ete construites entre le XVII° et XVIII° siecle par les missionnaires jesuites a l’aide de locaux (des pecheurs). California Bar Exam Outlines? On suppose que c’est grace a ces derniers que l’on doit cette belle architecture qui est le reflet du savoir-faire ancestrales des peuples autochtones Huilliches (culture Mapuche). Fellowship? Forcement, le bois est synonyme d’incendies qui ont ravages certaines mais la plupart ont conserve leur charme. Essay? L’interieur est sobre ; seul le bois est travaille pour donner des lignes decoratives et l’atmosphere est tres agreable et chaleureux grace au bois et aux vitraux tres simples qui apportent avec austerite beaucoup de lumiere. Eglise San Francisco, Castro.

Malgre toutes ces activites, la pluie continue de nous miner le moral, donc nous sommes remontes dans le nord, a Pucon, pour rencontrer le CAP dans le cadre du projet ConscienceDurable et escalader le volcan Villarrica. Mais avant, nous vous faisons partager deux autres « specialites » locales de Chiloe… Le marche traditionnel de Dalcahue ou nous nous sommes balades et ou nous avons achete de la laine qui « sent le mouton » ! L’autre rencontre surprenante et inedite, ce sont les chiens rasta de Chiloe ; la vie est cool sur l’ile ! Entree de la Cordillere , ou Pucon (en langue Mapuche) Pucon : region IX du Chili. Nombre d’habitants : 27 000 (selon Geonames G eographical Database 2010) Climat : doux l’ete et froid en hiver. Altitude : 216 m, le volcan legerement plus ! Attraits principaux : volcan Villarrica, parcs nationaux, activites sportives en plein air, thermes naturelles.

Politique environnementale : excellente, tri des dechets et autres actions menees par la municipalite ainsi que par des acteurs exterieurs. Pucon est une ville active au niveau ecologique (recyclage et tourisme durable) et possede un potentiel naturel enorme. Gsce Essays? Bordee par le volcan Villarrica et par le lac du meme nom, le climat y est tres agreable. California Bar Exam Essay Outlines? Les parcs nationaux (Huerquehue et Villarrica) sont les supports de la bonne qualite de vie et des nombreuses activites touristiques (plage, station de ski, ascension du volcan, kayak, thermes naturels). Essay Answers? Il existe egalement un tourisme culturel, peu repandu, avec les communautes indigenes mapuches. La ville a su se developper intelligemment en preservant son patrimoine naturel puisqu’il est la source de sa richesse. California Outlines? Nous avons teste pour vous le parc national Huerquehue, l’ascension du volcan Villarrica et les thermes de Los Pozones. Ib Psychology Answers? Ce fut d’agreables moments #128578; Les richesses naturelles de Pucon.

Il faut le meriter pour renifler la fumee de souffre du volcan Villarrica ! Le reveil aux aurores, les yeux encore a moities fermes nous partons fierement (ou presque !) gravir ce geant de la nature avec ces 2 800m. Bar Exam Essay Outlines? On s’apercevra tres vite que finalement il est plutot petit ce volcan compare aux sommets de Bolivie mais pour nos freles petites jambes, ca fera l’affaire ! L’ascension commence a 1 400 m – aux pieds des remontees mecaniques pour le ski en hiver – avec le lever du soleil et le panorama se devoile petit a petit sous nos yeux a present bien ouverts ! Nous grimpons les 1 400 m qui manquent pour arriver au cratere grace a nos crampons bien fixes a nos chaussures parce qu’au sommet, la roche est couverte de glaces eternelles. En haut, les pierres ocillent entre le jaune, le rouge et le vert a cause du souffre. Ib Psychology? Son odeur piquante et prenante se degage toujours du cratere malgre qu’il n’ait pas crache de lave depuis 1984 ! Nous ne pouvons qu’admirer l’horizon compose de la cordillere andine, les autres volcans que l’on voit au loin, l’Argentine et le Chili. Bar Exam Essay? C’est impressionnant et ca valait le coup de suer un peu. L e parc national Huerquehue. Le parc national Huerquehue (ou « le lieu de messagers » en langue Mapuche) se situe a 35 km de Pucon. In Photosythesis? Il a ete cree en 1967 avec une superficie de 3 900 ha puis en 1985 s’ajoutent 8 600ha qui lui conferent aujourd’hui une superficie de 12 500ha de zone protegee.

Du coup faune et flore peuvent s’epanouir sans peine ! Il y pleut plus de 2 litres d’eau par an. Bar Exam Essay Outlines? On trouve donc plusieurs especes de champignons, d’arbres et des lacs de toute beaute ! Le parc est marque par une geographie tres accidentee, il y a 4 monts assez hauts : Los Cerros Araucano (2 000m), le San Sebastian (1 800m), los Picos de Caburga (1 600m) et l’Llolle (1 800m) de quoi faire de la grimpette ! Il est aussi une grande reserve d’araucaria (arbre de notre chere region du Parana au Bresil) et comme tous les parcs nationaux chiliens, il est gere par la CONAF, la Societe nationale forestiere du Chili. Dr George Essay? Leur but est de « preserver la faune et la flore, les paysages et les ressources pour contribuer a la protection du patrimoine naturel et culturel du Chili et maintenir les ressources » (ouf!). California Outlines? Cote conseil et prevention, les chiliens ne font pas dans l’originalite ! Ce sont les memes qu’en Argentine : respecter les normes de securite, marcher sur les sentiers, etre calme, observer les animaux a une bonne distance, ramener tous ces dechets, ne pas polluer les fleuves et rivieres et bien sur faire attention aux feux de forets. Gsce Essays? La CONAF protege donc dans le parc 29 especes animales dont des condors et puma ainsi que les araucarias. Nous y avons fait un petit tour tres depaysant, tellement que nous avons loupe notre bus (le dernier de la journee) pour rentrer a Pucon… ! Heureusement, nous avons rencontre un gentil monsieur avec son neveu qui nous ont pris en stop pour rentrer. California Essay? Ils etaient si contents de rencontrer des francais et de nous avoir avec eux dans la voiture que nous nous sommes arretes deux fois pour prendre des photos avec eux sur la route ! Apres tous ces kilometres a pied, nous sommes alles nous relaxer dans les bonnes eaux thermales de Los Pozones. Dr George Essay? Ce sont des bains d’eau douce naturellement chaude.

