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Business Plan: Your Financial Plan. Psychological Research Paper. The financial part of unit a business plan includes various financial statements that show where your company currently stands and where it expects to be in the near future. This information helps you determine how much financing your business needs and helps outsiders determine whether lending you money or investing in psychological research paper your business is a wise use of their funds. Dissertation Online. Lenders and ethics psychological, investors will expect that you have invested your own money in the firm to demonstrate that you are committed to your idea and confident that your business will succeed. Persuasive Unit High School. The amount of your own money you will need to ethics research paper have invested in the business compared to the amount you want to scope of dissertation finance varies, but it usually ranges from 20% to 50%. You must also determine what type of financing would be most suitable for your business.
Banks offer several types of loans to businesses that do not present too much risk. Psychological Paper. Do you need a short-term working capital loan to increase your inventory? Do you want a transaction loan, where you receive all the money at once, or a line of credit, where you draw on funds as you need them? Do you need an intermediate-term loan to purchase larger assets such as real estate or equipment? Would you prefer revolving credit, which has a longer time frame than a line of credit and allows you to re-borrow funds that you have previously paid back?
Or are you a high-risk business that needs to jump through the extra hoops required to secure a government-backed Small Business Administration loan? (See Expanding Your Small Business with an SBA Loan .) Structuring Your Financial Plan. Begin your financial plan with information on where your firm stands financially at the end of the persuasive essay plan school, most recent quarter what its financial situation has looked like historically. Then lay out psychological research paper, your goals with financial projections for the next three to five years, depending on dissertation what lenders or investors have asked for. Research. These are called pro siddhartha kamala forma statements, and ethics psychological research, they are based on your assumptions about essay unit plan school how your business will perform. Your one-year projections should be broken down by ethics research month, while your more distant projections can be broken down by year.
If your business plan is for the expansion of an existing business, your statements will be based on your business's existing financial data. If your business is new, your statements will be speculative, but you can make them realistic by basing them on the published financial statements of persuasive essay plan existing businesses similar to yours. If you can’t find this data on your own or if it simply doesn’t exist because your business concept is too unique or all similar companies are privately held, look for an accountant who has experience working with businesses similar to yours and can help you create realistic financial projections. Three Key Financial Statements. Your financial plan should include three key financial statements: the income statement, the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. Let's look at what each statement is and why you need it. The income statement, also called the psychological paper, profit and loss statement or PL, summarizes your company's revenue and expenses. Revenues are your company's sales and/or other sources of income (for example, a cleaning business earns revenues from the hourly or per-room or per-home fee that it charges its clients; a grocery store earns revenue from the foods and other products and services it sells. Expenses include items such as the cost of essay plan high goods sold (the money you spend buying produce, meat and dairy from local farmers, for example) payroll for employees, payroll, sales and ethics research, income taxes, business insurance and loan interest. Essay Unit Plan High School. The bottom line of the income statement shows the psychological research paper, company's net income, or its revenue minus expenses. Lenders and investors want to know what kind of numbers your company is working with and whether your company is profitable or expects to be soon. Kamala. (To learn more, read Understanding The Income Statement .) Balance Sheet.
The balance sheet shows your company's assets and liabilities. It's called a balance sheet because the assets must perfectly balance the liabilities. Paper. Within each category are numerous subcategories. For example, your assets will include cash, accounts receivable, inventory and equipment. Your liabilities will include accounts payable, wages and salaries, taxes, rent and utilities, and loan balances. The balance sheet is important because it shows the for research, company's financial position at a specific point in time, and it compares what you own to what you owe. (For more information, see Reading The Balance Sheet .) Cash Flow Statement/Cash Budget. Ethics Psychological Research Paper. The cash flow statement shows the persuasive, sums you expect to be coming into and going out of your business in ethics paper a given time frame. Topics you'll need to request extension examine to psychological paper predict cash flow include sales forecasts, cash receipts vs. credit receipts and the time frame for dissertation online collecting accounts receivable. Psychological Research Paper. How much will these expenses be, and how often will you need to persuasive essay plan high school pay them? Will you have trade credit, and how long will you have to pay your suppliers? Cash flow statements not only show potential investors that you know what you're doing, they also help you to make sure your business model is financially viable and to ethics paper establish goals that you want to siddhartha achieve. (For more on this subject, check out What Is A Cash Flow Statement? and The Essentials Of Cash Flow .) Your financial statements should show both a long- and short-term vision for your business.
In business plans, three-year and five-year projections are considered long term, and ethics psychological research, your plan will be expected to cover at least three years. Your projections should be neither overly optimistic best-case scenarios, nor overly cautious worst-case scenarios, but realistic in-between projections that you can support. Persuasive Plan School. Don’t commit the common error of making hockey-stick projections that predict sudden, sharp growth – that’s a classic way to paper look like an siddhartha kamala, amateur. (For further reading, see What You Need To Know About Financial Statements and ethics psychological paper, our in-depth Financial Statements Tutorial .) Lenders may want your statements presented in a certain way, so ask before you draw them up. Request Extension. A bank, for example, may want to see monthly projections for the first year, quarterly projections for the second year and annual projections for the third year. Ethics Research. In addition to financial statements for your company, if you are a new business, you may need to provide personal financial statements for each owner. These statements should list each owner’s assets, such as checking and english, savings account balances, stocks and bonds, retirement account balances and home equity, as well as liabilities such as mortgages, student loans, taxes owed and other debts. When you put together your financial statements, make sure there are absolutely no typos or mistakes in your calculations.
If you are inexperienced in ethics research preparing these statements, hire an accountant to help you. Even if you and all of your business partners know exactly what you are doing, you may still want to hire an essay unit, unbiased, outside professional to psychological research check your work and request dissertation extension, give you a second opinion on whether your projects are realistic. You don't want to be blindsided by mistakes or problems in your financial statements when a potential lender or investor reviews your proposal. Ethics Psychological Paper. What You Can Learn from engine for research, Your Financial Statements. While the ethics research, financial statements are helpful in and of themselves, the data they contain can also be used to calculate financial ratios such as gross profit margin, return on investment and return on persuasive unit plan owner's equity. Ratios provide helpful information about a company's liquidity, profitability, debt, operating performance, cash flow and investment valuation. (Learn more about financial ratios in our Financial Ratio Tutorial .) Additional Financial Information. In addition to financial statements, prospective lenders or investors will also want to see a sales forecast and, if your business will have employees, a personnel plan. The sales forecast is a chart that breaks down how much your business expects to sell in paper various categories by month (for the next year) and by siddhartha essays kamala year (for the ethics research, following two to four years). For a cleaning service business, the sales forecast might list one-time cleanings, monthly cleaning contracts and annual cleaning contracts and for research, further break those down by research houses, condos, apartment units, entire apartment buildings and office buildings. Dissertation Extension. For a grocery store, the sales forecast might list projected sales of fruits, vegetables, dairy, meat, seafood, packaged goods and hot prepared meals. If your business sells a product, your sales forecast should include the cost of ethics psychological goods sold.
If your business will have employees and not just managers, you will need a personnel plan showing what types of employees you will have (for example, cashiers, butchers, drivers, stockers and abstracts online, cooks along with what they will cost in terms of salary and wages, health insurance, retirement plan contributions, workers compensation insurance, unemployment insurance, and psychological paper, Social Security and Medicare taxes. Essay. Use of Loan or Investment Capital. You’ve made a strong case for your business idea, its viability and ethics psychological research, your ability to execute it. So how, exactly, do you plan to use any money that lenders or investors offer you? They’ll want to know. If you’re requesting a $100,000 loan, for unit plan high example, you might break that down into the amount that will go toward equipment such as cash registers, shelving and refrigerated display cases; purchasing inventory; and carrying out research paper, your marketing campaign. If you’re seeking capital to expand your business, you might show how much you plan to spend on remodeling or adding store locations. Proposed Repayment Schedule or Exit Strategy. Scope Of Dissertation. Potential lenders will want to psychological research paper know how and when you intend to repay the loan or line of credit, so you should put together a proposed repayment schedule and terms. They may not agree with your suggestion, but offering proposed terms shows that you are considering the loan from the abstracts 2011, lender's perspective.
Also describe what collateral is available to secure the loan, such as inventory, accounts receivable, real estate, vehicles or equipment. Be aware that lenders do not count the full value of your collateral, and each lender may count a different percentage. Potential investors will want to know when their investment will pay off and how much of a return to expect. They will also want to see that you have an exit strategy to cash out on your investment and theirs. Do you plan to sell the business outright to ethics psychological research paper another individual or company? Hold an initial public offering and go public?
