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award winning essay Winning Essay Examples - College Scolarship Essays. Winning Essays for Scholarships. (Crabial, National Merit Scholar and Fulbright) Content provided by business plan EssayEdge's Harvard-Educated Editors. This section contains three scholarship essays: Scholarship Essay One - Crabiel Scholarship Essay Two - National Merit Scholar Scholarship Essay Three - Fulbright. Scholarship Essay One. CRABIEL SCHOLARSHIP WINNER - won $3,000 scholarship.

Like Mr. Crabiel, I literally work tirelessly in many academic and leadership roles. I sleep no more than six hours a night because of application essay, my desire to expertly meet my many commitments. Throughout my life, I have worked as long and as hard as I possibly can to business, effect beneficial changes in persuasive essay, both school and society. Gmbh! During the summer of tenth grade, I took a number theory course at Johns Hopkins University with students from Alaska, California, and Bogota, Colombia. Similarly, during the summer following eleventh grade, I was one of aliens essay, ninety students from New Jersey selected to attend the gmbh Governor's School in the Sciences at Drew University. At Drew, I took courses in persuasive, molecular orbital theory, special relativity, cognitive psychology, and I participated in an astrophysics research project. For my independent research project, I used a telescope to find the angular velocity of Pluto. With the business plan angular velocity determined, I used Einstein's field equations and Kepler's laws to place an upper bound on the magnitude of the cosmological constant, which describes the curvature of space and the rate of the california essay universe's expansion. Business Gmbh! In addition to learning science, I recently lectured physics classes on special relativity at the request of my physics teacher. After lecturing one class for benedictine essay, 45 minutes, one student bought many books on both general and special relativity to read during his study hall.

Inspiring other students to business plan gmbh, search for knowledge kindles my own quest to understand the world and the people around me. As president of the National Honor Society, I tutor students with difficulties in various subject areas. In addition, I am ranked number one in my class with an SAT score of 1580 and SATII scores of 750 in math, 760 in writing, and aliens essay 800 in physics. In school, I take the hardest possible courses including every AP course offered at the high school. I am the leading member of the gmbh Math Team, the Academic Team, and the Model Congress Team.

In the area of leadership, I have recently received the Rotary Youth Leadership Award from a local rotary club, have been asked to attend the essay on monasticism National Youth Leadership Forum on Law and the Constitution in plan, Washington D.C., and wrote the winning essay on essay on monasticism patriotism for business plan gmbh, South Plainfield's VFW chapter. Currently enrolled in Spanish 6,I am a member of both the Spanish Club and council the Spanish Honor Society. In addition, I recently was named a National Merit Scholar. Besides involvementin academic and leadership positions, I am active in athletics. For instance, I lift weights regularly. In addition, I am the captain of my school's varsity tennis team. So far this year, my individual record on the team is plan gmbh 3-0. Working vigorously upon being elected Student Council President, I have begun a biweekly publication of student council activities and opinions. Also, the executive board under my direction has opened the on monasticism school store for the first time in nearly a decade.

With paint and plan gmbh wood, we turned a janitor's closet into university essay a fantastic store. Business Plan! I also direct many fund raisers and charity drives. For instance, I recently organized a charity drive that netted about $1,500 for the family of Alicia Lehman, a local girl who received a heart transplant. As Student Liaison to the South Plainfield Board of university application essay, Education, I am working to introduce more advanced-placement courses, more reading of philosophy, and more math and science electives into the curriculum. At curriculum committee meetings, I have been effective in making Board members aware of the need for these courses. In addition, my speeches at gmbh public Board meetings often draw widespread support, which further helps to advance my plans for vatican council essays, enhancing the curriculum. I have also been effective as a Sunday school teacher. By helping elementary school students formulate principles and morals, I make a difference in their lives every week. The value system that I hope to instill in them will last them their entire lives. I find teaching first-graders about Christ extremely rewarding. Clearly, I have devoted my life both to working to better myself and to improving civilization as a whole.

Throughout the rest of my life, I hope to continue in this same manner of unselfish work. Just as freeholder Crabiel dedicates his life to public service, I commit my life to helping others and to advancing society's level of understanding. Scholarship Essay Two. WINNING NATIONAL MERIT SCHOLAR ESSAY. Nothing in all the world is comparable to reading Ayn Rand beneath New York's skyline or to plan, studying Nietzsche atop a mountain summit. Since childhood, the application studies of philosophy and science have interested me profoundly. Having read many books on relativity, quantum mechanics, existentialism, religion, capitalism, democracy and post-Aristotelian philosophy, my quest for knowledge has only intensified. Certainly, the purpose of my life is to discover a greater understanding of the universe and gmbh its people. Specifically, I plan to california essay outlines, better grasp the interrelationship among forces, matter, space, and time. Business Plan! In addition, I hope to find a unified field theory and a convincing explanation for the birth of the universe.

During the summer of tenth grade, I took a number theory course at Johns Hopkins University with students from Alaska, California, and Bogota, Colombia. My attendance of the ap essays New Jersey Governor's School in the Sciences is another accomplishment that exemplifies my dedication to knowledge. During the plan gmbh summer following eleventh grade, I took courses in on monasticism, molecular orbital theory, special relativity, cognitive psychology, and I participated in plan, an astrophysics research project. For my independent research project, I used a telescope to find the angular velocity of Pluto. With the angular velocity determined, I used Einstein's field equations and Kepler's laws to place an upper bound on the magnitude of thecosmological constant, which describes the curvature of space and the rate of the essay universe's expansion. In addition to learning science, I recently lectured physics classes on special relativity at the request of my physics teacher. Business Gmbh! After lecturing one class for 45 minutes, one student bought many books on both general and special relativity to read during his study hall. Inspiring other students to search for knowledge kindles my own quest to on monasticism, understand the world and the people around me. Also, as president of the National Honor Society, I tutor students with difficulties in various subject areas.

Moreover, I am ranked number one in my class, and I am the business leading member of the Math Team, the Academic Team, and the Model Congress Team. In the area of leadership, I have recently received the Rotary Youth Leadership Award from a local rotary club and have been asked to attend the National Youth Leadership Forum on Law and the Constitution in Washington D.C. Currently enrolled in Spanish 6,I am a member of outlines, both the Spanish Club and plan gmbh the Spanish Honor Society. As student council president, I have begun a biweekly publication of student council activities and opinions. Also, the executive board under my direction has opened the school store for essay on citizenship, the first time in nearly a decade and is finding speakers to speak at a series of colloquia on topics ranging from physics to business gmbh, politics. Directing fund raisers and charity drives also consumes much of my time. For instance, I recently organized a charity drive that netted about vatican council $1,500 for the family of a local girl in need of a heart transplant. Consistent with my love of freedom and my belief in democracy, which is best summarized by Hayek's Road to Serfdom, I have recently initiated an application to become the liaison to the local board of education. Also, in keeping with my belief that individuals develop strong principles and business plan gmbh ideology, I teach Sunday school three months a year and have chaperoned for a local Christian school. Outside pure academics and leadership roles, I lift weights five times a week for an hour each day. In addition, I play singles for second essays, my school's varsity tennis team.

Because I find extraordinary satisfaction in nature and have dedicated my life to its understanding, I enjoy mountain climbing. Among the notable peaks I have reached are Mt. Washington, Mt Jefferson, Mt. Madison, Mt. Marcy and Mt. Katahdin. Unquestionably, my life's aim is to business gmbh, dramatically raise the height of the on citizenship mountain of knowledge so that my successors may have a more accurate view of the plan universe around them. Scholarship Essay Three. Fulbright Application Essay.

On one hot late-summer day when I was in high school, my parents came back from a shopping trip with a surprise present for me: the legendary board game, Diplomacy. At first I scoffed at such an old-fashioned game. Who would want to waste glorious sunny days moving armies around a map of pre-World War I Europe, pretending to be Bismarck or Disraeli? But after playing the game once, I became absolutely riveted by the nuances of statecraft, and soon began losing sleep as I tried to craft clever diplomatic gambits, hatch devious schemes, and better understand the game's ever-changing dynamics. As my friends and I spent the second half of the summer absorbed by the game, my parents grinned knowingly. How could I resist being fascinated with Diplomacy, they asked me, when I incessantly read about international affairs, and liked nothing more than debating politics over california essay dinner? How could I resist being fascinated, when I had spent most of my summers in Greece (and, much more briefly, France and England), witnessing first-hand the ways in business plan, which countries differ socially, culturally, and bar exam essay outlines politically? Though my passion for foreign policy and gmbh international affairs undoubtedly dates back to high school, I never had the chance to fully develop this interest before college. Once I arrived at Harvard, however, I discovered that I could learn about international relations through both my academics and my extracurricular activities.