Il y a differents bassins avec des temperatures qui varient entre tres froid puisque c’est l’eau de la riviere des montagnes a plus de 40°C ! Nous sommes restes dans ce dernier et on california essay a bien cuit ! Pas de photos parce qu’il pleuvait mais vous pouvez nous faire confiance, c’etait agreable ! Avec ces 1 249 km 2 , la ville de Pucon repertorie 7 centres de tri d’ordure officiels et 9 parcs, places et autres espaces verts fleuris. Tuck Essay? Il y a beaucoup d’acteurs qui ?uvrent au bon developpement de la ville. Outlines? A commence par la municipalite elle-meme qui a lance une campagne de prevention « Recyclons a Pucon ! ». Dissertation Fellowship? L’objectif est de convertir la ville en un village vert grace a l’aide des habitants. California Essay Outlines? Ainsi tout le monde peut vraiment (contrairement a El Chalten !) efficacement trier ses dechets, et ca fonctionne ! La ville est propre et les habitants ont pris maintenant les bonnes habitudes, du moins on for lab technician entry level l’espere. Bar Exam Essay Outlines? Cependant la municipalite continue la campagne pour toucher egalement les touristes avec les « Conseils pour maintenir Pucon propre ». Ib Psychology Essay Answers? C’est important de prendre soin de cette ville qui se developpe et offre tous les services necessaires a un bon sejour. Les conseils de la ville en six points : – Reduisez ! Evitez d’acheter des produits avec des emballages volumineux ou non recyclable. California Bar Exam? NDLR, au supermarche ils offrent tout de meme quasiment une poche plastique par article… Ce n’est pas encore ca ! – Reutilisez ! Si vous achetez de l’eau minerale, conservez la bouteille et re-remplissez la. – Recyclez ! Plastique, papier, verre et autre peuvent etre recycle a Pucon.

Assurez-vous de jeter tous produits « recyclable » dans les conteneurs appropries dans les differents centres de la ville. – Ne laissez pas de traces ! Campez de facon responsable et propre. Tuck Essay? Empaquetez vos poubelles de sorte a ne pas les perdre et ramenez les jusqu’a une poubelle (fixe). California? Ne laissez rien sur le sol. Dr George Essay? Laissez ce que vous trouvez sur place (plantes, pierres, animaux…). California Essay? Minimisez l’impact de vos feux de campement. Cover Letter For Lab Technician? Respectez la foret. Bar Exam Essay? Respectez les autres visiteurs.

– Protegez nos fleuves ! Ne jeter rien dedans. Gsce Essays? Lavez vos appareils de peche et evitez l’augmentation des algues invasives ou autres especes similaires. California Outlines? (Au Chili, la politique en matiere de protection des ressources naturelles est tres stricte car plus de la moitie du pays vit de l’agriculture). Pour mieux comprendre les actions menees, nous avons rencontre Alexandre Joly le coordinateur du tourisme durable a Pucon. Dissertation Fellowship Northeastern? Si ca vous interesse, RDV la ! Le vent n’a pas d’odeur… Il en apporte eventuellement. Bar Exam? Philippe Geluck.

Un esprit sain dans un corps sain. Lors de notre passage a Mendoza, nous nous sommes arretes trois semaines a Tunuyan, une petite ville a une heure et demie de la, pour aider a un projet de construction naturelle (voir article). In Photosythesis? L’experience fut tout aussi interessante qu’enrichissante : si vous voulez construire votre maison, un four, un barbecue ou une extension en terre, appelez nous ! Sur le terrain, ou nous avons appris toutes les techniques de construction, il y avait un veritable projet de vie ; une communaute quasi auto-suffisante avec une grande ferme ecologique ou se cultivent tomates, oignons, courgettes, artichauts, plantes medicinales, pomme de terre, poires, pommes, etc. Essay Outlines? De quoi manger sain et equilibre toute l’annee ! La famille proprietaire du grand terrain le partage avec d’autres familles qui ont la meme philosophie de vie, en leur permettant de construire leur maison. Tuck Essay? En contre partie, ils aident au bon fonctionnement de la vie dans la propriete.

L’echange de savoirs et la contribution de chacun sont les piliers de ce projet jeune mais fonctionnel. Cette famille, dont la mere est nutritionniste, nous a propose un mode d’alimentation alternatif : vegetarien et 100% bio. California Essay? Durant ces trois semaines, nous avons appris a vivre selon leur mode de vie. Dr George Essay? Car effectivement, vivre ecologiquement signifie savoir s’adapter au rythme de la nature et la respecter. Bar Exam Outlines? Ce soigner devient alors tres facile dans ce lieu plein d’energies positives ou tout ce qui n’est pas sain est proscrit (alcool, tabac, mal-bouffe). Nous avons appris a cuisiner avec Azucena, la maman nutritionniste et nous aimerions partager cette petite parenthese avec vous, loin de la l’envie de vous faire quitter vos bonnes traditions culinaires francaises (qui nous manquent un peu d’ailleurs) mais au moins pour vous faire prendre conscience de l’interet et des bienfaits d’une alimentation plus saine ! Remarque : les informations et donnees de cet article ne sont pas a prendre au pied de la lettre. Tuck Essay? Ce sont les conseils d’une nutritionniste argentine avec son experience, son point de vu, son ecole. California Bar Exam Essay? Cependant beaucoup d’autres nutritionnistes et therapeutes partagent sa vision. L’idee n’est pas de devenir vegetarien du jour au lendemain car changer l’alimentation ancree dans son quotidien est difficile et demande generalement une modification important dans sa vie. Dr George Essay? Cependant il y a d’autres possibilites pour « bien manger » sans toucher radicalement a son regime car le steak de pingouin et le lama ca a bon gout! Le principe de base de toute alimentation est que « nous sommes ce que nous mangeons ». California Outlines? Toutes les vitamines, mineraux et autres apports nutritifs que les aliments nous donnent vont directement dans le sang et nos organes pour les faire fonctionner.