What will your exit strategy be if the business is plan high school, failing? At what point have you determined that you will cut your losses and sell or close down, and how will you repay investors if this happens? (See Top Exit Strategy Tips for psychological paper Small Businesses and A Look At Exit Strategies .) Remember, no one has to lend you any money or invest in a picnic your company, and when they are considering doing so, they will be comparing the risk and return of working with you to the risk and return they could get from psychological, lending to or investing in online other companies. You have to convince them that your business is the most promising option.
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Predicting which patients can resume oral nutrition after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Baylor College of psychological research paper Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Gastroenterology Section, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Search for more papers by this author. Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale, CT, USA Clinical Epidemiology Research Center, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA Search for english essay a picnic party more papers by psychological research, this author. Dr A. D. Naik, Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies, Michael E. Scope Writing! DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center (152), 2002 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Background : Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes are placed with high frequency and relative safety for a variety of indications. Psychological Paper! One of these indications is temporary nutritional support for patients expected to resume oral nutrition. Aims : To determine if baseline clinical characteristics can predict which patients attain the clinical goal of resuming oral nutrition with consequent tube removal. Methods : We conducted a single site observational cohort study from December 1999 to April 2001, enrolling all patients scheduled for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement. Standard descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to identify patient characteristics prior to persuasive essay unit plan percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement that might predict resumption of oral nutrition with tube removal.
Results : Bivariate analyses revealed four potential clinical predictors: age 65 years, localized head and neck cancer, serum albumin ≥3.75 g/dL, and serum creatinine ≤1.1 mg/dL. Paper! In multivariable analysis, age 65 years (HR = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.014.3) and essay unit plan school, a diagnosis of psychological research localized head and neck cancer (HR = 4.6, 95% CI: 1.415.0) predicted resumption of oral nutrition with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy removal. Conclusions : When discussing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement, doctors should consider the likelihood of achieving clinically important outcomes such as the resumption of oral nutrition with tube removal. Search Engine Paper! This clinical goal is ethics, unlikely for older patients with diagnoses other than localized head and neck cancer. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the most common method for long-term enteral feeding, with more than 200 000 tubes placed annually at a total cost of dissertation extension more than $630 million. Psychological Research Paper! 1 PEG feeding tubes were initially developed in the early 1980s as a method of request dissertation extension nutritional support in children, 2 but chronic and degenerative diseases in older adults are increasingly cited as the primary indication for tube placement. Ethics Psychological Research! 36 Other indications for request dissertation PEG placement include its use as a bridge to research oral nutrition among patients who suffer from temporary dysphagia. 7 These populations include some patients with acute neurological diseases (e.g. Search Engine Paper! strokes) and patients undergoing therapy for research paper head and persuasive plan school, neck cancers. 79.
The increased popularity and utilization of PEG has been accompanied by psychological research paper, controversy arising from clinical and ethical issues surrounding gastrostomy tube placement. 1012 Preferences for PEG placement are attributed to the ‘common-sense’ notion that tube feeding improves nutrition and hydration and prolongs life, 13 the relative simplicity of tube insertion, 14, 15 and the lower frequency of serious periprocedure complication compared with similar invasive procedures. Unit Plan High School! 14, 16 Caution regarding PEG use has been advocated by ethics psychological research, others, 12 however, because decisions are largely based on the indications and complications for tube placement rather than explicit consideration of essay party long-term clinical goals and outcomes of tube feeding. Ethics Psychological! Furthermore, a study of preferences for medical interventions among seriously ill patients found that treatment decisions were strongly influenced by long-term treatment outcomes, treatment burdens and the likelihood of attaining a specific outcome. Search Engine Paper! 17 Treatment burdens (i.e. Research Paper! symptoms, risks of complications, economic costs and persuasive unit high school, informal care associated with a particular treatment) were bearable in psychological paper most situations if the likelihood of of dissertation writing a desirable outcome was high; but in other situations preferences were dictated by the likelihood of unacceptable outcomes, regardless of the burdens. Research! 17. Decision-making regarding PEG tube placement should include consideration of engine paper specific clinical goals and the likelihood of attaining those goals, balanced against research paper potential treatment burdens and unwanted outcomes. 2 For patients who envision PEG as a temporary bridge to normal oral nutrition, treatment burdens and dissertation online, risks may be less significant. Ethics Psychological Research! Among patients with a high likelihood of prolonged tube feeding, however, treatment burdens are an important consideration. Dissertation! Complications such as aspiration pneumonia, gastric bleeding, need for physical restraints, and tube dysfunction and dislodgement commonly occur with prolonged use, 4, 18, 19 and require some physician intervention approximately every 30 days.
20 Because most prior studies have focused on mortality, little is known regarding the clinical characteristics that distinguish a patient for whom PEG placement may be a temporary bridge to oral nutrition vs. a means for psychological research long-term feeding. The aim of this study is to identify those clinical characteristics, at the time of PEG tube placement, which predict the resumption of persuasive unit normal oral nutrition with consequent feeding tube removal. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we enrolled all patients undergoing PEG placement by ethics psychological research paper, the Gastrointestinal (GI) Service at the Dallas, Texas Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center from December 1999 to request dissertation April 2001. Ethics Psychological Paper! We reviewed the a picnic party GI patient database and ethics psychological research paper, daily schedules of the GI procedure laboratory to ensure capture of all potential participants for this study, and the VA standard system computerized patient record for demographic, clinical and request dissertation extension, laboratory data. Ethics Research Paper! No explicit inclusion or exclusion criteria were used as all consecutive patients referred to the GI procedure laboratory were enrolled. GI fellows and siddhartha essays kamala, staff of the Dallas VA Hospital screened all potential candidates for PEG placement based on their clinical assessments and expert judgement. Most consultations for PEG placement arose from the in-patient medical and ethics psychological research, surgical wards, but consultations did include out-patients, such as patients with head and neck cancer prior to scheduled radiation therapy.
We collected measurements of age, race, diagnosis, serum creatinine, albumin, haemoglobin and sodium, as well as the standard cancer staging classification (TNM) for all neoplasms and neuroimaging studies after cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). These data were recorded for the day of abstracts PEG placement, or the psychological paper nearest date (up to of dissertation 7 days) before PEG placement. Psychological Paper! Using GI procedure records, as well as comprehensive reviews of patient charts, we confirmed the specific outcomes of: (i) PEG removal with resumption of search engine oral nutrition, excluding inadvertent tube removal or subsequent replacement; (ii) death and (iii) ongoing tube feeding at the time of ethics paper last follow-up, 30 November 2001. All participants in essay a picnic party the ongoing tube feeding category were followed for at least 5 months. The Institutional Review Board of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School approved this study. Candidate prognostic variables were selected from a review of prior published studies. Psychological Paper! 2124 Selected variables were dichotomized according to clinically relevant thresholds to dissertation enhance the clinical relevance of the model. Cox proportional hazards analysis, employing sas software, version 8.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA), assessed the bivariate association of ethics these baseline factors with the scope of dissertation outcome of time to permanent PEG removal and resumption of normal oral nutrition.
Death was treated as a censoring event in psychological all Cox analysis. Dissertation! Baseline factors with hazard ratio (HR) ≥1.25 were deemed quantitatively significant in research paper this exploratory investigation for search for research paper inclusion in the multivariable model. An additional Cox proportional hazard analysis examined the psychological research multivariable impact of baseline prognostic factors with time to the primary outcome. Search Engine For Research! HR rate and paper, 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each parameter estimate. Time-dependent covariate analyses were used to engine for research examine the proportional hazards assumption, which were met in all models. Seventy-five consecutive patients received PEG placement (Table 1). The mean age of participants at the time of the tube placement was 64.7 years (s.d.: 12.1).
Common indications for gastrostomy were localized head and neck cancer ( n = 32), CVA or other neurological diseases ( n = 22) and ethics, other malignancies ( n = 14). Twenty patients (27%) attained the outcome of scope of dissertation writing resuming oral nutrition with consequent PEG tube removal. The average time to psychological research tube removal was 147 days (range: 45414). Twenty-eight (37%) patients died within a mean of siddhartha 4 months (range: 4344) after PEG placement. Psychological Research Paper! Tube feeding was ongoing for 21 patients (28%) at a picnic, the conclusion of the research paper follow-up period (median of 13 months, range: 162673 days). Essays! Data were collected for a follow-up period of at least 5 months unless the ethics research paper patient attained the primary outcome or died. Four variables were associated with permanent PEG removal in bivariate analysis (Table 2): age 65 years (HR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.513.2), localized head and english essay, neck cancer (HR = 5.5, 95% CI: 1.816.5), serum albumin ≥3.75 g/dL (HR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.74.2), and ethics research, serum creatinine ≤1.1 mg/dL (HR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.210.5).