Academically, I decided to concentrate in Government, and, within Government, to take classes that elucidated the forces underlying the relations of states on university the world stage. Some of the most memorable of these classes included Human Rights, in which we discussed what role humanitarian concerns ought to play in international relations; Politics of Western Europe, in which I learned about the social, economic, and political development of five major European countries; and Causes and Prevention of War, which focused on unearthing the roots of conflict and finding out how bloodshed could have been avoided. Currently, for my senior thesis, I am investigating the strange pattern of American human rights-based intervention in the post-Cold War era, and trying to determine which explanatory variables are best able to account for it. Interestingly, I think that I have learned at least as much about business gmbh international relations through my extracurriculars in college as I have through my classes. For the past three years, for instance, I have helped run Harvard#8217; s three Model United Nations conferences.

As a committee director at these conferences, I researched topics of for psychology, global importance (e.g. the business plan gmbh violent disintegration of states, weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East), wrote detailed study guides discussing these subjects, and then moderated hundreds of students as they debated the topics and bar exam outlines strove to resolve them. Gmbh! Even more enriching for me than directing these committees was taking part in them myself. As a delegate at second vatican essays other schools#8217; conferences, I would be assigned to represent a particular country on a particular UN committee (e.g. France on the Security Council). I would then need to research my country#8217; s position on the topics to be discussed, articulate my view in front of others in my committee, and gmbh convince my fellow delegates to support my position. Trying to peg down a country#8217; s elusive #8216; national interest, #8217; clashing over thorny practical and philosophical issues, making and second vatican council breaking alliances #8212; - Model UN was basically a simulation of how diplomacy really works.

Thankfully, I have also found time over the past few years to cultivate interests and skills unrelated to Model UN and foreign policy. One of the most important of plan, these has been community service. As a volunteer for Evening With Champions, an annual ice-skating exhibition held to on monasticism, raise money for business plan gmbh, children with cancer, and as a teacher of a weekly high school class on current events and california bar exam essay international affairs, I have, whenever possible, used my time and talents to plan gmbh, benefit my community. Ap Essays! Another more recent interest of business gmbh, mine is the fascinating realm of business. Two years ago, my father#8217; s Christmas present to me was a challenge rather than a gift: he gave me $500,but told me that I could keep it only if I invested it in the stock market #8212; - and earned a higher rate of return than he did with another $500. Since then, I have avidly followed the stock market, and become very interested in how businesses interact and essay on monasticism respond to strategic threats (perhaps because of the similarities between business competition and the equally cutthroat world of diplomatic realpolitik).

A final passion of mine is business plan gmbh writing. As the writer of california outlines, a biweekly column in the Independent, one of gmbh, Harvard#8217; s student newspapers, I find very little as satisfying as filling a blank page with words -#8212; creating from nothing an elegant opinion piece that illuminates some quirk of college life, or induces my readers to consider an aliens essay, issue or position that they had ignored until then. Because of my wide range of business, interests, I have not yet decided what career path to follow into the future. In the short run, I hope to study abroad for on citizenship, a year, in the process immersing myself in another culture, and business deepening my personal and academic understanding of on citizenship, international affairs. After studying abroad, my options would include working for a nonprofit organization, entering the corporate world, and attending law school.

In the long run, I envision for myself a career straddling the highest levels of business gmbh, international relations, politics, and business. I could achieve this admittedly ambitious goal by persuasive essay advancing within a nonprofit group, think tank, or major international company. Perhaps most appealingly, I could also achieve this goal by entering public service and obtaining some degree of influence over actual foreign policy decisions -#8212; that is, becoming a player myself in the real-life game of plan gmbh, Diplomacy. Click here for for psychology, the free EssayEdge admissions essay help course. Use coupon code 10010101 for plan, 10% off EssayEdge editing.

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Natural Law, Natural Rights, and gmbh Private Property. In this essay I present a sketch of a classical natural law approach to natural rights and private property. Aliens Essay? The approach is “classical” insofar as it is grounded in metaphysical assumptions of the sort defended by ancient and medieval philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, and Aquinas — assumptions very different from the plan, paradigmatically modern, post-Cartesian metaphysical assumptions that underlie other so-called natural law theories, such as those of early modern thinkers like John Locke or the contemporary “new natural law theory” associated with John Finnis and Robert P. George. How exactly do the classical metaphysical assumptions in question differ from essay outlines, modern ones? To paint with an admittedly broad brush, classical philosophy tends toward essentialism , while modern philosophy tends toward nominalism and related views; that is to say, classical philosophers tended to take the view that things have essences or natures as a matter of objective fact, while modern philosophers have tended to hold either that things have no essences or that their essences are conventional, made by man rather than found in nature. Classical philosophy also tends toward a teleological view of nature, while modern philosophy tends toward a mechanistic one; or in other words, classical philosophers generally held that things are naturally oriented toward the realization of plan, certain ends or goals (“final causes,” as followers of Aristotle famously call them), while modern philosophers generally deny this.

It is often claimed that the classical metaphysical theses in question were refuted by modern science. That is not the case. In fact early modern philosophers like Descartes, Hobbes, and university essay Locke rejected the assumptions in question for a combination of political and plan gmbh philosophical reasons, and then simply redefined science in such a way that no explanation that made reference to on monasticism essences (as classical thinkers understood that concept) or final causes would be allowed to count as scientific. And in fact the plan gmbh, actual results of modern science are perfectly compatible with these classical metaphysical theses when rightly understood (as they rarely are by contemporary writers who lack expertise in aliens essay, the history of ancient or medieval philosophy). Indeed, contemporary “new essentialist” metaphysicians and philosophers of science like Brian Ellis, Nancy Cartwright, C. B. Martin, John Heil, and George Molnar have advocated a return to something like these older categories precisely as a way of making sense of business, modern science. These are, needless to say, large issues, and I have defended classical metaphysics at length, and polemically, in my book The Last Superstition — and non-polemically in my book Aquinas . The differences between classical and persuasive essay modern philosophers over metaphysics entail, at any rate, crucial differences over morality. For the classical tradition, the essence or nature of a thing determines an objective standard of goodness. To take a simple example, the fact that the essence of a Euclidean triangle is to be a closed plane figure with three straight sides entails that a triangle drawn slowly and carefully on business plan art paper with a fine tip pen and a straight edge is application a good triangle and plan gmbh one drawn hastily in crayon on essay the cracked plastic seat of a moving bus a bad one, because the former will at least closely approximate the essence while the plan gmbh, latter (with its inevitable broken and wavy lines) will fall far short of doing so. Similarly, there is an obvious sense in which a whole and healthy squirrel which likes to scamper up trees and gather nuts for the winter is a good squirrel while a sickly squirrel missing a tail or a leg which prefers to stay in a cage eating toothpaste on Ritz crackers is a bad squirrel.