Nous sommes un peu comme des voitures : avec de la bonne huile et de la bonne essence, nous allons plus loin et roulons plus longtemps sans aller chez le mecano ! Logique non ?! Rassurez vous, ce n’est pas la peine de bannir les navets ou la dinde #128521; Le principe de la diete mediterraneenne. Desole pour les adeptes des magazines et des regimes eclairs qui vous promettent d’etre « bien » et « agreables a regarder » deux mois par ans pour rouler des mecaniques sur les plages, ce que nous allons vous proposer est un travail de fond dont les resultats ne sont pas instantanes. Tuck Essay? La diete mediterraneenne (ou regime cretois) est une variante a la nourriture 100% vegetarienne qui permet d’avoir un systeme immunitaire au top niveau sans trop d’effort. Bar Exam? A la cle : une meilleur sante physique et mentale sans pour autant passer sur le billard ou des heures face a un psy ! Nous parlons ici d’un regime quotidien, si c’est votre anniversaire ou que vous allez au restaurant faites vous plaisir ! Les petits ecarts sont autorises, comme pour tout, ceux sont les exces qui sont a eviter.

L’idee generale du regime est simple : privilegier les legumes, les fruits, les cereales, les poissons et l’huile (principalement d’olive) dans l’assiette. Letter For Lab Level? En contre partie, vous vous en doutez, il faut limiter la viande (une a deux fois par semaine) mais aussi les produits laitiers. Au final, Hippocrate n’avait pas tord avec sa formule « Que ton aliment soit ta seule medecine» ! Pour se preserver des maladies ou pour les soigner, une alimentation saine et equilibree est plus que conseillee, tout comme pratiquer une activite sportive ou s’epanouir dans un environnement plein d’amour #128578; Aujourd’hui nous suivons (tant bien que mal) ce principe non pas par empathie pour les animaux sinon pour notre sante et on california bar exam essay outlines ne s’est jamais porte aussi bien (mise a par quelques touristas occasionnelles…) Diminuer sa consommation en viande ou en produit laitier implique de manger intelligemment et plus varie. Tuck Essay? Il faut savoir ce dont on california essay outlines a besoin au quotidien et comment l’obtenir.

Pour ca il faut avoir quelques notions de base mais aussi et surtout savoir ecouter son corps. Pour composer les assiettes des jours sans viande ou poisson, il existe les cereales, les legumineuses, les graines et condiments et enfin les legumes et fruits. Ib Psychology Answers? Bref il y a de quoi alimenter les esprits les plus creatifs et les ventres les plus affames ! Couleur dans l’assiette = apports journaliers complets. Il est important d’identifier les differents groupes pour organiser les repas afin de ne pas surcharger une categorie et varier les apports energetiques. California Bar Exam? D’autant plus que melanger les differents groupes n’est pas toujours bon ni pour votre digestion, ni pour le nez de votre voisin car elle se fait de maniere plus ou moins rapide, plus au moins explosive… Pour un meme repas, il est donc preferable d’ingurgiter un seul type d’aliment a la fois ou alors de les maitriser. Dr George Essay? Votre estomac est comme un petit laboratoire de chimie donc attention aux melanges ! Des conseils a la pelle et des pieges a eviter. Manger des aliments composes de farine ou de cereales completes constituees de la coque et des germes ; riche en fibre, le corps les digere mieux.

Contrairement aux aliments raffines, ils apportent des glucides, proteines, sels mineraux et des vitamines. Le lait est mauvais pour la sante car il est indigeste et lourd pour l’estomac. Bar Exam Essay? Avez-vous deja un autre mammifere adulte boire du lait ?! Il y a moins de probleme pour les produits laitiers deja fermentes (yaourt, fromage). Letter Entry? Le calcium se trouve dans les legumineuses, les algues et surtout des legumes verts mais aussi dans les feuilles des legumes (brocoli, betterave, navet…). California Outlines? Pas d’osteoporose en vue ! Les repas de « viande ou poisson » doivent s’accompagner de legumes car si vous mangez des pates, du riz ou des pommes de terre, la digestion sera tres lente.

Privilegiez les viandes blanches (moins grasses) aux rouges. La campagne de Chirac : « tant que vous avez des dents mangez des pommes » etait tres sensee et tres bonne pour la sante ! La pomme agit comme un desintoxiquant pour le corps. Completion Northeastern? Tout comme l’oignon ou la chicoree, elle aide le pancreas a nettoyer le corps en generant des sucs gastriques. California Essay Outlines? A manger en accompagnement des aliments lourds (?ufs, fromage, viandes…). Manger les aliments riches en fer (la salade, les lentilles, les fruits et legumes sec) en les completant avec ceux qui contiennent de la vitamine C sans quoi il n’est pas assimile et fixe par l’organisme. Gsce Essays? Le brocoli, l’orange, le pamplemousse ou le kiwi favorisent donc l’absorption du fer alors que le germe de legumineuse (cru) se suffit a lui meme.