These variables were also analysed using continuous scales and demonstrated similar results (data not shown). The variables race, haemoglobin and sodium levels, and diagnoses other than localized, non-recurrent head and neck neoplasm, were not associated with the primary outcome. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval. The four candidate factors were entered into a multivariate predictive model using Cox proportional hazards analysis (Table 2). Statistically significant results were found for request dissertation age 65 years (HR = 3.7, 95%CI: 1.014.3) and localized head and neck cancer (HR = 4.6, 95% CI: 1.415.0). Serum albumin level ≥3.75 g/dL (HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.171.7) and serum creatinine level ≤1.1 mg/dL (HR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.213.6) were not significantly related to resumption of paper normal oral nutrition after PEG removal. Among patients resuming oral nutrition with consequent tube removal, most were under 65 years old at baseline or had localized head and neck cancer; other patients had diagnoses of limited pulmonary adenocarcinoma, acute exacerbation of multiple sclerosis, acute anoxia with subsequent recovery, or a prolonged course of rheumatoid lung disease. No patients with a diagnosis of CVA resumed normal oral nutrition with tube removal, but about half demonstrated clinical improvement with ongoing PEG use.
Only four patients 65 years or older resumed normal oral nutrition, two of which had localized head and abstracts online 2011, neck cancer; therefore, only two (3%) patients were 65 years or older without localized head and neck cancer. In large case series of long-term PEG outcomes, 5, 6, 25 most patients were found to experience continued malnutrition or die shortly after tube placement; but clinical outcomes after PEG placement are more complex than ‘dead or alive’. For example, one study identified three distinct trajectories 1-year after PEG placement: rapid decline and death (29%), prolonged tube feeding with or without functional improvement (32%), and resumption of normal oral feeding with consequent PEG removal. 26 Longitudinal studies demonstrate that 2025% of patients are capable of ethics psychological paper resuming normal oral feeding with their feeding tubes removed permanently. 79 Recognizing this spectrum of writing clinical outcomes, we conducted the current investigation to explore whether baseline patient characteristics could differentiate which patients were likely to ethics psychological paper resume oral nutrition vs. Dissertation! those who died or required prolonged tube feeding. In the ethics psychological current study of consecutive PEG recipients, approximately one-quarter of patients resumed oral nutrition with consequent removal of their feeding tube. We found that younger age and a diagnosis of a picnic localized head and ethics research, neck cancer were predictive of this clinically important outcome. Importantly, only four older patients, two with localized head and neck cancer, one with localized lung cancer, and dissertation, one with acute anoxic encephalopathy, were able to resume oral nutrition with PEG removal. In prior studies of patients receiving long-term tube feeding, baseline serum albumin levels at or below 3.0 mg/dL were predictive of early mortality, 22, 24 whereas patients with albumin levels above 3.5 mg/dL at the time of PEG insertion were more likely to be alive at paper, 30 days and 1 year. 21, 23 The impact of other laboratory variables (e.g. haemoglobin, cholesterol and serum creatinine) were inconsistently linked to particular outcomes after PEG interventions. 21, 23 The findings for serum albumin in the multivariable analysis of the current study were unexpected.
High baseline serum albumin was not significantly predictive of the primary outcome of this study (however, additional multivariable statistical analysis did find that higher albumin levels were independently associated with survival at abstracts 2011, the time of ethics research last follow-up). Furthermore, post hoc review of the cohort demonstrated that most patients with CVA were older and had comorbid conditions, and scope, one-quarter of patients with head and neck cancer had functional improvements but suffered chronic side-effects of ethics psychological paper radiation therapy preventing feeding tube removal. Search! Accordingly, in some of these patients, higher baseline albumin levels may be associated with improved survival accompanied by prolonged tube feeding, but were not associated with the primary outcome of normal oral nutrition with consequent tube removal. Several previous studies 25, 26 of feeding tube recipients with CVA have documented tube removal rates in the range of 2529% after 2 or 3 years of tube feeding, whereas others have found no association between CVA and this outcome, likely reflecting the psychological paper heterogeneous morbidity of essay this population. 1824 In the psychological research current study, no patients with CVA resumed normal oral feeding with tube removal, but most were among the group of persuasive essay unit plan ongoing tube feeders at the end of the follow-up period. Given their clinical characteristics (e.g. higher albumin levels), some patients with strokes may attain the treatment goal of normal oral nutrition after a prolonged recovery period of 23 years. Further studies are needed to ethics psychological address this important clinical question. Algorithms for 2011 discussing and ethics psychological research paper, recommending PEG placement have been suggested as a means to improve decision-making for persuasive essay unit plan tube feeding. Psychological Paper! 11, 27 These algorithms instruct doctors to offer and recommend PEG placement based on persuasive essay high school diagnostic categories at the time of PEG placement.
For example, they suggest that for ethics paper patients in english party permanent vegetative states, PEG tube feeding should be discussed (via surrogates) but not recommended. 8, 27 Physician-directed algorithms can improve discussions regarding PEG placement, but are limited because medical decision-making for feeding tubes remains highly dependent on the values, preferences and goals of the parties involved. Ethics Research! Some authors have stressed that treatment decisions for the seriously ill will become less problematic only if patients, families, and dissertation abstracts online 2011, doctors articulate and discuss explicitly the ethics psychological paper goals of care, the likelihood of writing attaining those goals, and the burdens of ethics psychological research treatments. 17, 28 Accordingly, we advocate an approach to persuasive plan decision-making for tube feeding that looks beyond the ethics psychological indications and of dissertation writing, complications of tube placement, to include patients’ treatment goals and perceptions of treatment burdens, and the doctor's assessment of the likelihood of psychological paper attaining those goals. We acknowledge that feeding tubes are often placed without the goal of resuming normal oral nutrition; in fact, preferences for tube feeding are complicated by the reality that PEG tubes, like many medical interventions, serve different purposes in different clinical scenarios.
29 As we have shown, prognostic data regarding a patient's particular clinical scenario can be used to assess the likelihood of attaining a specific clinical goal. Unfortunately, clinical goals for PEG tube feeding in many situations are overly generalized (e.g. improve nutrition, increase comfort and prevent starvation) and unrealistic (e.g. prevent aspiration and prolong survival). 4, 13, 19, 30, 31 We suggest an alternative conceptualization of plan school clinical goals for PEG placement (see Table 3); studies exploring the ethics paper values and preferences of patients and families facing prolonged tube feeding are needed to further clarify appropriate and clinically important goals. CVA, cerebrovascular accident. CVA without complications. Head and unit plan high school, neck cancer with complications. Other localized cancer.
The findings of research this study are limited by a relatively small sample size and specific attributes of the population (e.g. male gender, higher comorbidity, few trauma-related cases). The modest sample size likely reflects some clinically appropriate censoring of PEG consultations by the GI staff that may or may not occur in all hospital settings. Siddhartha! In comparison with other related studies, we enrolled a higher proportion of ethics patients with head and request extension, neck cancer and ethics psychological research paper, a lower proportion of patients with end-stage dementia. However, the results of this paper reflect a ‘real-world’ setting in which gastroenterologists must evaluate a significant (and growing) subset of english essay a picnic party patients who are seriously ill with cancer, strokes and psychological research paper, other degenerative diseases. Abstracts Online! This paper addresses an psychological important area of essays kamala decision-making regarding gastrostomy tube placement; and, if these findings can be replicated, suggests that perhaps doctors should explicitly differentiate patients for psychological research paper whom PEG is a bridge to normal oral nutrition vs. those requiring prolonged tube feeding. Dissertation Extension! For this purpose, we demonstrated that few older patients with neurodegenerative diseases, strokes, or extensive malignancies at the time of PEG tube placement are likely to attain the clinical goal of research paper resuming oral nutrition with consequent feeding tube removal.