For the former more closely approximates the normal anatomy and pattern of life that nature has set for essay, squirrels, as defined in part by business plan gmbh, the ends, goals, or tendencies (such as scampering about and gathering nuts) that are typical of the species. Obviously the examples given so far are not examples of moral goodness per se. (It would make no sense to accuse a badly drawn triangle or an injured squirrel of an ethical lapse!) But for the classical tradition in philosophy they illustrate a general concept of goodness of essay outlines, which the moral kind is a species. As the contemporary neo-Aristotelian ethicist Philippa Foot has emphasized (and as the business plan gmbh, squirrel example indicates), with living things especially, their “natural goodness” or lack thereof is to california bar exam essay be defined in largely teleological terms. The lioness who nurtures her cubs is a good lioness because she fulfills (to that extent anyway) the plan, ends set for her by nature, while the university application, lioness who allows her cubs to starve is to that extent defective , just as a three-legged squirrel or badly drawn triangle is defective. Unlike the goodness or defectiveness of triangles and plan gmbh the like, that of a living thing has to do not only benedictine application essay with the static realization of some archetypical shape or structure, but also with the business, development over time of certain paradigmatic behavioral patterns. In human beings, this standard of university application essay, goodness or defectiveness takes on a moral character to business gmbh the extent that our realization of, or failure to realize, the ends set for us by nature results from our freely chosen actions. Hence, to take a simple example, the human intellect is according to the classical tradition naturally oriented toward the pursuit of bar exam outlines, truth; that is its purpose , its final cause , even if it does not always realize that purpose (just as it is the natural end or purpose of the business gmbh, heart to pump blood, even if it sometimes fails to do so because of genetic defect or injury, or because Hannibal Lecter decides to for psychology make of gmbh, it a meal instead). For us to fulfill this end or purpose is for us to california essay outlines flourish as the kind of beings we are, while to fail to do so is to plan that extent to atrophy as a human being. It follows that to pursue truth is good for us and to fail to do so is benedictine university bad, and that those who pursue it are to that extent good or virtuous while those who do not are to that extent bad or vicious. Now practical reason, on this view, has as its own natural end the pursuit of what the intellect perceives to be good for business gmbh, us and the avoidance of what it takes to be bad.

Hence Aquinas’s famous claim that the self-evident first principle of natural law is that good is to be done and pursued and evil is to be avoided . Aquinas was not suggesting that it is on monasticism self-evident that we are bound by the moral law. Gmbh? What he means is persuasive essay that it is self-evident that whenever we choose to plan do something, we do so because we regard it as good in some way or other , and that when we avoid doing something we do so because we regard it as bad in for psychology, some way or other . This is true even of someone who is convinced that what he is business doing is morally wrong. The mugger who admits that robbery is evil nevertheless takes his victim’s wallet because he thinks it would be good to have some money to pay for ap essays for psychology, his drugs; the drug addict who knows that his habit is wrong and degrading nevertheless thinks it would be bad to suffer the unpleasantness of withdrawal; and so forth. We are simply built to pursue good and avoid evil in this thin sense. Business Plan Gmbh? But suppose that the intellect comes to perceive that what is in fact good for us is to realize the ends that nature has set for us and to avoid anything that frustrates the realization of those ends. Then to the extent that we are rational we will strive to realize those ends. In short, reason is built to pursue what it takes to essay on monasticism be good; what is in fact good is the realization of the ends set for us by nature; and thus a rational person apprised of the facts will seek to plan gmbh realize those ends. Aliens Essay? In this sense to gmbh be moral is simply to act rationally and to be immoral is to bar exam outlines be irrational. The obligatory force of morality thus follows from the natural end or final cause of reason, just as the content of morality follows from the natural ends or final causes of our various capacities more generally.

Morality, for the classical philosophical tradition, is thus doubly dependent on an essentialist and teleological conception of nature. Where do natural rights come in? The basic argument is this. We are rationally obliged to plan pursue what is good for us and to avoid what is bad, where “good” and “bad” are to be understood in terms of the essays, classical metaphysical picture described above. Hence we are obliged (for example) to pursue truth and avoid error, to sustain our lives and health and avoid what is damaging to them, and business plan so forth (ignoring for present purposes the various qualifications and complications a fully developed natural law theory would have to spell out). The force and content of these obligations derive from our nature as human beings. Now it is part of benedictine university application, that nature that we are social animals, as Aristotle famously noted. That is to business gmbh say, we naturally live in communities with other human beings and depend on them for our well-being in various ways, both negative (such as our need not to be harmed by persuasive on citizenship, others) and business plan gmbh positive (such as our need for various kinds of assistance from them). Most obviously, we are related to on citizenship others by virtue of being parents or children, siblings, grandparents or grandchildren, cousins, and so on. Within the larger societies that collections of families give rise to, other kinds of relationships form, such as that of being a friend, an employee or employer, a citizen, and so forth.

To the extent that some of these relationships are natural to us, their flourishing is part of what is naturally good for business plan, us. For example, as Foot has noted in her book Natural Goodness , “like lionesses, human parents are defective if they do not teach their young the essay, skills that they need to survive.” It is part of our nature to become parents, and part of our nature that while we are children we depend on our own parents. Accordingly, it is as a matter of objective fact good for us to be good parents to our children and bad for us to be bad parents, just as it is business (even more obviously) an objective fact that it is good for children to be taken care of by their parents. Now if it is good for a parent to provide for his children, then given that we are obliged to essay on citizenship do what is good for us, it follows that a parent has an obligation to provide for them. Similarly, since given their need for instruction, discipline, and the like, it is gmbh good for children to ap essays for psychology obey and respect their parents, it follows that they have an obligation to obey and respect them. But an obligation on business plan the part of a person A toward another person B entails a right on the part of B against A. It follows in turn, then, that children have a right to be provided for by their parents, and parents have a right to be obeyed and on citizenship respected by their children. And since the obligations that generate the plan, rights in question are obligations under natural law (rather than positive law) it follows that they are natural rights, grounded not in human convention but in human nature. Other obligations we have under natural law toward various other human beings will similarly generate various other natural rights.

At the most general level, we are all obliged to refrain from interfering with others’ attempts to fulfill the various moral obligations placed on persuasive essay them by the natural law; the most basic natural right is the right to plan gmbh do what is good and not to be coerced into doing evil. Individual talents and circumstances inevitably leave open several possible equally legitimate ways in which one might concretely pursue the goods set for him by nature, so that the natural law also entails a right to a significant measure of personal liberty (e.g. Council Essays? with respect to choice of spouse, career path, where to live, and so forth). Business? And of course we cannot pursue any good or fulfill any obligation at all if our very lives could be taken from us by others as they saw fit, so that the natural law entails that every human being (or at least every innocent human being) has a right not to be killed. Yet other rights would follow from various other aspects of the ends set for bar exam outlines, us by nature. This gives us some idea of business plan, how rights are generated under classical natural law theory, though it is, of course, very general, and natural law theorists would add a great many further details, complications, and university application qualifications to this basic account. It is gmbh particularly important to emphasize that the second council essays, classical natural law approach to plan rights theory puts definite limits on what we can be said to have a natural right to. For Psychology? While the very concept of a right entails a certain measure of liberty, that liberty cannot be absolute; for business gmbh, since the point of natural rights is to ap essays for psychology enable us to plan gmbh realize the ends set for us by university application essay, nature, there cannot, even in principle, be a natural right to do what is contrary to the realization of those ends.

In short, there cannot be a natural right to do wrong. That does not mean that classical natural law theory entails a paternalistic nanny state or the institution of a morality police. There might be all sorts of reasons, including moral ones, why that would be a bad idea even from a natural law point of view. The point is just that there can be no question of a natural right to indulge in vice, even if there might be pragmatic grounds, or moral grounds apart from rights-based ones, to tolerate such indulgence. Now, by nature human beings obviously need natural resources in order to gmbh survive.

But that fact is consistent with holding that they ought to be allowed only the use of natural resources rather than ownership of them, or with the view that natural resources ought to essay on monasticism be collectively owned. Of course, there are very serious and well-known practical problems both with a situation where natural resources are left in business plan gmbh, the commons and for psychology with any system of gmbh, collective ownership a la socialism and communism. But that would by itself show only that private property has certain practical advantages, not that there is a natural right to it. So how does classical natural law theory show that such a right does in fact exist? The case begins by noting that the institution of private property is essay something toward which we are both naturally suited and even require for business plan gmbh, our well-being. With respect to the former point, we can note first that an aliens essay individual human being’s intellectwill make it possible for him (unlike the lower animals) to plan gmbh take permanent occupation and control of a resource and to use it for his personal benefit; and such occupation, control, and benedictine university application use is precisely what private property consists in. Furthermore, in business gmbh, doing so the individual inevitably imparts something of his own personality to the resources he transforms, insofar as the particular properties a resource takes on as a result of his use and transformation of essay, it reflect his personal intentions, knowledge, talents, and efforts. In our very use of external resources, then, we tend unavoidably to put into plan them something that is already ours (which is, of course, something Locke also emphasizes in his talk of essay, “mixing our labor” with external resources).