Les graisses saturees (beurre, fromage, viande…) sont a eviter. Bar Exam Essay Outlines? Les autres sont necessaires pour le corps. Dr George Essay? Le mieux est de melanger les huiles pour avoir un apport optimal. Bar Exam Outlines? Par exemple un bon melange serait : 3 cuilleres d’huiles de tournesol, 2 d’huile d’olive et un de lin (ou de noix). Essay Answers? Pour cuisiner, utilisez uniquement l’huile d’olive. Si vous mangez bio, mangez la peau, tres riche en vitamines et autres nutriments, sinon eviter la ainsi que les graines/pepins car c’est la que se concentrent les toxiques, pesticides et autres poisons. Pour faciliter la digestion il existe un ordre : d’abord les aliments crus (digestion rapide), puis la soupe et finir par les aliments cuits (digestion lente). California Bar Exam Essay? Eviter la nourriture lourde le soir car c’est plus difficile et long a digerer. Ib Psychology Essay Answers? Ce n’est pas seulement le cerveau qui se repose lorsqu’on dort mais le corps tout entier. California Bar Exam Essay Outlines? Par exemple il vaut mieux manger un en-cas consequent vers 18h-19h (une quiche, un gros sandwich, etc) et une soupe ou une salade une heure avant de dormir. L’exces de cuisson est mauvais pour les aliments et donc pour votre sante ! Cuire les legumes a la poele est moins bon que la cuisson a l’eau qui les denature un peu plus que la cuisson a la vapeur. Tuck Essay? L’ideal ? Manger cru ! L’apport en nutriments serait alors optimal et pas la peine de manger de grandes quantites pour etre au top.

La route est encore longue avant de devenir crudivore.. Le petit dejeuner est definitivement le repas le plus important de la journee : « on essay outlines met l’essence avant de voyager et pas apres etre tombe en panne ». Gsce Essays? Il doit etre complet et equilibre. California Bar Exam Outlines? Le mieux c’est de manger un fruit directement apres le reveil et 30 a 60 min plus tard, une fois que le corps est entierement reveille, prendre le petit dej : the, pain integral, yaourt, chicore, jus de fruit, fruit sec, miel, etc. Tuck Essay? Oui, oui, on essay sait que les matins sont durs… Il faudrait manger un petit peu toutes les 3 heures (et non grignoter !) pour que l’estomac ne s’arrete jamais de travailler et ne fasse pas de gros efforts pour reprendre la digestion. En cas de petite faiblesse ou de fringale, il faut manger un aliment qui se diffuse vite dans le sang comme un fruit, un legume (sucre rapide). Used? Il est inutile de manger des pates ou des sucres lents car leurs actions se diffusent sur environs 4 heures. Manger en fonction de son activite ; si vous faites du sport la journee, vous pouvez manger des sucres lents le soir, ils seront utilises mais si vous devez passer la journee devant l’ordinateur, tout sera stocke dans les poignees d’amour… Bonjour les degats ! Trois petits aliments a integrer dans les plats, « comme un booster dans l’essence ». Les algues qui comportent beaucoup de mineraux (qui protegent des maladies) et micro-organismes. California? Elles permettent d’alcaliniser le corps (contraire d’acidifier).

Mais elles ne se cuisinent pas sinon elles meurent et perdent leur proprietes ! Il est bon de les laisser une nuit dans l’eau ou pour les rehydrater ou pour les de-saler et ensuite les manger en salade ou dans une soupe tel-quelles. La levure de biere en poudre qui contient des proteines, de la vitamine B et du fer. Letter Entry? Vous pouvez en saupoudrer votre salade, c’est le « fromage » du vegetarien. Le pollen qui renforce le systeme immunitaire. California Bar Exam Essay? Au petit dej sur une tartine avec du miel c’est excellent. Ne pas boire pendant le repas car ca dissout le sucs gastriques.

Il vaut mieux boire 10 min avant ou au moins une heure apres. Le sucre comme les edulcorants artificiels (aspartame…) sont a bannir. Tuck Essay? Il existe une plante appelee « stevia » qui est un edulcorant naturel bien meilleur pour la sante. Bar Exam Essay? On peut la trouver en poudre, en herbe ou en liquide. Completion? Le miel est aussi tres riche. L’exces de sel est lui aussi tres mauvais. Essay? Il augmente la pression arterielle. Pour la maladie du vingtieme siecle, le stress, Azucena conseille de manger beaucoup de vitamine E, du zinc, du selenium, de la maca, du pollen. Essay? Et cote boisson, il faudrait des jus de fruit antioxydants (kiwi, orange, pomme, groseille, etc) en grande quantite (1,5L/j) et du the california essay vert. Le mot des nutritionnistes en herbe.

Si on gsce essays mange bien et equilibre au quotidien notre corps a beaucoup moins de probabilite de tomber malade car notre systeme immunitaire est a 100% operationnel. California Outlines? C’est d’autant plus important au printemps et en automne ou le corps doit s’adapter aux changements climatiques permanents (chaud la journee, froid la nuit). Cover Letter For Lab? Ce sont des periodes de forts changements ou on california bar exam essay est plus sensible aux attaques exterieures (un peu comme pour les plantes). Les effets d’une bonne alimentation ne se font pas ressentir instantanement : on pigments used preserve la vitalite de son corps et de son cerveau. Essay Outlines? Les effets de la vieillesse se font donc moins presents. Tuck Essay? Une bonne chose : rien n’est irreversible ! Un changement de regime alimentaire meme a 60 ans sera benefique pour les futures annees car le corps est tres reactif. Certains conseils sont evidents comme ne pas manger dans les restaurations rapides qui fournissent une alimentation pauvre, denaturee et uniformisee. Bar Exam Essay Outlines? Mais d’autres sont plus difficiles a integrer car ils demandent de modifier des reflexes subtilement imposes par notre societe. Gsce Essays? Eviter les aliments modifies par les industries agro-alimentaires comme les colorants, les edulcorants artificiels, les conservateurs, les ameliorants ou modificateurs de gout (ex : cube maggi) qui favorisent l’apparition de maladies degeneratives (cancers, diabete, etc). Bar Exam? Les eliminer de notre quotidien, ne nous assure pas d’eviter ces problemes mais permet de reduire considerablement les risques.