These patients and their family members should be counselled about the significant treatment burdens and risks that are associated with prolonged tube feeding. Further studies, with a diversity of request dissertation extension patients and ethics research, additional candidate variables are needed to confirm and abstracts online 2011, extend our results. Authors thank Craig Rubin MD for his assistance reviewing an earlier version of this manuscript and Byron Cryer MD for ethics his assistance with the dissertation extension Gastroenterology Laboratory database. This work was supported by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs and ethics psychological research paper, the Yale University, Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program. Issue online: 22 April 2005 Version of english record online: 22 April 2005 Accepted for publication 18 March 2005. 1 Gauderer MW . Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy 20 years later: a historical perspective . J Pediatr Surg 2001 ; 36 : 217 9 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 2 Gauderer M . Twenty years of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: origin and evolution of a concept and psychological research paper, its expanded applications . Gastrointest Endosc 1999 ; 50 : 879 83 . Unit Plan High! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 3 Mitchell SL , Tetroe JM . Survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement in ethics older persons . J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000 ; 55 : M735 9 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 4 Callahan CM , Haag KM , Weinberger M , et al . Outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy among older adults in a picnic a community setting . J Am Geriatr Soc 2000 ; 48 : 1048 54 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 5 Rabeneck L , Wray NP , Petersen NJ . Long-term outcomes of patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes . J Gen Intern Med 1996 ; 11 : 287 93 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 6 Grant MD , Rudberg MA , Brody JA . Gastrostomy placement and mortality among hospitalized medicare beneficiaries . Psychological Research! JAMA 1998 ; 279 : 1973 6 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 7 Verhoef MJ , Van Rosendaal GM . Patient outcomes related to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement . J Clin Gastroenterol 2001 ; 32 : 49 53 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 8 Taylor CA , Larson DE , Ballard DJ , et al . Online! Predictors of outcome after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: a community-based study . Psychological! Mayo Clin Proc 1992 ; 67 : 1042 9 . Request Dissertation! CrossRef | PubMed | Web of ethics psychological paper Science® 9 Wolfsen HC , Kozarek RA , Ball TJ , Patterson DJ , Botoman VA , Ryan JA . Long-term survival in patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and scope of dissertation writing, jejunostomy . Ethics Psychological Research! Am J Gastroenterol 1990 ; 85 : 1120 2 . Dissertation 2011! PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 10 Skelly RH . Are we using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy appropriately in the elderly ? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2002 ; 5 : 35 42 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® 11 Angus F , Burakoff R . Ethics Psychological Research Paper! The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. Medical and ethical issues in placement . Am J Gastroenterol 2003 ; 98 : 272 7 . Dissertation! PubMed | Web of Science® 12 Finucane TE , Christmas C . Paper! More caution about tube feeding . Essay Party! J Am Geriatr Soc 2000 ; 48 : 1167 8 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 13 Callahan CM , Haag KM , Buchanan NN , Nisi R . Decision-making for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy among older adults in psychological a community setting . Siddhartha! J Am Geriatr Soc 1999 ; 47 : 1105 9 . Ethics Research! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 14 Kirby DF , Craig RM , Tsang TK , Plotnick BH . Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies: a prospective evaluation and search engine for research, review of the literature . J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1986 ; 10 : 155 9 . CrossRef | Web of Science® 15 Luetzow AM , Chaffoo RA , Young H . Percutaneous gastrostomy: the Stanford experience . Psychological Research Paper! Laryngoscope 1988 ; 98 : 1035 9 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 16 Wollman B , D'Agostino HB , Walus-Wigle JR , Easter DW , Beale A . Abstracts 2011! Radiologic, endoscopic, and research, surgical gastrostomy: an institutional evaluation and meta-analysis of the request extension literature . Psychological Research! Radiology 1995 ; 197 : 699 704 . Scope Of Dissertation Writing! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 17 Fried TR , Bradley EH , Towle VR , Allore H . Understanding the treatment preferences of seriously ill patients . N Engl J Med 2002 ; 346 : 1061 6 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® 18 Ciocon JO , Silverstone FA , Graver LM , Foley CJ . Tube feedings in elderly patients. Indications, benefits, and complications . Psychological Research Paper! Arch Intern Med 1988 ; 148 : 429 33 . Essay! CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® 19 Finucane TE , Christmas C , Travis K . Tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia: a review of the ethics psychological research paper evidence . JAMA 1999 ; 282 : 1365 70 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 20 Callahan CM , Buchanan NN , Stump TE . Healthcare costs associated with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy among older adults in a defined community . Of Dissertation Writing! J Am Geriatr Soc 2001 ; 49 : 1525 9 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of ethics psychological Science® 21 Friedenberg F , Jensen G , Gujral N , Braitman LE , Levine GM . Engine Paper! Serum albumin is predictive of 30-day survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy . J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1997 ; 21 : 72 4 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® 22 Henderson CT , Trumbore LS , Mobarhan S , Benya R , Miles TP . Prolonged tube feeding in long-term care: nutritional status and clinical outcomes . Psychological Paper! J Am Coll Nutr 1992 ; 11 : 309 25 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of search engine paper Science® 23 Kaw M , Sekas G . Long-term follow-up of consequences of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes in nursing home patients . Dig Dis Sci 1994 ; 39 : 738 43 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 24 Sanders DS , Carter MJ , D'Silva J , James G , Bolton RP , Bardhan KD . Ethics Psychological Research Paper! Survival analysis in essay unit plan high percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding: a worse outcome in patients with dementia . Am J Gastroenterol 2000 ; 95 : 1472 5 . Ethics Paper! Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 25 James A , Kapur K , Hawthorne AB . Long-term outcome of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding in patients with dysphagic stroke . Dissertation Abstracts Online! Age Ageing 1998 ; 27 : 671 6 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 26 Skelly R , Terry H , Millar E , Cohen D . Outcomes of ethics research percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding . Age Ageing 1999 ; 28 : 416 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of search Science® 27 Rabeneck L , McCullough LB , Wray NP . Ethics! Ethically justified, clinically comprehensive guidelines for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement . Lancet 1997 ; 349 : 496 8 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 28 Sachs GA . Dementia and unit plan, the goals of care . J Am Geriatr Soc 1998 ; 46 : 782 3 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 29 Brett AS . Limitations of listing specific medical interventions in advance directives . Psychological! JAMA 1991 ; 266 : 825 8 . Unit! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of ethics psychological research Science® 30 Mitchell SL , Lawson FM . Decision-making for long-term tube-feeding in cognitively impaired elderly people . CMAJ 1999 ; 160 : 1705 9 . Persuasive School! PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 31 Van Rosendaal GM , Verhoef MJ , Kinsella TD . How are decisions made about the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for long-term nutritional support ? Am J Gastroenterol 1999 ; 94 : 3225 8 . Psychological! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® 32 Fay DE , Poplausky M , Gruber M , Lance P . Long-term enteral feeding: a retrospective comparison of delivery via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasoenteric tubes . Search! Am J Gastroenterol 1991 ; 86 : 1604 9 . PubMed | CAS | Web of Science®
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Lin , Tube feeding among elder in long-term care facilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis, The journal of ethics research paper nutrition, health aging , 2016 CrossRef 3 American Geriatrics Society Feeding Tubes in Advanced Dementia Position Statement, Journal of the engine for research American Geriatrics Society , 2014 , 62 , 8, 1590 Wiley Online Library 4 Sherri L. Lewis , Rebecca Brody , Riva Touger-Decker , James S. Parrott , Joel Epstein , Feeding tube use in patients with head and neck cancer, Head Neck , 2014 , 36 , 12, 1789 Wiley Online Library 5 Melany Chrash , Barbara Mulich , Carol M. Patton , The APN role in psychological research holistic assessment and integration of dissertation online 2011 spiritual assessment for paper advance care planning, Journal of the essay plan American Academy of Nurse Practitioners , 2011 , 23 , 10, 530 Wiley Online Library 6 Agostino Paccagnella , Michela Morello , Maria C. Da Mosto , Carla Baruffi , Maria L. Marcon , Alessandro Gava , Vittorio Baggio , Stefano Lamon , Roberta Babare , Giovanni Rosti , Marta Giometto , Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo , Edward Kiwanuka , Michele Tessarin , Lorenza Caregaro , Carlo Marchiori , Early nutritional intervention improves treatment tolerance and outcomes in head and neck cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy, Supportive Care in Cancer , 2010 , 18 , 7, 837 CrossRef 7 Jeannie PL Ong , Kwong Ming Fock , Oral feeding after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Journal of ethics psychological research paper Gastroenterology and essay school, Hepatology , 2010 , 25 , 7, 1181 Wiley Online Library 8 Tetsuro Takayama , Kozo Takayama , Nagamu Inoue , Shinsuke Funakoshi , Hiroshi Serizawa , Noriaki Watanabe , Naoki Kumagai , Kanji Tsuchimoto , Toshifumi Hibi , Prediction of survival and complications after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in ethics research an individual by using clinical factors with an siddhartha essays kamala artificial neural network system, European Journal of Gastroenterology Hepatology , 2009 , 21 , 11, 1279 CrossRef 9 Sudarshan Paramsothy , George Papadopoulos , Lindsay C Mollison , Rupert W L Leong , Resumption of oral intake following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology , 2009 , 24 , 6, 1098 Wiley Online Library 10 Giorgio Capuano , Alessandra Grosso , Pier Carlo Gentile , Michele Battista , Federico Bianciardi , Annamaria Di Palma , Ida Pavese , Francesco Satta , Michela Tosti , Anna Palladino , Guido Coiro , Mario Di Palma , Influence of weight loss on outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing concomitant chemoradiotherapy, Head Neck , 2008 , 30 , 4, 503 Wiley Online Library 11 C. Avery , S. Shenoy , S. Shetty , C. Research Paper! Siegmund , I. Mazhar , N. Taub , The prospective experience of scope a maxillofacial surgeon with the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy technique, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , 2008 , 37 , 2, 140 CrossRef 12 Thomas E. Finucane , Colleen Christmas , Bruce A. Research Paper! Leff , Tube Feeding in Dementia: How Incentives Undermine Health Care Quality and Patient Safety, Journal of the American Medical Directors Association , 2007 , 8 , 4, 205 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc. English A Picnic! All Rights Reserved.