So our inherent faculties naturally orient us toward private ownership. But such ownership is business gmbh also necessary for us. It is necessary for us first of all as individuals. An individual’s personal capacities and potentials cannot be exercised and persuasive essay realized, respectively, without at least some stable body of business, resources on which to second vatican bring his efforts to bear; the freedom of action required in order to do this cannot exist unless he has permanent access to at least some of those resources; and as the experience of gmbh, individuals in even the most egalitarian societies attests, human beings have a natural desire for at least something to call their own, and cannot be happy if this desire is frustrated. Ownership is also necessary for us as families. We are naturally ordered toward the having of children, and as we have seen, for classical natural law theory this entails an obligation to provide for aliens essay, whatever children we have, not only materially but spiritually, that is, with respect to their moral upbringing, education, and the like. As children grow to adulthood and have families of their own, they tend to need assistance from parents in starting out; there are other relatives (aunts and uncles, cousins and the like) to whom in some circumstances we might also owe some assistance under natural law, even if our obligations here are not as strong as to gmbh our own children; and there are always emergencies that need to be planned for as far as possible. As the california bar exam, fundamental social arrangement, for the sake of plan gmbh, which others (such as states) exist, it is also crucial that the family maintains a significant measure of independence. These considerations entail that families need to be able to amass wealth to which they have permanent rights of use and transfer. Finally, private ownership is necessary for the good of the larger societies that tend naturally to form out of groups of families.

Here the sorts of considerations favoring private property famously adduced by Aristotle and Aquinas become particularly relevant. For Psychology? The incentives to labor are massively reduced where the plan, laborer is not allowed to reap its fruits, which drastically limits the amount of wealth available for the use of society at large; economic and essay social planning are far more efficient when individuals are able to look after their own property than when things are held in common (a point Mises and Hayek have developed in illuminating detail); and social peace is plan gmbh more likely when individuals each have their own property than when they must debate over how best to california bar exam use what is held in common. If our natural capacities are ordered toward private ownership, and if the fulfillment of those capacities and of our moral obligations under natural law requires such ownership, then it follows, given the justification of natural rights outlined above, that the natural law entails a natural right to private property. So far, though, this establishes only the business plan, general institution of private property. We need to say something more to determine how a title to this or that particular resource can come to be acquired by this or that particular individual. That is to say, we need a theory of “original appropriation” or “initial acquisition.” The tendency of classical natural law theorists of property is to find the origin of second, such appropriation in first occupation.

Taking occupation of a previously unowned resource is necessary for ownership because unless one first takes hold of a resource, nothing else can be done with it at plan gmbh all, including the vatican, carrying out of any other procedure that might be claimed to be necessary for appropriation. In particular, one cannot “mix one’s labor” with a resource until one has first taken hold of business, or occupied it, for which reason classical natural law theorists tend to reject Locke’s theory of appropriation at least as an account of the essay on monasticism, fundamental means by which ownership gets started. Taking occupation is plan also (apart from a qualification to be noted presently) sufficient for ownership because it suffices to enable one to fulfill the ends for which natural law theory tells us the university, right to property exists in the first place. Though not as fundamental as first occupation, labor nevertheless also has a crucial role to play in the story of how property comes into being. Business Plan? For as noted above, for classical natural law theory, to labor over a resource is, as it were, to put into council it an impress of one’s own personality, and thus something one already has a right to. Furthermore, most of the value that comes to plan gmbh exist in ap essays, a transformed resource derives not from the resource per business gmbh, se but from the labor put into aliens essay transforming it. Hence the more one has put one’s labor into a previously unowned resource of which he takes first occupation, the stronger or more complete is plan his property right to that resource. This naturally brings us to the question of the limits on the right to private property, which is implied by the suggestion that a property right can be more or less strong or complete. As with natural rights in general, the aliens essay, right to private property has a teleological basis, namely the business plan gmbh, role it plays in bar exam essay, enabling us to realize our natural capacities and fulfill our obligations under natural law; and as with natural rights in business gmbh, general, this right is limited by the very teleological considerations that ground it. As what has already been said clearly implies, the right to private property, like our other natural rights, cannot possibly be so strong that it would justify us in doing what is contrary to aliens essay the natural law. Hence there can be no natural right to use our property for intrinsically immoral purposes.

As before, this doesn’t by itself entail that government must or even should regulate our private exercise of business plan gmbh, our rights so that it conforms to aliens essay the standards of natural law. But it does entail that there can be no natural law basis for arguments to the effect that outlawing strip clubs and drug dens (or whatever) is necessarily a violation of the natural right to private property. But there is another limitation on the right to business plan private property, one that is more directly related to its specific teleological grounding. On Monasticism? As we have seen, for classical natural law theory, property exists in the first place in order to allow individuals to realize their natural capacities and moral obligations by business plan gmbh, bringing their powers to bear on external resources. Hence if property rights were so strong that they would justify some people in using their property in a way that undermined the possibility for others to fulfill their natural ends and moral obligations, then the very point of the institution of private property would be undermined.

To take an extreme but clear example, if some one person or group of persuasive essay on citizenship, persons acquired a monopoly over some crucial resource (such as land or water) and refused those who did not have this resource access to it, or allowed them access only under onerous conditions, then it is obvious that the plan, institution of private property would allow some individuals to fulfill their natural ends at the expense of the ability of others to fulfill theirs. Clearly, then, the right to private property cannot be so strong as to justify such a circumstance. What does this limitation imply in practice? The most obvious implication is that individuals in circumstances of absolute distress have a right to the use of the resources of others, where the paradigm examples would be the starving man in the woods who takes food from a cabin, or someone fleeing robbers who can only escape by running through someone else’s back yard. Someone in essay on monasticism, circumstances like these is not guilty of theft or trespassing, because for actions like the ones in question to count as theft etc., the cabin owner or homeowner would have to have such an absolute right to his property that he could justly refuse to allow others to use it even in the circumstances in gmbh, question, and according to natural law theory, no one could possibly have so absolute a property right.

For similar reasons, some measure of relief for those who find themselves in economic straits and have no natural resources of their own to fall back on would be justifiable. But for classical natural law theory, the primary responsibility for such relief lies with the essay outlines, families of those in business, need of it, and taxation for such purposes would be justified only to the extent that such private means were insufficient. Government-provided relief is also best handled at the most local level possible. For given its family-oriented approach to social theory and private property, classical natural law theory is committed to the doctrine of subsidiarity , which holds that the more central authorities within a society should not carry out any functions that can be performed by less central ones (though it should carry out those which cannot be performed by the less central ones). Obviously, all of this raises questions I cannot answer here. [I pursue the aliens essay, matter in greater depth in my article “Classical Natural Law Theory, Property Rights, and Taxation,” in Social Philosophy and business plan Policy , Vol. 27, No. California Bar Exam Essay? 1 (2010).] But this much should suffice to indicate how classical natural law theory supports an business essentially conservative middle ground position between libertarianism and egalitarian liberalism. Ed Feser’s website can be found here and his blog here.

Edward Feser’s books include The Last Superstition: A Refutation of the ap essays for psychology, New Atheism and, most recently, Scholastic Metaphysics: A Contemporary Introduction. Rights to business plan Property and the Right to Appropriate. Edward Feser provides a classical natural law theory of rights, and property rights in bar exam essay outlines, particular. According to business gmbh Feser, human beings are naturally inclined to certain acts and ways of life. The fact of such natural inclinations makes acts and second vatican council ways of life in accordance with them morally worthy or even obligatory. Plan Gmbh? And, if I understand Whose Nature?

Which Property Right? In “Natural Law, Natural Rights, and Private Property,” Edward Feser offers a way for natural law theorists to be natural rights theorists, and he shows how natural law and natural rights provide the intellectual foundation for private property. This essay and his longer piece in Social Philosophy and Policy develop natural law theory in an A natural right arrives out of aliens essay, a natural instinct. If I find a shell on the beach, modify it to plan gmbh wear around my neck as an ornament then it is for psychology property of mine since the previous owner of the shell left it long ago. I keep that property right only business plan as long as I have sufficient means to defend it.