Nous ne sommes pas les seuls a proner ce genre d’alimentation, d’autres nous ont precede et ce sont pas les plus idiots… Gandhi, Pitagore, Brandt, Buda, Voltaire , de Vinci, Edison, Einstein, Rousseau ou encore Saint Francois d’Assis etaient vegetariens ! He oui ! Maintenant que vous avez les cles en main, faites marcher votre imagination et en avant la bonne bouffe ! Il faut repeter la verite inlassablement, car l’erreur aussi est prechee sans cesse, et non pas dans quelques cas isoles, mais par la masse. Dissertation Fellowship Northeastern? Dans les journaux et dans les encyclopedies, dans les ecoles et dans les universites, partout l’erreur regne, satisfaite et beate, sachant avoir la majorite de son cote. California Essay? Goethe. Vous l’aurez compris, il ne faut pas laisser nos bambins (petits et grands) devant ces propagandes mensongeres qui restent dans la tete des annees. Vos VRAIS amis pour la vie sont l’oignon et la pomme, meme si ca sonne moins bien ! Les monocultures : L’exemple du soja en Argentine. L’hemoglobine comme premieres graines de l’accroissement du capital argentin. L’histoire de l’Argentine repose en partie sur l’exploitation de ses ressources naturelles et notamment la production agricole.

Un modele economique base essentiellement sur l’exportation a permis de structurer et de consolider l’economie argentine (fin du XIXe, debut du XXe siecle). Essay? Une etape de ce plan a ete l’acquisition, par les forces militaires, des terres qui appartenaient a des communautes indigenes dans tout le sud de l’Argentine et en particulier dans la region de la pampa. California Bar Exam Essay? Le gouvernement de Julio Roca alors en vigueur a vendu de nombreuse espaces a des etrangers. Gsce Essays? Cette privatisation des terres s’est faite dans la douleur puisqu’elle a aboutit a l’elimination totale de nombreux peuples natifs de ces regions. Outlines? Par exemple de nombreuses terres ont ete achetees par Benetton (celui au pubs qui pronent la mixite…) pour y elever ses moutons. Ib Psychology Essay? Les pull-over de celui qui est alors devenu le plus grand proprietaire d’Argentine ont cause la disparition de nombreuses communautes aborigenes originaire de la region centre sud du pays (les Mapuches). Campagne de pub de Benetton, qui pourrait s’en douter ? Une agriculture contemporaine ancree dans la globalisation. L’expansion actuelle du capitalisme dans le domaine agricole (depuis les annees 1970) s’est faite par l’intermediaire de l’elimination de la plupart des impots et taxes sur l’exportation ce qui a favorise l’agriculture oriente pour le commerce international.

Autre fait marquant ; l’Etat s’est retire de ces activites ce qui a eu comme consequence la disparition des organismes regulateurs qui permettaient une agriculture sur plusieurs niveaux avec des exploitants socialement et economiquement varies. California Bar Exam Outlines? Le marche mondiale a alors uniformise petit a petit la vision du monde agricole argentin en lui imposant ses regles. L’industrialisation de l’agriculture permet de reduire fortement les couts de production notamment en diminuant fortement la main d’?uvre (un employer pour 500 hectares) et donc d’augmenter la rentabilite. Gsce Essays? C’est pour cela que les monocultures (ou productions en masse) se developpent aussi facilement dans un systeme capitaliste ou la speculation est reine. Bar Exam? Les resultats rapides et sans (ou tres faible) probabilite d’echec sont synonymes d’argent facile pour les grands proprietaires fonciers : de veritables mines d’or a priori inepuisables. Quand on pigments in photosythesis sait que la moitie des terres agricoles en Argentine appartiennent a seulement 10% de la population on california outlines peut facilement imaginer le pouvoir qu’ont ces proprietaires sur le reste des gens. Dr George Essay? Avec ces milliards brasses, il est alors facile de vous communiquer que leurs interets vous sont benefiques, de vous expliquer la bonne demarche a suivre, de vous persuader de ce dont vous avez besoin pour vivre et meme de vous apprendre a etre heureux.

Les grandes voies de transports qui structurent le pays sont d’ailleurs pensees par et pour ces grandes entreprises exportatrices comme Cargill SACI, Bunge Argentina SA, Nidera SA ou encore LCD Argentina (Dreyfus). Bar Exam? C’est l’une des consequences de la privatisation des entreprises de l’Etat. Le grand maitre a penser pour ces acteurs de la mondialisation a ete Monsanto (USA) qui est aujourd’hui, la plus grande entreprise mondiale de grain. Pigments In Photosythesis? Creee en 1901, elle a un lourd passif dans l’industrie de la chimie et tient sa reputation notamment des huiles chimiques (PCB ou Pyralene) utilisees comme isolant pour les transformateurs electriques jusqu’a leur interdiction au debut des annees 1980. Bar Exam Essay? Elles ont causees de nombreuses maladies et la mort d’une grande partie des habitants du village d’Anniston en Alabama (USA) ou le groupe a enterre ses huiles, mentant et cachant sur leur pollution. Ib Psychology? De nos jours, l’entreprise vend enormement de produits chimiques pour tuer les mauvaises herbes mais qui sont extremement nocifs a la fois pour l’environnement et la sante humaine contrairement a ce qu’elle affirme sur son site internet. Bar Exam Essay? Elle cree et vend aussi des graines OGM (comme le soja Rundup Ready) qui resistent a ses pesticides et notamment a l’herbicide glyphosate indispensable dans la methode de production a grande echelle utilisee notamment par les grandes exploitations. La technique de semi-direct consiste a debarrasser la terre des herbes parasites a l’aide de pesticides et de semer les graines a faible profondeur sans avoir besoin de labourer (ou seulement a tres faible profondeur).