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Ethics and Psychology: Library: Articles & Papers Related to Ethics
Prepare Your Resume for Email and research, Online Posting. and Online Posting. Many people still think the resume you put online is not the scope same document that you created to print out and mail to prospective employers or hand to interviewers. This is ethics research paper untrue. You do not need a different resume, you only need to alter the search paper format of your resume to make it easy for ethics research you to essay post, copy and ethics psychological paper, paste, or email it to employers. When done correctly, your well-written, well-prepared resume will contain all of the necessary keywords to attract attention whether it is being scanned into a resume system, indexed and searched online, or read on scope of dissertation paper by a real human. Job search experts recommend you keep duplicates of your resume in each of these versions or formats. A Print Version , designed with bulleted lists, italicized text, and ethics psychological, other highlights, ready to print and mail or hand to potential contacts and interviewers. A Scannable Version , a less-designed version without the fancy design highlights. Bulleted lists are fine, but that’s about the limit.
A Plain Text Version , a plain text file ready to copy and paste into online forms or post in online resume databases. Dissertation 2011? This might also be referred to as a Text-Only copy. Research Paper? An E-mail Version , another plain text copy, but this one is specifically formatted for the length-of-line restrictions in e-mail. This is also a Text-Only copy. This is the online same document presented in four ways, each formatted for a specific delivery purpose. You could just use the ethics psychological research forms most databases provide to build your resume in their system, but resume expert and author Susan Ireland doesn’t recommend you do this for request dissertation several reasons. Spell-check: Preparing your resume in advance using your own word processing program allows you to spell-check your resume and ethics psychological paper, revise it as needed until you are happy with it. Format: Most online forms and builders insist on a chronological resume, which focuses on english essay a picnic party work history. Career changers who would prefer a functional resume with its emphasis on skills will be at a disadvantage.
Reusability: If you build it in their database using their form, you’ve done a lot of work for only one site, which means you will have to repeat your effort for every database you encounter. That’s a lot of research paper, typing! Prepare it in advance on your own computer and persuasive unit plan high, you have it to use as much as you like. We have instructions on converting your Word document to 2 different Plain Text documents suitable for pasting in to paper email and posting in databases. Many job seekers are creating webbed resumes in the hopes of being discovered or as a place to search for research paper refer an employer who might want to see more than what is paper usually found in a resume. An HTML version of your resume works particularly well for persons in the visual arts or programming, but it could serve anyone, provided it is done right and for the right reasons. Doing it right means starting with a basic HTML version of your designed resume, not an overloaded page of Shockwave and Java effects, huge graphics, and audio files that takes more than 2 minutes to download on your DSL line and english party, blasts out your computer speakers. Doing it for the right reasons means turning your resume into a portfolio, complete with links to former employers or projects already publicly available online. Be sure you are not violating any copyright or confidentiality clauses by psychological, putting information online without prior approval.
The biggest problem with HTML resumes is TMI – too much information . Many people make their resumes part of their personal web site, loading it where there is dissertation abstracts online 2011 all kinds of information an employer does not need to ethics paper know before you are hired, like your marital status, ethnic background, religious affiliations, personal interests, past or present health problems, and much more. Allowing an employer to persuasive plan high school learn so much about you can lead to potential discrimination problems that you may never be aware of for the way you look, your political or religious beliefs or any number of other reasons. I know some career management professionals advocate the use of photos plus personal biographies for executive clients, stating this is the same information you would find in an executive bio released by the company for publicity purposes. However, I still urge job seekers to paper be both conservative and conscientious about extension what you are telling prospective employers before you actually get called into an interview. Always remember, your resume presents the image you want employers to see. For this reason, it is important that you keep your presence entirely professional, never linking your resume to ethics any personal information. If you decide to add an HTML resume to your campaign, post it in plan, a location separate from your personal web site, and do not link between the two. The fastest way to respond to Internet job listings is to e-mail your cover letter and resume to the person or organization indicated.
However, there are some simple rules to follow before hitting the send key. Look at it this way. You have 15 or 20 seconds to get someone’s attention using email. Psychological Research Paper? In that time, you must convince the recipient to. open your email read your message not delete your email.
Do it wrong, get into essay unit plan high the wrong mail box, or make someone’s job harder, and ethics research, the best resume in unit plan, the world from the most qualified person in research, the world will be trashed. Getting your email opened, read, and actually considered really comes down to some simple rules. Use the right Subject. Seeking employment is not an acceptable subject. Plan High? If you are responding to an advertisement, use the job title or job code cited in the advertisement to make it easy for your e-mail to be recognized and paper, routed to the appropriate person. Scope Writing? If you are cold calling an employer, put a few words stating your objective or in the Subject line ( materials engineer seeking new opportunity ). Psychological Paper? Include a cover letter in your email and address it to the recipient. Here’s my resume, please tell me if you have any jobs I might fill is not a cover letter and plan, does not encourage anyone to look at your resume. Whether or not you are responding to an advertised opening, the cover letter will introduce you, specify how you meet the needs of the employer, and paper, will encourage the request extension recipient to read your full resume. Always send your resume in the body of the e-mail message, not as an attachment. Force someone to open an attachment just to psychological paper get to know you and your 20 seconds are over before they even start. Put that resume right in the message so the recipient will see it as soon as he or she opens the message.
This technique also helps you get through e-mail systems that reject all attachments in this day of rampant computer viruses. Make sure your resume is abstracts online properly formatted for e-mail. Research Paper? Plain text resumes not formatted for dissertation email can be unreadable, and unreadable resumes will most likely be deleted. Take the time to make sure it will look as good on all computers and in all email systems as it does on your screen. This means shorter text lines, spacing between sections, and text-based highlights. If responding to psychological paper an advertisement, read the extension application instructions and follow them. Failing to follow application instructions not only delays your resume, it labels you as someone who doesn’t take direction well. Ethics? It’s the search engine for research Trash bin for you. They might specify an email address and job code to use. They might even actually ask you to send your resume as a Word attachment. Whatever they want, you do.
Always remember: It only takes a second for ethics someone to delete an of dissertation writing, e-mail message . Don’t give them a reason to trash you! Think before you respond! Posting your Resume: Placement vs. Privacy. With all of the possible posting sites available online, you can saturate the Internet with your resumes. Is this a good thing? There are two issues to consider when posting your resume online. Placement: where should you post it? Privacy: how public do you want it to be? What’s the problem?
The more exposure you get, the ethics paper better, right? Not necessarily . Recruiters get tired of finding the persuasive essay unit high same resumes for psychological research the same people in every database they search. Essays? If you get labeled a resume spammer, you won’t be considered for job openings they are working to research paper fill. 2011? Also, the farther your resume spreads, the ethics psychological research less control you have over it and the more likely it is to be discovered by someone you had hoped wouldn’t see it, like your current employer. Request Extension? And yes, people do get fired. Some problems can be avoided by merely limiting where you post your resume (Placement), others by limiting the psychological research paper information in your posted resume (Privacy), but the two issues must be addressed hand-in-hand. It is possible to be visible but private online, but how visible you want to be vs. Request Dissertation Extension? how comfortable you are in ethics, public is a question only you can answer.
Limiting your posting is a good way to protect your privacy, but it is also important to select those few sites with care. Susan Joyce , author of dissertation online 2011, Job-Hunt.org, encourages job seekers to psychological research carefully evaluate the job sites used and to be aware of the information presented in the resume. The following tips include information excerpted from her articles on Choosing a Job Site and Your Cyber-Safe Resume. This information was used with her permission. I highly recommend a visit to her site to read the full articles. Limit where you post. Post your resume in search for research paper, the databases of only one or two large popular job sites. Paper? At the same time, post it in dissertation abstracts online 2011, the databases of one or two smaller job sites targeted to your specific industry, occupational group, or geographic location.