If you try to outlines take it my instinct is to do whatever is gmbh necessary to protect my property, even if it means that I must extinguish your continued attempts to draw air into your lungs. All rights are based off our individual ability to defend whatever right it is we are trying to hold onto. We carry within us the instinct for aliens essay, liberty, happiness and to persue whatever pleases us as long as we bring no foul or harm to the setting (social instinct/instinct of responsibility). Gmbh? This is application essay not a law made up by business plan, man ;despite the fact we hav e an aliens essay accrument of persons lusting to plan gmbh change our very nature. No law has any naturalness to it unless we can and are willing to defend and protect it. The instinct of survival does not always go to essay the strong. Vilhelmo De Okcidento says. “A natural right arrives out of a natural instinct. If I find a shell on the beach, modify it to wear around my neck as an ornament then it is gmbh property of mine since the previous owner of the shell left it long ago.” The term “property” when used in the phrase “private property” or “property rights” doesn’t refer to personal property but to land, resources the means of production.

All societies have a system of property rights but not all societies have any notion of private property. The modern notion of private property emerged only during the Rennaissance. I certainly agree with your idea of property in your analogy of the shell, but have to vociferously disagree that property remains ours only to the extent that we are able to defend it. Ap Essays? This idea has its roots in Darwinism vis a vis survival of the fittest. It takes no account of other natural law, primarily the principle of non-aggression which states that we shall take no action that will harm another. Theft, is by its very nature, causing “harm” to another. Gmbh? The shell does not cease to be “mine” just because you took it by force and I was unable or unwilling to ap essays sufficiently defend myself. Your attempt to steal “my” shell is the only act of violence in business plan, this scenario. If you are successful in bar exam essay, taking it because I had no weapon to defend myself, I can, at a later time, obtain a weapon and return to your house and take my shell back by force. My action would not violate any natural law as I am simply defending myself as long as I only used the force necessary to get my shell back.

If, after getting my shell, I beat you to death, then I would be in violation. The tenets of natural law and the non-aggression principle certainly depend on the assumption that humans are of a “higher” nature than the animals in so much that we are capable of higher thought and idealism. Since that can be shown to be true, it follows that we have a right to business existence and by extension, those people that share the earth with us have the same right. That is the basic idea from university application essay, which the non-aggression principle is business plan gmbh born. Darwinism assumes no such right. It says only that the the most violent of us will survive. I do not accept that assertion as valid or proven true. hi, who is the painting painted by and what’s the name of the painting? The financial crisis has weakened confidence in market economies everywhere in the Western world.

Not that the benedictine university essay, United States, let alone European countries, were ever wildly deregulated; but opponents of Desiccated by Judicial Dereliction. Originalism is a two-way street. Judges wishing to gmbh interpret the Constitution in benedictine university application, accordance with its original public meaning must not import into their decisions policy proscriptions not actually derived from The Challenges to Constitutional Government: A Conversation with Michael Greve. Federalism and administrative state maestro Michael Greve, a regular contributor to Law and Liberty, returns to discuss with us the crises American constitutional government is The Constitution and Prosecutor Mueller: A Conversation with Mike Rappaport.

Mike Rappaport joins us to discuss Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation of the Trump administration and what the business plan, Constitution has to say about it. After ISIS: A Conversation with Robert Reilly. Robert Reilly, author of the Closing of the Muslim Mind and a veteran information specialist in the Iraq War, talks about the future of Islamic Introducing Originalism: A Conversation with Ilan Wurman. Ilan Wurman joins this edition of Liberty Law Talk to discuss his new book, A Debt against the Living: An Introduction to Originalism. The Online Library of Law and persuasive Liberty’s focus is on the content, status, and development of law in the context of republican and limited government and plan the ways that liberty and law and bar exam outlines law and liberty mutually reinforce the other. Plan Gmbh? This site brings together serious debate, commentary, essays, book reviews, interviews, and for psychology educational material in a commitment to the first principles of law in a free society.

Law and Liberty considers a range of foundational and contemporary legal issues, legal philosophy, and pedagogy.

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4 Simple Ways to business plan, Dramatically Improve Clarity in ESL Writing Exercises. Teaching ESL students to write essays can be frustrating for both teachers and students. Students need to be able to write more than a sentence or two, and the additional effort necessary for writing an essay on monasticism essay can lead to plan gmbh, a lot of persuasive essay on citizenship unclear and confusing sentences. Those same sentences can give teachers a headache when correcting the writing exercises. Business Plan Gmbh? Luckily, there#8217;s a secret to dramatically improving the benedictine application, clarity in ESL essays. Gmbh? The problems of clarity can almost always be traced back to one element: the thesis statement . If students aren’t taught to write a coherent thesis statement, the rest of essay on monasticism their essays will remain unclear. So below we#8217;ll look at four simple ways to business gmbh, impressively improve clarity in your students#8217; writing just by focusing on the thesis statement.

But before we get there, let#8217;s consider the ins and outs of a thesis statement, plus some common problems you#8217;ll encounter in ESL writing exercises. To improve clarity in ap essays for psychology, ESL writing exercises, you must first teach students what a thesis statement is. Students who do not understand what it is will not be able to business plan, effectively follow any instruction on aliens essay, improving that all-important sentence in their essays. Because most ESL teachers now instruct students how to write five-paragraph essays, the thesis statement is easier to identify and write. In such essays, the thesis statement can be formulaic ; students answer the plan, essay question and provide three reasons/points of discussion related to university application essay, the topic in a parallel construction. Example: People should learn a foreign language because it improves career prospects, develops creative thinking and decreases the risk of Alzheimer’s. Once the students have their answer to the question, they can see that this sentence is business gmbh directly related to their three body paragraphs . Teachers should explain that the students can write their topic sentences to the body paragraphs using the ideas in benedictine university application, the thesis statement. This will keep the students focused on business plan gmbh, the topic throughout the essay. Essay? When students understand what the thesis statement is and how to use it in their essays, they will have an easier time writing essays for future courses. They will also be able to more easily identify main ideas when reading. Common Problems in ESL Writing Exercises.

When it comes to the thesis statement, the majority of problems are related to grammar. Many students will write an business unclear thesis statement because they don’t know what to write about and just continue writing until they get to what they believe to be an idea for their essay. Teachers must make it a priority to instruct students in ap essays, ways to write clear, concise sentences. I used to tell my students the plan, same thing my graduate professor told me, “Write as though words cost money. ” When students use more precise vocabulary, they eliminate wordiness and improve clarity. Teaching students to write in essay on citizenship, this manner takes a lot of time and effort, but can be achieved. With those five-paragraph essays that most ESL students learn to write, parallel construction is important . When students write the reasons for their answer to an essay question, they don’t think about parallelism. Many students have a difficult time understanding parallel construction, but if it is reviewed often throughout a course, the students will have a better understanding of it.

Combined with brief lessons on business plan, concise writing, the problems of parallelism in thesis statements can be minimized. So here are four simple ways to persuasive essay, address these common problems in ESL writing exercises to dramatically improve clarity in your students#8217; writing. 4 Simple Ways to Dramatically Improve Clarity in ESL Writing Exercises. 1. Provide Clear Writing Examples to Your ESL Students. The best method for getting students to write with more clarity is to provide them with clear examples of good thesis statements.

Every textbook on essay writing has numerous examples for every type of essay: persuasive, comparison and contrast, chronological and personal. Business Gmbh? Some textbooks will have better examples than others; it’s your responsibility to focus on the ones that are most effective. There are also plenty of benedictine university application essay university writing tutorial websites that provide additional examples for use in class, such as the Purdue OWL. However, there is no substitute for in-class examples on the board. Using possible essay topic questions suitable for your class#8217;s level, you can show the class how to business plan, write a clear, concise thesis statement including the process and word choice.

And while it#8217;s important to show students how to write an bar exam essay effective thesis statement, it is also helpful to provide them with examples of ineffective thesis statements . Show students thesis statements that are vague, confusing and wordy so they understand what you mean by vague, confusing and wordy. When students understand what those terms mean, they will have an easier time identifying and correcting the problems. 2. Business Plan Gmbh? Dissect the ESL Writing Examples with Your Students. After providing examples to your students, be sure to review why these examples work. Ask the essay, class what they see in gmbh, the example Does it answer a question? Does it provide reasons for for psychology the answer? Point out how the business plan, thesis statement addresses a question . If their example mirrors the standard five-paragraph essay thesis statement, show the students how parallel construction is used. Since ESL students should recognize the need to directly address the essay prompt, provide sample questions/topics in class to help demonstrate. If the essay question is, “Should every citizen be required to vote?,” then the students’ thesis should begin with, “Every citizen should/shouldn’t be required to vote.” From this phrase, the students can explain why they agree or disagree with the idea. Based on this model, students should be able to identify whether or not an example in aliens essay, class fits this formula.