L’entretien est tres facile car le soja de genetiquement modifie resiste aux produits qui tue toute autre plante. Comme Monsanto a achete toutes les autres entreprises de grains, 90% du soja argentin provient de ces graines transgeniques ! D’ici quelques annees il sera donc presque impossible de trouver des graines naturelles… L’autre revers de la medaille est l’appauvrissement de la productivite des terres cultivees. Gsce Essays? Labourer et mettre le sol en jachere pour qu’il se repose sont des concepts bannis par ces adeptes de l’argent facile. Les monocultures de soja : un danger ? Originaire d’Asie, le soja servait historiquement essentiellement a la preparation d’huiles. California Essay? Ces dernieres decennies, sa culture s’est diffusee partout dans le monde et son expansion s’est acceleree a vitesse grand V ses dernieres annees. Pour obtenir des revenus positifs, en agriculture, il faut la conjoncture de trois elements importants : un sol productif qui necessite le travail de l’agriculteur pour l’exploiter et le transformer en production. Pigments Used In Photosythesis? Par ailleurs, il faut aussi et surtout que le produit trouve sa place sur le marche a plus ou moins grande echelle. California Bar Exam Essay? C’est le principe de l’offre et de la demande (generee par un besoin) et l’un ne va pas sans l’autre.

La demande de biocarburants et d’aliments, d’une part et le fait que les terres au sud de l’Argentine soient tres fertiles, d’autre part, ont largement favorises le developpement et l’ancrage de la culture du soja dans ce pays. Pigments Used In Photosythesis? Aujourd’hui 55% des sols cultives en Argentine sont du soja dont plus de la moitie est consacree a l’alimentation d’animaux ou a l’exportation ; c’est l’exemple parfait de l’industrialisation de l’agriculture. Outlines? Mais le soja en lui meme n’est pas le probleme, il a juste beneficie d’un contexte favorable. Used? Par exemple c’est en grande partie grace a la vente du soja a l’etranger que le pays a pu sortir de la crise economique qui l’a frappee en 2001. California Bar Exam Essay Outlines? Ce contexte fait de l’Argentine le premier producteur mondial de soja et exporte plus des trois quart de sa production. Les monocultures, outre le fait de deteriorer les terres cultivees, sont un frein a l’alimentation diversifiee ; indispensable pour les populations locales (qui ne mangent pas ou peu de soja !). Answers? Ainsi les terres ou sont cultivees des aliments de base comme le riz, le mais ou encore le ble se sont faits petit a petit grignoter par la culture du soja. La necessite d’un retour aux sources.

Le sol est une entite vivante aux proprietes intrinseques, riche en azote, matieres organiques et en mineraux dont les plantes se servent pour croitre. California Outlines? Or aujourd’hui, toutes les substances necessaires a leur croissance sont apportees de l’exterieur par l’intermediaire de la chimie. Gsce Essays? Il ne s’agit pas de vouloir s’opposer aux progres technologiques, indispensables a l’epanouissement de l’humanite, mais de les utiliser a bon escient. Bar Exam Essay? Il est aberrant de considerer le sol comme un simple support mecanique pour planter des argentiers . Les consequences d’une agriculture non durable : Les agrochimiques utilises detruisent une grande partie de la biodiversite presente dans le sol. Il n’y a pas ou peu de renouvellement de la flore cultivee donc la structure du sol se degrade ; le sol ne filtre plus car il n’est pas aere par les racines et animaux fouisseurs (pedo-faune) qui n’ont plus de nourriture. La qualite de l’eau dans les nappes phreatiques est deterioree d’une part parce que le sol compact ne filtre plus beaucoup et d’autre part, les eaux sont polluees notamment par l’herbicide glyphosate.

L’appauvrissement en matieres organiques (plus au moins riches en mineraux) qu’assimile la plante pour vivre d’ou la necessite d’un apport exterieur de nutriments : les engrais. La proliferation de nouvelles especes de mauvaises herbes resistantes a l’herbicide utilise ce qui incite a l’utiliser en plus forte dose voire a repandre des produits encore plus toxiques. L’augmentation des parasites ravageurs et des predateurs attires par l’abondance de nourriture. La deforestation et la disparition des ecosystemes locaux au profit de la monoculture. Des maladies pulmonaires, fongiques et cancereuses causees par l’abondance de pesticides et engrais dans les zones concernees. Peu de solutions s’offrent alors aux petites et moyennes exploitations : Tenter de s’aligner sur les pratiques utilisees par les multinationales pour reduire au maximum le cout d’exploitation et ainsi avoir un produit competitif face a ces rouleaux compresseurs.

Peut importe alors la qualite du produit et les impacts occasionnes. Gsce Essays? Les producteurs noyes sous les dettes ne se rendent certainement pas compte des impacts environnementaux et sociaux qu’entrainent ces actions qui leur permettent de survivre. Louer les terres a ces entreprises ou leur vendre la production (de ble ou de soja principalement) en suivant leurs techniques et methodes agricoles. Bar Exam? Cela assure un revenu regulier pour vivre. Essay Answers? Environ la moitie des terres de la Pampa sont baillees (Recensement national agricole 2002).

Vendre la terre pour eviter le mal de tete et les problemes ethiques. Bar Exam? Le nombre d’exploitations agricoles a diminue de 25% ces vingt dernieres annees alors que leur superficie moyenne a augmente petit a petit… Cela s’explique notamment par l’envolee du prix de la terre dans ces regions et aussi par l’augmentation de la taille minimale pour qu’une exploitation soit rentable. Vivre hors du systeme et produire pour manger : l’autosuffisance. Tuck Essay? Il est alors possible de vendre/troquer une partie de la production pour acheter les vivres manquants en faisant partie d’un groupe de producteurs, d’une cooperative, d’une association. Bar Exam Essay Outlines? L’idee est de manger moins mais de meilleur qualite. Tuck Essay? C’est une methode un peu marginalisee dont la portee est regionale voire nationale mais qui permet d’avoir une tres bonne qualite de vie en controlant son alimentation. Bar Exam Outlines? Le commerce equitable va dans ce sens et essaye de rompre les frontieres malgre les barrieres posees par les multinationales.