This will give you both maximum exposure (many employers crossing industries and regions) and targeted exposure (employers looking for a smaller yet more highly qualified candidate pool.) Read Privacy Policies . Note what personal or individually identifiable information they will collect, how it may be handled, and whether or not they reserve the right to sell it. Some sites are good and promise to ethics research paper never sell your info, but others reserve the right to sell your personally identifiable information to engine for research third parties. Research? Avoid sites that force you to register a full profile (i.e., your resume) before you can do any search of the abstracts job database. You should be allowed to evaluate a site to make sure it’s a good fit to you before adding your information to their database. Avoid sites that offer to blast your resume.
Such wide distribution may offer little, if any, control on where a copy of research, your resume could end up. Limit access to your personal contact information. Options range from blocking access to just the contact information to keeping your resume completely out of the database searched by employers. Choose the option that works best for you. Remember that if you go for search engine for research full confidentiality, it may be up to you to remember to delete contact info from your resume. Ethics Research? Many job seekers trip up here because they fill out a form with their contact info, then cut and paste the whole resume into the box, forgetting about the contact info here. The database’s protection of your contact info only refers to what you put in the form, not in the box. Modify the contact information you put on your resume. Remove all standard contact information — name, address, phone numbers — and replace your personal e-mail address with an e-mail address set up specifically for your job search. Siddhartha Kamala? This is ethics where those services like Yahoo! email come into play. Make sure you use an appropriate e-mail name like MEngineer@Yahoo.com.
Names like JustLooking@Yahoo.com or DumbBlond@HotMail.com are not good names for serious job seekers. Modify your employment history. Remove all dates from your resume. Then, remove the names of all employers and replace them with accurate but generic descriptions. Nuts n’ Bolts Distributors, Inc. Unit School? becomes a small construction supplies distribution company and IBM becomes a multinational information technology company. If your job title is unique, replace it with an psychological research paper, accurate but generic title, so New England Regional Gadget Marketing Director becomes multi-state marketing manager of gadget-class products. Don’t let your resume sit there. Since many databases sort resumes by essay unit plan high, date of submission with the newest fir t, renew your resume every 14 days. Paper? If you don’t get any response to your resume within 45 days of posting, remove it from that location and post it elsewhere. It could be that employers are not looking for people with your skills in this particular database, but it could also be that there is too much competition between candidates with the same skills and your resume is not rising to the top.
When your job search is over, delete all resumes out there. Do not continue to dangle the hook and see what offers may come up. Your new employer may find you still fishing and request, demand an explanation. Ethics Paper? Some people are adding a posted DATE on the bottom of engine for research, resumes they register online, but you will still have a tremendous amount of explaining to do if your resume is found to still be circulating. Whether or not you were planning a fast exit, you may find yourself on the way out the door. Always remember that most job sites make their money by selling access to the resume database!
Many want you to post your resume in their database, but few really work for you. When it comes to posting your resume, You Rule . Be choosy. Copyright by ethics psychological research, Margaret Dikel; portions copyright by essay party, Susan Ireland and Susan Joyce. Permission to reprint this article must be obtained from all authors; each author will offer his or her terms for ethics psychological research paper granting permission. Please read the complete copyright statement for additional information.
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2017 CFA Exam Fees Breakdown: Does the Title Worth the Cost? The CFA fees add up and psychological research paper, cost a fortune! Before you get into abstracts online the details on how to apply and what to study for the exam, let’s take a good objective look at the cost and psychological research paper, then you can decide to go ahead based on your own budget. We have a video breaking down each CFA cost item: This video covers the cost overview. For specific cost breakdown for search, Level 1, 2 and 3, you can scroll down or click on these buttons for psychological paper, respective information: All amount in US dollars. There are 3 layers of writing fees you’ll need to pay for the exam: One-time enrollment fee for first-timers (i.e. Ethics Psychological Paper! new CFA Level I candidate) Registration fee for each level or retake Curriculum fee for each level or retake.
This is a one-time program enrollment fee of $450 when you apply for Level I exam. You don#8217;t need to pay again for persuasive unit, Level 2 and 3. b) CFA Exam Fees for Registration. This CFA registration fee is the same for all three levels, but it varies depending on when you commit to the exam. You need to apply 9 months before the exam date to ethics psychological paper get the early bird discount. CFA early registration fee: $650 Regular application: $ 860 930.
You may want to siddhartha essays kamala check out this page on CFA testing windows for the deadlines. The cost of ethics research paper ebooks is included in essays kamala the exam fee. If you pick the ethics psychological research, print version, you’ll need to pay US$150 on top. Total Program Costs. All in all, you can expect the overall CFA exam fees to be $2,400 to $4,590: The need to take the CFA review courses has somewhat diminished since CFA Institute began to publish its own review guide in dissertation 2008 (that’s what you are going to get from the “curriculum” cost). However, given the relatively low CFA pass rate, many candidates continue to get help from various CFA review courses to increase their chance of psychological paper passing success. Siddhartha Kamala! These guides range from self-study books to fully-integrated guided review courses with cost varies from research $50-ish to $1,500 for each level. You can learn more about the major providers here. If you are lucky enough to live where CFA exam sites are located, then you don’t need to worry about this expense. However, since the CFA exam is available only in major cities, there is a good chance that you’ll need to include the for research, travel and ethics psychological, accommodation cost in search engine paper your budget.
Remember to multiply this cost by ethics psychological research paper, 3 for the three exam levels. If you haven#8217;t already, please get one of the approved CFA calculators. They range from $30-60. You can check out the pricing and their pros and kamala, cons in this comparison page. Other costs include possible exam retake fees, and paper, possibly the fee to renew your passport which will be used as your identification at the exam site.
CFA Level 1 Fees for June 2017 Exam. Most readers with question on cost are planning to take the Level 1 exam. Here is your budget for the upcoming exam: The CFA early registration fee in 2017 remains to be $650, but those for regular and late registration increase by $70 and $100 respectively from last year. Dissertation Abstracts 2011! The CFAI curriculum is included in ethics the exam fee, those no extra cost incurred. Although one can rely on the CFAI book to pass the exam, more than 70% of candidates get extra review materials, either as supplementary or replacement of the CFAI book. Here is the cost breakdown of major providers for your reference: The range is quite big, but please expect to spend $1,100 at the minimum. For those who register late and extension, choose to get the ethics, premium course from the most expensive provider (Schweser), it will cost more than $3,300 for search, Level 1 alone. Ethics! CFA Level 2 Fees for June 2017 Exam. 1. CFA program fee. The cost is the same as that of Level 1 except that you don#8217;t need to pay the one-time enrollment fee.
The CFAI text book is writing again provided free. For review courses, Fitch#8217;s Level 2 courses are slightly more expensive than their Level 1 course. Level 2 CFA fees range from ethics psychological research paper $650, to almost $3,000 for those register late and get the most expensive review package. CFA Level 3 Fees for essay, June 2017 Exam. The exam fee is exactly the same as that of Level 2. As for ethics psychological research paper, the CFA courses, Fitch#8217;s premium offer is $1,220. The other stays the scope of dissertation writing, same. Similar to Level 2, Level 3 CFA fees range from $650, to almost $3,000 for those register late and get the most expensive review package. CFA exam fees (enrollment + 3 levels): $2,400 $4,590 Review courses: $0 – $4,500 Travel and Accommodation Miscellaneous costs e.g. calculator, passport and visa expenses Possible Retakes. Please expect $3,000 as the minimum on ethics psychological research this #8220;CFA investment#8221;. The vast majority of online candidates spend more than that. Ethics Research Paper! Those with multiple retakes can spend more than $10,000 on persuasive essay high school this designation.
Wow. Does the CFA Title Worth That Much? But if you stay in the finance industry, I would say yes in the long run. Ethics Paper! Everyone’s case is scope of dissertation writing different, but in some professions such as equity analyst and asset management professionals, getting the CFA charter is a must, if not a prerequisite. In other finance related careers such as hedge fund and anything related to psychological research investment, getting a CFA early in your career does help. To learn about how to scope of dissertation writing study and pass the CFA exam in the most efficient manner, check out our e-course for CFA Level 1, which is completely free.
You can learn about the e-course here or sign up directly below. Join us if you want to get tips on how to plan, study and pass your CFA exam… on your first attempt! Please give me CFA course in india updates every time. Psychological Paper! John / Stephanie says. Hi Ananth, we will only update online self study courses because it is hard for us to track the instructors in local CFA course providers. At the same time, the online, quality of these instructors make or break the ethics research, courses. 2011! Hope you understand, Stephanie.
I have failed in cfa level 1 dec .i want to register again for June 2016, so I have to pay whole amount or only registration fee. John / Stephanie says. You only need to ethics pay the exam registration fees. Regards, Stephanie. Hello.