Some ESL students learn to write better by correcting others#8217; mistakes. Use examples that have common mistakes and have the students identify and correct those mistakes. Teachers can also write an essay prompt on business, the board and then write a thesis statement, including some errors, based on that prompt. This activity will give students an university application essay opportunity to understand the thesis statement and improve their editing skills. Be sure to include mistakes involving parallelism and wordiness, as well as examples that don’t actually answer the writing prompt. Business Plan Gmbh? 3. Practice Writing Thesis Statements. Students will get bored of the examples unless they’re broken up throughout the course. As teachers, we need to offer more hands-on activities to benedictine university application essay, give students the opportunity to show that they have learned the process of writing thesis statements. Depending on the type of essay that your students are learning to write, provide a sample essay prompt and have the students write a thesis statement. This can be done with handouts of multiple essay prompts or with the business plan, prompts written on the board.

You can walk around the essay on citizenship, room and business plan see how the application, students are doing with the writing prompts. This may help with suggestions during the business plan gmbh, review period. When the class has completed the exercise of writing multiple thesis statements, you can review using volunteers who want to share their answers. For Psychology? Take examples from at least two students for business each practice writing prompt. Essay On Monasticism? When doing so, have the business plan gmbh, students write their thesis statements on the board and review them with the aliens essay, entire class.

The other students should be able to provide feedback and corrections for their classmates. You should provide further feedback after the class has finished evaluating their classmates. After completing an evaluation of the answers to the first writing prompt, have the class go back and proofread their other thesis statements and then review their writing the same way as before. Another form of business gmbh practice to review students’ thesis writing abilities is to write theses as a group. After students have learned the basic structure of a thesis statement for each type of essay, they should be able to essay on monasticism, help each other out when working together. For this exercise, it’s best to pair students with weaker writing skills with ones who better understand the structure.

As with the previous exercise, provide your students with multiple essay prompts, and the groups will write a thesis statement for each. So in groups of three or four students, they all have to agree on gmbh, what to council essays, include in the thesis statement. This will not only improve students#8217; ability to business plan, write a clear thesis, but may also improve their logical division of ideas in essays. Adding exercises like these to an ESL writing course will greatly improve the quality of student essays over the course of a semester. Students and teachers need to realize that these writing exercises are not a quick fix for the problems of unclear writing, but rather a tool for council gradually improving. Some students may need a reminder of this as they may become frustrated with their mistakes, but the ability to write a clear and concise thesis statement is the first step towards writing a clear essay. Gmbh? If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to teach English with real-world videos. Essay? FluentU brings language learning to life with real-world videos. Learning a foreign language becomes fun and easy when you learn with movie trailers, music videos, news and inspiring talks.

FluentU is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to business plan gmbh, earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. We also participate in other affiliate advertising programs for products and services we believe in. By purchasing through our affiliate links, you are supporting our ability to provide you with free language learning content. 2017 FluentFlix Limited. All Rights Reserved.

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cliff notes essay M ercaptans and other volatile sulfur compounds in wine. Printable version is available here. An article on volatile sulfur compounds in wine isn’t likely to turn many heads. Business Gmbh? In truth, it’s the sort of topic that gets filed away as ‘worthy but dull’, and only ever gets read by people who are swotting up for california, their diploma or MW, and then gets promptly forgotten. Aware of this, I’m willing to strike a deal with my readers. If I try my best to cover this otherwise fiercely dull and technical wine science piece in a manner that is both readable and doesn’t require any specialist science knowledge, will you try to business gmbh, venture below the first paragraph? Volatile sulfur compounds, and persuasive specifically mercaptans, are a hot topic in wine at the moment, so it’s worth learning a bit about them. Business Plan? These are the compounds largely responsible for the olfactory defect known as ‘reduction’. And there’s a lot of ignorance and misinformation appearing about them, even in print.

My aim in this piece is to present a step-by-step guide to these molecules in wine, bringing in some of the latest research and providing an accessible introduction to the subject without skimping on the meaty bits. There are around 100 volatile sulfur compounds that have been identified in wine, but only a few are significant enough to be included in our story here. What do you need to know about ap essays for psychology them? First and plan foremost, they are smelly. Thus even at low concentrations they can have a sensory impact on the wine.

Second, they are chemical chameleons, able to subtly change their form depending on the wine environment they are in: this is significant because if they are below detection threshold in one less smelly form, they may suddenly become noticeable in benedictine application another more smelly form. Third, they aren’t all bad: recent research has shown that they are important contributors to varietal character in many wines, so winemakers should be careful not to plan, just eliminate them randomly. ‘Reduction’ is the term used to describe the presence of volatile sulfur compounds in wine. It’s actually a bit of aliens essay a misnomer. Let me try to explain why. Reduction and business gmbh oxidation are two different chemical processes that complement each other. In a chemical reaction, electrons change hands, and as one compound is oxidized another is benedictine reduced. If there is plenty of oxygen around, then chemical components in a wine will be gradually oxidized (the electrons are transferred from the chemical components in the wine to the oxygen). The end result is an oxidized wine. During fermentation the yeasts need oxygen, and in the early stages of red wine development a little oxygen is helpful because it allows the oxidation of some ethanol to acetaldeyde (also known as ethanal) which can then help with the development of tannins and pigmented polymers that are important in building structure and colour (this is the theory behind microoxygenation).

But after this, wine development is largely reductive: that is, it occurs best in the relative absence of business plan gmbh oxygen. This is where we will need to get to grips with a chemical term: redox potential. This is a measure of how oxidative or reductive a system, such as a wine in barrel or bottle is, and it is measured in millivolts (mV)—the higher the reading, the california outlines less reductive. Business Plan Gmbh? Typically, an aerated red wine will have a redox potential of 400–450 mV, whereas storage in the absence of air for some time will reduce this to 200–250 mV. If levels get as low as 150 mV then there is a danger that reduction problems can occur. Exposure to oxygen through winemaking practices such as racking, topping up barrels and filtering, increases the level of dissolved oxygen in the wine and ap essays increases the redox potential, which will then return to 200–300 mV. In white wines, this redox level will change much more rapidly than red wines, because red wines have a higher concentration of plan gmbh phenolic compounds such as tannins which are able to essay, interact with oxygen, and act as buffers.

Another variable here is the level of free sulfur dioxide in the wine, which will act protectively by business, reacting with the products of oxidation. Yeast lees also scavenge oxygen and california bar exam essay protect the wine in a similar fashion, helping to lower the redox potential and create a more reductive environment. In modern winemaking, reductive conditions are encouraged: the protection of wines from oxygen by the use of stainless steel tanks and inert gases helps to preserve fresh fruit characters. These r eductive conditions—those in which oxygen is business gmbh more or less excluded—can also favour the development of smelly forms of sulfur compounds. For Psychology? This is where thee term ‘reduced’ comes from, and if this ‘reduction’ occurs before bottling, addition of oxygen may correct the business gmbh fault. But it is important to benedictine university essay, note that these sulfur compounds can develop in wine even in non-reductive conditions, at which stage further oxygen exposure may result in turning a smelly wine into a smelly oxidized wine. Equating the term ‘reduced’ with the business plan presence of volatile sulfur compounds is therefore an oversimplification. Ap Essays For Psychology? In fact, when people use ‘reduction’, they are actually referring to the presence of sulphur compounds. The use of this term is quite unhelpful, because it is scientifically imprecise and can be misleading. ‘ Reduction is a simplification, a language abuse,’ says Dominique Delteil, scientific director of the plan ICV in application the south of France. ‘As often occurs in wine vocabulary, tasters have been willing to gmbh, link sensory sensations to chemical or physical states, without being sure they are real or not. Reduction is typical of california bar exam essay this.’ Delteil continues, ‘I prefer to call this concept sulfur flavours rather than reduction.’ Now that we’ve spelt this out, I hope that no one will object to me continuing to use reduction as a shorthand for these sulfur flavours.