Le Centre de Recherche et de Developpement pour la Petite Agriculture Familiale (Cipaf) affirme que les exploitations agricoles familiales representent plus de 66 % des agriculteurs dans le pays et generent 53 % de l’emploi rural en Argentine. Tuck Essay? (journal La Nacion, 2007). Nous avons passe 3 semaines dans une ferme ecologique qui fonctionne selon cette philosophie ( voir article ). La methode la plus interessante est de developper l’agriculture durable ou responsable en limitant au maximum l’apport de produit chimiques. California Essay Outlines? Tout residu d’une production est utilise comme « carburant » pour faire fonctionner d’autres systemes de production. Answers? Cela demande des connaissances scientifiques assez poussees pour analyser les differentes composantes et une excellente maitrise des facteurs agricoles (climat, regime des pluies, caracteristiques des sols) mais les resultats sont alors meilleurs, en terme de qualite, qu’en utilisant les techniques peu scrupuleuses des machines a fric. Bar Exam? La rentabilite est par ailleurs un peu plus longue a obtenir et generalement moins bonne du a l’aspect aleatoire de toutes les variables.

D’une maniere generale, il faudrait concevoir le territoire comme un patrimoine social commun et non comme un terrain de jeux pour investisseurs et speculateurs chevronnes. Dr George Essay? En effet, manger est un besoin primaire donc l’Etat devrait mener des politiques publiques pour garantir la qualite et la diversite de l’alimentation et proteger le pays des interets prives des exploitations internationales. Periodico Lavaca , Narco Soja n°33 – Avril 2010 Coccaro Jose Maria et Maldonado Gabriela Ines , « Reflexions critiques pour penser le territoire argentin aujourd’hui. Outlines? Le pretexte du soja » , Norois , 2009/1 n° 210, p. Dr George Essay? 43-68. California Bar Exam? Poinsot Yves , « Les enjeux geographiques d’un imperatif agronomique majeur : le « repos du sol » » , Annales de geographie , 2006/2 n° 648, p. Gsce Essays? 154-173. California? DOI : 10.3917/ag.648.0154 Documentaire , « le monde selon Monsanto » , Arte.

A l’etat de nature l’homme est un loup pour l’homme, a l’etat social l’homme est un dieu pour l’homme Thomas Hobbes.

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Law National Admissions Test (LNAT): Essay Questions. The Law National Admissions Test (LNAT) is a difficult examination that is used by a number of universities, in order to determine which candidates are the best fit for their law programme. The LNAT is incredibly tough. It is almost impossible to revise for, and bar exam essay requires an understanding of various cultural, social and ethical issues. The questions asked in the LNAT will test you on the skills needed to work within the legal profession.

All of this means that the LNAT is essay, not a test of knowledge, but one of aptitude. The LNAT combines strategic questioning with analytical assessment, in order to determine how well candidates can argue, understand and interpret written information. In order to pass the LNAT, you will need to demonstrate your ability in the following areas: Analytical Ability; Reading Skills; Interpretations; Comprehensive Understandings; Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Skills; Verbal Skills; The LNAT is designed to separate the candidates who are strongest, from those who aren't suitable for a career in the Law sector. Law courses, regardless of the california essay outlines university at which they take place, are extremely difficult. By setting the cover letter entry LNAT, universities can filter out the california outlines weakest candidates from their selection policy; and only give places to completion fellowship candidates who have a good chance of succeeding on essay their course. You will only be required to dissertation sit the LNAT if the university that you are applying to is part of the LNAT consortium. The list is as follows: University of Birmingham University of Bristol Durham University University of california essay Glasgow King's College London The University of Nottingham.

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Provide evidence and examples to california bar exam essay outlines support your reasoning and hypothesis; You need to think realistically about how much time you have to make the number of dr george essay points you want to discuss. California Essay Outlines? Distributing your time between each point will not only make your essay read more coherently, but it will ultimately demonstrate to the assessor that you have not spent too much time on one point, and not enough time on another; You should spend the gsce essays remaining 10 minutes concluding and re-reading your essay. Conclusions should only focus on the points you have already referred to. Summarise your key points and demonstrate your view/opinion on the overall matter; Assumptions work as well as facts. As long as you say what the assumptions are and what they mean in terms of the argument, your essay will still gain strong marks; The essay does not want you to 'sit on the fence' with your answers. You need to take a side and make a compelling argument. Now, let's look at california bar exam essay, two sample essay questions, and how to answer. This should give you some idea of what to gsce essays expect. When answering this question, the first thing you need to bar exam essay outlines be aware of is the used definition of patriotism itself. Patriotism is california bar exam, defined as having an emotional attachment to and pride in a nation, which an tuck essay, individual recognises as their homeland.

This question is asking you to analyse two things. -Firstly, it wants you to consider the reasons that you believe people should or shouldn't be patriotic. -Secondly, the california outlines question wants you to look at the consequences of patriotism, and tuck essay consider whether we should or shouldn't be patriotic in a wider context. For example, you could look at the positive effects of patriotism; i.e. taking an interest in the affairs of one's nation, paying taxes, providing social support etc., and contrast these with the negative effects of patriotism; i.e. nationalism, war and outlines hatred. Introduction . You should start off your essay by tuck essay, defining what patriotism is, before moving on to stating whether you believe it to california outlines be a good or bad thing. Then, you should state (briefly) why you believe this. For example, if you are against patriotism you could state that there are a number of social and gsce essays economic reasons for this. Bar Exam Essay Outlines? If you do include any assumptions, then make sure you tackle these in your essay. For. If you are arguing for patriotism, there are a number of ways in which you can make your argument: -Primary amongst these, you could argue, is the positive impact that patriotism has upon the citizens of a nation.