I applied for the access scholarship which will be available December, but I wish to purchase the essays, eBook curriculum before hand. How much will it cost. And are the ebooks self explanatory? Please advice. John / Stephanie says. The CFAI text book comes with the registration fee (i.e. it will be free). But if you#8217;d like supplementary materials or start early, you can check the ethics research, major providers here. These supplements are not a must, but most candidates get them anyway: I needed to know about the scholarship test. Dissertation Abstracts Online 2011! Could you please help and provide all the necessary details? It#8217;s the fee waiver test ? John / Stephanie says. Hi Harsh, you may want to ethics research paper check out these pages from the CFAI: Hiii.
I had choose to pay the fees through wire transfer.. but nw i want to pay by credit. How should i channge it ? John / Stephanie says. Hi Ria, you may want to request call CFAI directly. It shouldn#8217;t be hard to fix it. Regards, Stephanie. Could you write a post about / give me some information about engineering undergraduates giving the CFA for a change in career track; how useful it is and what are the job opportunities, considering that an engineer will have lesser working experience in the field of finance?
Also, whether a CFA is helpful to get into the field of Quantitative Finance. Great work on the website! John / Stephanie says. Hi Tushar, yes, excellent suggestion! We have plans to write a post each for psychological, different professions, for IT, engineering and mainly those with the quantitative work nature. Please stay tuned for the next posts. We will announce it on facebook and in our newsletter. On your second question, yes CFA does cover Quant. There might be other niche qualifications out there but CFA is a good choice in our opinion. I was wondering if i Could get the scope writing, books so i can study at home alone as I#8217;m not sure to whether i will take the exam or not yet as i have very little time everyday. Please could help me with this?
John / Stephanie says. There should be a lot of CFAI books floating around, from candidates who have taken the exam before. It is very expensive to ship, so best to try getting a copy in your area. Research Paper! Since the books come free (sort of), I don#8217;t think it is too hard to siddhartha kamala get hold of a copy from friends#8217; friends. Good luck! I would like to apply for research, CFA examination Dec 2017. I would like to know when is the last date for search for research, early registration.
Also would like to know what are the minimum qualifications needed to appear for this exam. Psychological Paper! John / Stephanie says. It#8217;s March 15, 2017. You have time #128578; I will update the exact calendar now so but the time you read this, you should be able to get the details in english a picnic the above. Ethics Psychological Research! I took the cfa level 1 exam back in Dec 2009, but unfortunately I did not make it. Now, I am planning to resit the cfa level 1 exam by Dec 2017. Do I still need to pay the program fee or the essay high, registration fee only coz that was a long time ago already since I registered for cfa level 1 exam? John / Stephanie says. Hi Leo, I guess no, but since it is so long ago I would double check with CFA Institute first. Good luck!
And glad you are back in the game #128521; Stephanie. I am a working professional in an IT firm with 7+ years of Exp. I have an Engg background and psychological, always wanted to pursue Management courses specially in field of finance. Is it worth working towards CFA which would be a total career change for persuasive essay unit school, me. Will I get financial sector jobs even if don#8217;t belong to the Industry and have worked in IT with past experience as my background. Please suggest. John / Stephanie says. Hi Kumar, there are quite a lot of IT professionals taking the CFA exam for the same reasons. I have to say that passing the CFA exam alone can#8217;t land you a finance job, but it does show your commitment in finance which can help during your interviews.
So while it is definitely helpful, I wouldn#8217;t take that at ethics psychological your magic bullet, you know. A better way would be to get a job in a picnic party the transition, such as a project manager in your IT firm that involves some analysis (ideally financial analysis) and management work. You#8217;ll also be able to see if this sort of ethics work interests you. It seems there is for research paper a slight change regarding exam fees. Enrollment is still $450, but the CFA Institute is now charging $150 even for the e-book curriculum (and another $150 on top if you want the print version). Regular registration is $800 #8212; not $930 #8212; for the June 2018 exam, making the total regular cost $1400. In the ethics paper, end the new e-book fee and the decrease in registration largely cancel out but result in a modest increase.
CFA® and Chartered Financial Analyst are trademarks owned by CFA Institute. CAIA® and Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst are trademarks owned by high, Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst Association.
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Psychology Research Ethics | Simply Psychology
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Sometimes writing—especially writing for standardized tests—can feel like something you get or don't get. That's primarily because it's very difficult to explain and ethics teach writing in a picnic party a mechanical way, especially when you're up against ethics research paper, time limits. In this article, we've broken how to write the ACT essay into 8 steps that work for every essay, every time. Then, we show you exactly how to do it with an actual ACT essay example.
Many students ask us how to write an ACT essay, and while the answer is simple enough to explain in 8 steps (as we do below), it's not necessarily simple to do . As with any skill, the key to learning how to write an ACT essay is to study a good model (which we are going to cover in this article) and then practice, practice, practice. Tackling ACT Writing, Step by english a picnic, Step. The ACT essay plan below has been modified from our ACT Essay Tips article to fit the ethics, new ACT Writing Test. The template includes 3 sections: planning, writing and revising. Essay Plan High School! If you practice using this template to write ACT essays, you'll get much faster and (probably) more precise. Here's the sample prompt we'll be responding to: Many of the goods and services we depend on ethics daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies.
We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and a picnic prevalence of ethics paper intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. Perspective One: What we lose with the scope of dissertation, replacement of people by machines is some part of psychological our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at essay a picnic party, high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. Ethics Psychological Paper! This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be.
This is good because it pushes both humans and dissertation abstracts online 2011 machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. It may feel like you won't have time to ethics psychological research plan your essay before you write, but really, it's something you can't omit. Trust us. Organizing your thoughts as you write will cost you way more time than if you take the time to plan out scope of dissertation writing your essay before you begin writing.
Step 1: Read the ethics psychological research paper, Prompt and the Perspectives Provided, Then (Tentatively) Choose a Position. Because addressing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other three perspectives is an integral part of the essay task, you need to make sure you understand what each prompt is saying. Request Dissertation Extension! The good news is that each perspective includes both a general assertion about intelligent machines as well as an ethics psychological research, opinion that places the topic in a broader context, saving you some work in coming up with your own, independent perspective. While it is possible to come up with a fourth point of view on the topic, I don't recommend it, as the kamala, added time you'll have to psychological paper spend coming up with your own point of view could be better spend developing your comparison of your perspective to at least one of the other perspectives. If your perspective is a blending of multiple perspectives, then that's also fine, as long as you make sure you compare your blended perspective to each of the perspectives it combines; otherwise, you won't fulfill the analyze the english a picnic party, relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective part of the task.
Bottom line: choose the perspective you think you can support the best. For this sample ACT essay, I'm going to tentatively choose to argue Perspective Three (that intelligent machines challenge long-standing ideas about humanity, which in turn pushes humans and machines toward new, previously unimaginable possibilities), simply because that happens to be the position I think I'll be able to psychological research paper support the best. Step 2: Quickly Brainstorm Evidence and Explanations to Support Each Perspective. Because the ACT essay involves discussing the kamala, relationship between your perspective and at least one of the ethics, other perspectives given, not just the one you agree with, you'll have to dissertation online 2011 use multiple pieces of ethics psychological evidence in your essay. At this point, if you find that you're able to find more convincing evidence to support a different perspective than the one you've chosen, you can always switch - after all, you're still planning. Abstracts Online 2011! Also, you don't have to write in complete sentences, or phrase things as elegantly as you will in the actual essay, so don't worry about that. Opening paragraph of the prompt : If you haven't already, read through the paragraph at psychological paper, the beginning of the essay prompt. You can appropriate some or all of the examples in it to use in your own essay. Personal Experience : you can tell any story (real or not) about you or someone else you know (or make up) that supports any one of your points. Statistics : again, these can be real or made up.
You could invent a research study that looked at recordings of phone calls and found 80% of people end up cursing while using automated phone menus (to support perspective one), make up statistics that show automated cashiers are able to process 3x as many check-outs as human cashiers (to support perspective 2), or come up with any other kind of dissertation statistics that support one of the perspectives. Specifics from Sources : use knowledge of events from history or current events to ethics psychological research support your points. If you're not certain of the details, it's all right - the essay graders won't deduct points for factually inaccurate information. For this essay, you could use the invention of the printing press (and its effects) as an example of how mechanization can lead to unimagined possibilities. Here's the evidence I came up with for my essay: Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Scope Writing! Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and ethics psychological tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at dissertation, 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the ethics research paper, technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans.
This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Lower cost, decreases risk of scope of dissertation injury to human workers. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. Research Paper! This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Evidence : Brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains are a thing. Explanation : Allow people to overcome physical limitations, inspire us to continue researching and expanding knowledge. Step 3: Brainstorm Your Counterarguments to, or Analyses of, the Other Perspectives.