Volatile sulfur compounds: a quick tour. So what are the characteristics of reduction? These can be quite variable, and this is probably why there’s some confusion on the subject. Table 1 summarizes some of the gmbh commonly encountered sulfur flavours in wine. TABLE 1 Some of the volatile sulfur compounds in wine. Rotten eggs, sewage.

This is the main baddy, made by persuasive, yeasts when they use one of the sulfur-containing amino acids as a nitrogen source. Plan Gmbh? Stress also encourages its formation. Mercaptans (also known as thiols) This is a large group of very smelly sulfur compounds. Terms such as cabbagey, rubbery, struck flint or burnt rubber are used as descriptors. If hydrogen sulfide isn’t removed quickly, it can result in mercaptan production. Benedictine University Application Essay? This is a big worry for winemakers. burnt match, sulfidy, earthy. Often negative, but can be positive in business plan gmbh the right wine environment at certain levels.

methyl mercaptan (methanethiol) rotten cabbage, cooked cabbage, burnt rubber, stagnant water. One of the compounds implicated in screwcap reduction. Cooked vegetables, cooked corn, canned tomato at high levels; blackcurrant drink concentrate at lower levels. Quince, truffle. Sweet, ethereal, slightly green, sulfidy. Vegetal, cabbage, onion-like at high levels. garlic, burnt rubber. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) Tropical fruit/passion fruit at low levels; cat’s urine at higher levels.

These are the polyfunctional thiols that are common in Sauvignon Blanc but also found in red wines where they can contribute to the blackcurrant fruit aroma. An example of second sulfur flavours that can be positive in gmbh the right environment. Can be positive in the right context and at ap essays for psychology, the right levels. Where do these sulfur compounds come from in plan gmbh the first place? It’s mainly from yeasts. In particular, if yeasts are having a hard time finding enough nitrogen in the musts, they’ll make use of the amino acid cysteine as a nitrogen source. Essay? Cysteine contains sulfur, and this sulfur is gmbh recombined chemically by the yeast metabolism to form the smelly sulfur compounds that are the subject of this piece. It is bar exam outlines of great importance, therefore, for winemakers to make sure that their yeasts are happy and have an business plan, adequate nitrogen supply. ‘Yeast assimable nitrogen’ is the technical term that’s used here.

But even where the yeasts are relatively happy, some formation of benedictine application sulfur compounds during fermentation seems inevitable. Business? And these compounds need careful handling by winemakers if they aren’t to turn into problems. Why sulfur compounds in wine is officially a hot topic. Volatile sulfur compound chemistry is a hot topic in wine for two reasons. First of all, the closures debate has pointed the finger at screwcaps in sealing wines so tightly that the benedictine university application resulting wine environment has a low redox potential that in business plan turn encourages reduction.

Secondly, one of the high-end discussions among wine makers is whether reduction is always a bad thing. Recent work has shown that some of the volatile sulfur compounds are important components of the varietal character of Sauvignon Blanc. They may also be important for other wine styles, too, and have also been isolated from wines made with Gewrztraminer, Riesling, Colombard, Petit Manseng, Semillon, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, among others. And there’s some interesting evidence that ‘reduction’ at a low level, in second vatican essays the right wine contexts, may be an important complexing factor. Could it even be that what we think of as minerality in wine, which we attribute to plan gmbh, the soil—terroir, if you will—could all be about volatile sulfur compounds? Now there’s a thought. Let’s first correct a popular misconception, though. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is not a volatile sulfur compound, and is not really part of the ‘reduction’ syndrome. SO 2 is essay on monasticism added to wine in business plan gmbh order to provide microbiological stability, and perhaps more importantly to prevent oxidation.

Actually, it’s a little more complicated than that. SO 2 splits into various molecular forms in wine, of which only the california bar exam free SO 2 has any protective activity. It reacts with oxygen only slowly, so in actual fact its role is to gmbh, bind up the products of oxidation in wine so that the oxidation isn’t apparent, even though oxidation of the wine components will already have occurred. This is a complicated, but important story, but it isn’t terribly relevant to application essay, our discussions here. Now the business plan really controversial bit. Can you believe it?

Sulfur compounds in wine—‘reduction’—has been in the national press in the last few weeks. The Daily Telegraph carried a story titled ‘Screwcaps blamed for tainting wine’ on 19th September, which was also picked up by other news outlets. This was prompted by persuasive essay on citizenship, the results of the faults clinic from the 2006 International Wine Challenge (IWC). ‘In a number of cases the IWC chairmen validated a link between screw cap use and a unfavourable vegetal/rubber flavoured compound—presumed to be a complexed sulfide’, reports Sam Harrop MW, who was one of the four IWC chairs. ‘At first glance a percentage of business 4.9% of total faults may not seem high, but when examined in aliens essay the context of plan total screw cap figures, a more worrying rate of 2.2% [of all screwcapped wines] emerges. In the context of the 2006 IWC cork taint figure of 2.8% [of all natural cork-sealed wines], this fault type is bar exam outlines significant and plan gmbh should be given more attention by wineries using screwcap.’ However, Harrop is keen to emphasize that he’s not equating the two: ‘While the IWC figures for aliens essay, screwcaps are a concern, there is no question in business gmbh my mind that the continued incidence of cork taint is still a more serious issue.’ The potential problem with sulfides in screwcapped wines first came to the wine world’s attention through the magnificent closures study began by the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) in 1999, and which has been reported on at regular intervals as the wine (a 1999 Semillon from the Clare Valley) has developed under a range of some 14 different closures. Essay On Monasticism? Included in this study was a metal-lined screwcap.

The liner is business plan gmbh important here: the vatican council essays oxygen transmission properties of a screwcap are determined by its nature. Plan? In Australia and New Zealand, the two countries where screwcaps have seen the benedictine essay largest take-up, the almost universally used liner has a metal layer in plan gmbh it (usually tin; sometimes aluminium). This creates a highly gas-impermeable seal, with very little oxygen transmission. These liners are instantly recognizable because they have a metallic appearance. The other commonly used screwcap liners for wine appear white—these are known as saranex-only liners and allow more oxygen transmission, although probably a bit more than is needed just to aliens essay, avoid reduction, and likely more than we’d want of a closure for business plan, wines destined for keeping for more than a few years. In the first major report from essay this closure trial, 20 months on, the AWRI reported that the tin-lined screwcaps performed as expected: with their tight seals they kept the wine freshest, and the screwcapped bottles scored highest for fruity aromas, maintaining the highest levels of free sulfur dioxide while showing the least colour development. But they also scored highly for ‘struck flint/rubber’ in the sensory analysis. This observation persisted through all time points of the study, including the plan gmbh most recent report at 63 months post bottling. Second Essays? Subsequent trials which have examined the performance of metal-lined screwcaps have reached consistent results, as have studies using sealed ampoules where there is business plan gmbh no oxygen transmission at essay on monasticism, all. ‘Reduction’ seems to be a problem in these sorts of analytical studies involving metal-lined screwcaps. The obvious explanation is that the low redox environment of the screwcap-sealed wine is causing some unwanted sulfur chemistry to plan gmbh, occur, with sulfur compounds shifting from a less smelly (and thus unnoticed) form to a more smelly (and thus noticeable), more reduced form. What are we to aliens essay, make of this?

Is it a real world problem on a part with cork taint, or is gmbh it just a minor technical problem—a teething issue that just needs a bit of tweaking? The latter position has been the one consistently adopted by aliens essay, proponents of screwcaps. Indeed, quite a number of individuals and wineries have aligned themselves strongly with this closure type by signing up to the International Screwcap Initiative. Plan? They have invested a fair bit of emotional energy in this cause, as well as several years’ production of their wines, so their natural response to on monasticism, these sorts of data is to business plan, either fight or deny them. Others have been gunning for on citizenship, screwcaps to fail—none more so than the business plan cork industry who see their livelihood threatened by this remarkably easy-to-use (from the consumer’s perspective) closure. Since the publication of the first AWRI report in 2001, there has been just a trickle of data on the subject of screwcap reduction. But little by little a clearer picture has emerged, and I would go so far as to ap essays for psychology, say that the current weight of business plan gmbh evidence suggests that the issue of mercaptans in persuasive essay on citizenship screwcapped wines is business plan problematic enough that some caution should be exercised in their use. First we have the consistency of the observation: where people have been looking carefully at screwcapped wines, these mercaptans (or what people believe to be mercaptans from aliens essay sensory analysis) have always been found. Then we have anecdotal observation by interested parties.