Patriotism encourages people to keep to the laws of the country, work for the greater good of the gsce essays nation and provide support to other citizens within that nation. -Patriotism often has the result that people of one nation are seen as a 'family', and will stand up for california, one another, living in unity and respect. The more patriotic the tuck essay citizens of a nation, the more they will work to build a stronger and healthier nation. This is bar exam essay outlines, particularly true for moments of national crisis. Completion Fellowship Northeastern? It's important for people not to feel alone in these circumstances, which can often be extremely emotionally testing. Bar Exam Outlines? A good example of this is the 9/11 attacks in America.

The people of the USA banded together to support one another, making the dr george essay events much easier to cope with from an emotional standpoint. -On a more minor level, patriotism also leads to positive events such as the World Cup or the Olympics, where national teams compete. Against . California Outlines? In order to argue against gsce essays, patriotism, there are a number of points which you could make: -You could start by enforcing the idea that patriotism is subconsciously xenophobic. We are all members of the human race, and bar exam outlines are no different to letter technician entry level one another. Countries are just arbitrary borders designed to enforce the california essay idea that English are different from Spanish, Italians from Germans etc. This is not healthy, and often leads to a severe clash of cultures. -Secondly, there are numerous examples from history that indicate patriotism being a negative thing.

Primary amongst these is the world wars. In particular, World War 2 was caused by gsce essays, extreme national pride (in Germany). Combined with severe social unrest, this led to an uprising which resulted in the deaths of millions of people. -You could also argue that despite the success of events such as the World Cup, there is still an underlying xenophobia prevalent from the citizens of each nation towards other nations. I.e. the English are rooting against the Italians, or the Germans, or the Spanish. Such events could easily be held without this. Often, it leads to people who aren't patriotic being ostracised or treated as traitors. California Bar Exam Essay? This is not healthy.

Counter . To counter the above, you could argue that there is a difference between patriotism and nationalism. Patriotism means having a healthy respect for your nation, whereas nationalism is the term for taking this to extreme levels. Used? World wars were caused by nationalism and not patriotism. Patriotic people are not encouraged to hate people of other nations; just to california bar exam outlines take pride and respect in their own. Patriotism should not be blamed for the behaviour of extremist individuals. Rebuttal . You could respond to dr george essay the above by essay, stating that although there is a difference between patriotism and nationalism, patriotism breeds nationalism. By enforcing an unnecessary and unhealthy idea that people of dissertation one nation are different from those of california bar exam essay outlines another, we generate tension between countries, which leads to dr george essay a sense of hatred from disenchanted individuals.

This results in extremist behaviour, and accelerates global conflicts. Conclusion . In your conclusion, you should pick a side, and then summarise the points that you have made for this side. Just as in the essay, it is bar exam outlines, a good idea to acknowledge the other side of the argument or one particular key facet of this side; before dismissing it with a strong counter argument. Make sure you clearly define the side that you have chosen, and the reasons that you have done this. This question requires you to examine the question of whether schools should have a uniform for their students. In Photosythesis? That is to say, a uniform which marks them out california essay, as being a student of the school/college/organisation. Tuck Essay? In order to bar exam essay outlines answer this question, you should consider the following points.

Firstly, you should look at the positive and negative elements that having an established uniform can bring. Secondly, you should look at whether a uniform becomes obsolete at a certain age, i.e. in school but not in used, sixth form. Introduction . In your introduction to this essay, you should state where you stand on the issue of bar exam essay outlines schools having a uniform. Gsce Essays? You can use brief and overarching examples, i.e. I believe that this is the case, largely for socio-developmental reasons. California Bar Exam Essay? You can include assumptions that you expect to make, provided you support them in your essay, and then look at whether you believe there is a particular age at which a uniform loses its value. For . In order to argue that schools should have a uniform, there are a number of points you could make: -Firstly, you could argue that having a uniform encourages discipline. Just as you would set rules for children to abide by, in order to encourage order, you would set out letter level, a uniform as a code of conduct. -Secondly, you could argue that children don't have the maturity to choose clothing that is california essay outlines, appropriate for the school environment.

They are at a rebellious age, particularly in letter level, their teens, and giving them the choice of what to wear to school could have negative consequences. -Thirdly, it could be argued that allowing children to wear their own clothes to school will detract from their learning. California Essay Outlines? Schoolkids and dr george essay teenagers are at a vulnerable age, where they should be focusing on their education. Allowing them to wear their own clothes gives them another thing to bar exam think and worry about. -Finally, you could argue that by having a uniform, schools reduce the chances of bullying. Schoolchildren are competitive, and there is gsce essays, a danger that certain individuals will be singled out for their choice of clothing, leading to conflict and california bar exam essay distress. Against . In order to ib psychology answers argue against school uniforms, there are a number of points you could make: -Primarily, you could argue that we should be encouraging children and teenagers to express their individuality. Their choice of clothing is a fantastic way to do this, and is a key form of expressionism. California Essay Outlines? People are unique, and shouldn't be grouped together in a communist fashion. -You could argue that having a uniform is actually more distracting than not having one, as having a uniform involves sometimes complex rules of formality; i.e. Essay? keep your shirt buttoned up to outlines this area, keep your socks this high, that can distract from their learning.

Allowing children to wear a relaxed and comfortable choice of clothing will have positive effects in the long run. Counter . To add to essay answers the above, you could also incorporate a discussion about whether schools should have a dress code, as a pose to a uniform. This would be a more relaxed code of dress, which allowed children to wear their own clothes, whilst still keeping to california bar exam essay a set of ground rules i.e. no offensive t-shirts, skirts above knee height, etc. If you are in favour of having a uniform, you could also discuss at what age you believe the need for a uniform becomes obsolete or loses its value. Conclusion . To conclude your essay, you should state clearly which side you are on, using the points made in your essay to back this up. You should also summarise any other arguments that you have made in the essay, for example on gsce essays whether schools should have a more relaxed dress code instead of a uniform. For more sample essay questions and bar exam essay answers, make sure you purchase our comprehensive guide! Law National Admissions Test: Essay Questions. This fantastic guide has been created by Richard McMunn, an expert within the industry.

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