I’ve done side by side tastings of the same wines sealed by screwcap and a more permeable closure (Diam or cork), and the difference has been striking. Business Gmbh? Of course, the essay on monasticism value of this sort of observation depends on your view of my palate and intellectual independence. But I was personally convinced that there was a consistent character appearing in business the screwcapped wines, which, while I probably would not have noticed it on its own if I hadn’t been looking, appeared detrimental to the wine quality when made evident in the side-by-side comparison. Australian wine writer Campbell Mattinson, reporting on a tasting in which he encountered a number of reduction problems with screwcap wines, has the following to say. ‘Excessive reduction in a wine is a winemaking issue, not a closure issue. I know this. I’ve been told it 357 times—at least. Essay On Citizenship? Right. What I want to know then is: screwcaps have been in increasingly high volume use ever since Orlando bottled its 1998 Richmond Grove riesling under it. It’s now 2006. How long, en masse, is it going to take for winemakers to business, get it right?

When is the “winemaking issue” going to end? Should we restrict the use of screwcaps only to those winemakers who actually know what they’re doing? At what point do we say: screwcaps are fabulous, but too many in the industry can’t be trusted with them. California? Do we need to introduce a Screwcap Licence system?’ A recent comparative tasting of screwcapped and cork-sealed bottles was reported by business plan, Ralph Kyte Powell in Australian newspaper The Age (21 February 2006).

24 wines were tried, white and red. This comparison was particularly useful because tasting notes were given for each of the wines. University Application Essay? Reading these notes, two points are emphasized. First, that the wines taste quite different in almost every case. Plan Gmbh? Second, that the number of descriptors indicative of the presence of mercaptans in the screwcapped wines is benedictine application essay striking. This suggests that screwcap reduction is plan gmbh a real world problem: bottles are out on monasticism, there showing it. New Zealand winemaker (Stonecroft, Hawkes Bay) and PhD chemist Alan Limmer has been a bit of a thorn in business gmbh the side of the aliens essay screwcap lobby. He has written widely on the subject, bringing his knowledge of wine chemistry to bear. In particular, Limmer has pointed out that screwcap reduction is not a problem that can be completely eliminated by better winemaking, as many have claimed. Gmbh? ‘In essence we are talking about thiol accumulation, post-bottling, from complex sulfides which do not respond to pre-bottling copper treatment,’ claims Limmer, in response to the assertion that fining with copper removes reduction defects. ‘This reaction occurs to all wines containing the essay appropriate precursors, irrespective of closure type.

But the varying levels of oxygen ingress between closures leads to significantly different outcomes from a sensory point of gmbh view.’ Limmer’s explanation for screwcap reduction is that sulfides present in the wine at bottling necessitate a very small level of oxygen ingress through the bar exam closure, otherwise they can become reduced to business gmbh, thiols. Essay? Because sulfides are less smelly, it is possible for a wine that is clean at bottling to taste reduced after bottling if the business plan closure doesn’t permit enough oxygen ingress. So the use of a closure, such as cork, which does allow a little oxygen ingress (but not too much) is a necessary concession to the vagaries of california essay outlines sulfur chemistry. Of course, we’d rather not have the sulfides in the wine at all, which would then avoid problems with reduction to mercaptans at a later stage. But, as Limmer points out: ‘Controlling ferments to business plan gmbh, not produce the complex sulfides is beyond our means currently.

This sulfide behaviour of the application essay ferment is more controlled by business plan, the yeast genetics than the winemaker,’ he explains. ‘It is second essays not the winemaker’s fault these compounds exist in the wine at bottling. We can minimize it to some extent by gmbh, providing optimum nutrient conditions for the ferment, and employing some specific winemaking regimes. But, the research tells us this only has a slight impact on the complex sulfide pattern produced by the yeast.’ Limmer reinforces his point: ‘The patterns are quite specific to each yeast type, almost irrespective of nutrient conditions. Every wine contains these complex sulfides.’ What can winemakers do to outlines, eliminate unwanted sulfur compounds from plan gmbh their wine? A healthy ferment should help, and then copper fining is widely touted as the solution. Vatican Council Essays? This certainly gets rid of plan gmbh mercaptans, but it doesn’t eliminate disulfides which can, as we have seen, can revert in a low redox environment to mercaptans. For this reason, Limmer calls copper fining ‘the Ambulance at essay, the bottom of the business cliff’. Besides, copper fining will also remove the desirable sulfides which are important for varietal character in Sauvignon Blanc and other grapes. The new cork taint?

We have to be careful, however, not to overstate the potential threat caused by mercaptans in wines that are sealed by university application, ultra-low permeability closures such as tin-lined screwcaps. The extent of screwcap reduction is currently unclear. It seems that there are some things that winemakers can do to miminize its occurrence, even if, as Limmer asserts, it can’t be avoided altogether. Business Plan Gmbh? The IWC data indicating that 2.2% of screwcapped wines suffered from mercaptan problems are alarming, but it should be borne in mind that cork taint irredeemably ruins bottles it affects, while very few consumers will have a problem with low level mercaptans in their wines [although most of us can remember at least one occasion where friends or relatives have happily sipped corked wine; still, I think there’s some validity to my point]. I doubt that most of the wine trade would spot this as a problem in benedictine university application all but the most extreme cases, so it is unfair to equate it with the very well recognized problem of business plan cork taint. Having said this, though, screwcap-sealed wines affected by mercaptans should be a major concern for winemakers because the closure is modifying the flavour of the wine, which is emphatically not reaching the aliens essay consumer ‘the way the plan gmbh winemaker intended’. It would be dangerously complacent for the industry to take the view that if the consumer doesn’t notice it, then it doesn’t matter. Personally, I am slightly concerned that low level mercaptans may be affecting far more than 2.2% of second essays wines sealed with screwcaps. ‘They impact from an organoleptic perspective towards the business gmbh end of the second vatican palate’, claims Limmer, ‘imparting a “mineral” or bitter/hard/astringent aspect.

This has the appearance of shortening or closing up the palate, so the gmbh wine does not display a fine fresh long finish, but ends abruptly, and somewhat harshly.’ This is describing something I’ve certainly noticed in side-by-side comparisons of cork and screwcap-sealed wines. Is it happening all the time, but going more-or-less undetected? Gregor Christie of membrane cork company ProCork has been concerned enough about this problem that he has sent of wines for california bar exam essay outlines, testing at ETS laboratories in California. Gmbh? Clearly, Christie has a commercial imperative for showing that ProCork is california essay superior to tin-lined screwcaps in this regard, but even given this motivation, the results are interesting. Christie took the 2002 Clare Valley Semillon used in the commercial closure trial run by the AWRI, comparing ProCork with natural cork and screwcap, and business gmbh submitted bottles sealed with all three closures to ETS for testing for benedictine university application, a range of volatile sulfur compounds. For methyl mercaptan, which has a perception threshold of business plan gmbh 0.3 parts per billion (ppb), both the cork- and ProCork-sealed bottles were below detection limit. California? However, the screwcapped bottle showed a level of 0.6 ppb, above perception threshold. But a sense of perspective is called for here. Business Gmbh? There’s a real danger that the message that is distilled by journalists from all this technical talk becomes a misleading ‘screwcaps taint wine’ story. Benedictine University Application? The picture emerging is a complex one, but such a simplification would be dangerous if it caused producers to back away from adopting alternative closure solutions, which would then have the knock-on effect of removing any incentive from the cork industry to put its house in order and do all it can to reduce taint levels. However, complications like this mercaptan issue should put pressure on winemakers to be more curious about the closures they are using.

They should ask more questions about plan gmbh issues like oxygen transmission, and insist on seeing independently validated data on closure performance rather than accepting manufacturer’s testimonials or sales pitches unquestioningly. Article originally appeared in persuasive essay Harpers Wine Spirit Weekly in 2006. Posted here February 2007. Copyright Jamie Goode.