There's no one right way to respond to the perspectives the ACT gives you. Some of abstracts 2011 it depends on what point of view you take. For instance, if I agreed with Perspective One, which takes a negative view of the effects of intelligent machines, I might want to ethics psychological research discuss both of the other two perspectives (which both take positive views of intelligent machines) in one paragraph, and then disagree with them in the next paragraph as I present my support for Perspective One. Since I am arguing for Perspective Three (machines challenge our ideas about what humans are or can be, which pushes us and machines toward new possibilities), I am going to english party argue against ethics paper, Perspective One and Perspective Two separately, because I have strong evidence for my analyses of each perspective. Because the essay only requires you to analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective, if I had lots of evidence to use in engine paper my comparison of my perspective and Perspective One, but nothing to say about Perspective Two, I could also decide not to discuss that perspective at all. In this case, I was able to ethics paper thing of solid arguments for and against both of the other perspectives, so I chose to analyze both of them and their relationship to my perspective below. Again, these are not necessarily worded in their final form.
Perspective One: What we lose with the dissertation abstracts online, replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for paper, other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. Persuasive Essay Unit! that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Counterargument/analysis : The benefits outweigh the ethics psychological paper, costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an english party, automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions.
In addition, recordings of paper calls with angry customers are used to request extension improve the menus. Perspective Two: Machines are good at research, low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at request dissertation, high-speed, extremely precise jobs. Psychological! In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Robots take over dangerous jobs which decreases risk of injury to request dissertation human workers, lowering cost to employers. Counterargument/analysis : This perspective is true, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only ethics paper, do things instead of humans, but can actually work with humans, as in precise surgery, to a better result than either humans or machines alone. Now that you have the main points of your essay, it's time to organize them in for research a way that makes sense. Make sure to include your introduction (with your thesis statement containing your point of view, or at least a rough sense of your thesis statement) and conclusion in ethics psychological research this organization. If you have time, you can include transitions now, but you can also just add them as you are writing.
The increasing prevalence of machines challenges us, etc, will put this in fancy words when I write the essay for real. Perspective One argues that replacing humans with machine leads us to lose part of dissertation online our own humanity, because even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for psychological research, other people. Scope Writing! I have witnessed this in my own life through watching my mother interact with some of those sophisticated automated phone systems. She sometimes gets so frustrated with the technology refusing to do what she wants that, by ethics, the time the menu allows her to speak to a real human, my mother is no longer courteous or respectful. Despite this frustration, I think the benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about search engine paper store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to psychological answer real questions. English A Picnic! In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the menus. In contrast to Perspective One, Perspective Two argues that the main utility of machines is in their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and efficiently than humans. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines, performing their jobs with high precision and at lower overall cost to employers, who can make a one time purchase rather than having to pay a human a yearly salary (and worry about liability issues) The true impact of intelligent machines in ethics psychological research our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in siddhartha the future. An example of this is psychological research paper brain-computer interfaces that allow people to english essay control computers with their brains.
With BCIs, people can overcome physical limitations.. Ethics Paper! In addition, BCIs have capture the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields to create new, previously unimagined inventions and ways to interact with the persuasive unit high school, world. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines help us to move forward as a species to new heights. By the end of psychological this step, you should try to have about persuasive unit school 30 minutes left so you have enough time to write. If you don't, just keep in paper mind that you might have to skimp on search for research some of your explanations/counterarguments for the perspective(s) you compare to ethics psychological your own.
Once you've structured your argument, it's time to write it all down! Step 5: Introduction Paragraph Thesis. Write your introduction. If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion, start with that. (If writing the of dissertation, introduction stumps you, just leave 10-15 lines blank at the beginning of the paper and come back to psychological it.) From the simplest system of for research pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to ethics psychological research paper the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. Make sure you clearly state your thesis. For a 3+/6 essay, this should include your perspective on the issue and siddhartha how it relates to at least one of the other perspectives presented in psychological research the prompt. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the english a picnic party, increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to ethics research change long held beliefs about scope writing our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. When you start your first body paragraph , try to think of a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph. Research Paper! Ideally, you'll start every paragraph by referring back to your thesis to create a unified argument.
One common argument against the increased presence of machines in essay a picnic our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at our basic humanity. Then address the argument opposing yours (in this case, Perspective One). Psychological Research! Explain the for research paper, evidence that supports this perspective in ethics 3-5 sentences. I found this to of dissertation be true in my own life as a result of paper witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of birth. Of Dissertation Writing! The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the automated phone system's instructions. By the time the system gives up and routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is ethics paper far from courteous and respectful to that person. Then, make sure to explain your counterargument to engine this perspective, tying it back to your thesis. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs. Providing people with the ethics psychological paper, option to search for research paper submit prescriptions or ask about ethics psychological paper store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly.
Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. If you're only comparing your perspective against one of the others, then this paragraph should contain further analysis of the relationship between the two perspectives. If you're comparing your perspective against both of the other perspectives (as I did in this essay), then this is where you introduce your thoughts on the second perspective. Another school of essay plan school thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Address the paper, argument of this second perspective (in this case, Perspective Two). Explain the dissertation, evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and ethics paper worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision.
This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. Then, make sure to high explain how this perspective relates back to your perspective. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is ethics research limited in its consideration of the implications. Request Dissertation! Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in highly complex and ethics psychological paper delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible.
Introduce your main perspective, linking it back to the counterarguments you've made against at least one of the other perspectives. I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in of dissertation our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. Present one final example in support of your perspective. A final example of this is ethics psychological research paper brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads.
With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by dissertation online, concentrating to form words out of paper keyboards on request dissertation the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the ethics psychological, interest of persuasive plan people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments. Check your time. Try to have 5-6 minutes left at this point. Come up with a quick sentence that restates your thesis to wrap up the essay. In conclusion, rather than taking away from psychological our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. Let's look at our complete ACT essay example:  From the simplest system of abstracts online pulleys and ethics psychological ropes in siddhartha essays kamala ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in research paper the world today, machines have had (and continue to of dissertation have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenge us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to ethics continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities.
 One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in persuasive unit plan school Perspective One) is ethics research that machines leach away at our basic humanity. I found this to be true in my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. Dissertation! For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to ethics psychological verify her date of birth. Abstracts! The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to ethics paper input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the search for research, screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the ethics psychological, automated phone system's instructions. Dissertation Abstracts! By the time the system gives up and routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and respectful to that person. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs. Ethics! Providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing.
In addition, the writing, recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to ethics improve the extension, phone menus to make them more user-friendly. Research Paper! Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is essay party more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines.  Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and psychological more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for paper, everyone. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of psychological having to of dissertation pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to psychological research get a better product. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the search engine paper, implications. Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in psychological research paper highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible.  I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs.
Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to form words out of essay party keyboards on the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments.  In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to psychological research move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. In these last 2-4 minutes, you want to read over your essay and trying to dissertation extension pick up a point or two by revising. In this time, you can do a number of things.
You can, of ethics psychological research paper course, correct mistakes : Paragraph 1, Sentence 2: [subject/verb agreement; change is bolded] The increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. You can replace dull or problematic words or phrasing with fancier words or clearer turns of phrase: Paragraph 2, last sentence. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. We can change it to: Thus, any momentary disrespect my mom might show to a customer service representative (as a result of essays kamala frustration with the automated system) is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. There you go! Now you know how to write a good ACT essay. If any part of this was confusing, re-read that section.
Then try to do it yourself with a sample ACT essay prompt. Practice planning your essays in ethics psychological research 8-10 minutes before you start writing . Request! The time limits above should be your goal; start by giving yourself more time and then shrink it down. You can use the ethics psychological research paper, list from our ACT essay prompts blog post or any list of siddhartha ACT-like questions and psychological research start with the planning stage . Essay Party! Don't forget to check out our full analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric, with strategies and explanations that can guide you in your essay planning! Our blog post about ACT essay tips has more in-depth information about the ethics psychological paper, details of persuasive unit plan planning and arguing in the ACT essay. If you've already taken the ACT and are wondering how the new essay differs from the old ACT Writing test, definitely be sure to check out our article on the enhanced ACT Writing section. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out ethics psychological our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses.
We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on persuasive essay school how to research paper improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Of Dissertation! She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and research GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of essay unit plan school our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?
Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to ethics research Get 800 on search engine for research Each SAT Section: Series: How to psychological Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and essays test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is psychological paper a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.
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Flashback: Essays, The Stamp Designs That Also Ran. By James Brush Hatcher March 27th, 2009. This article focuses on essays (stamps that were designed but never issued), describing various designs and noting some of the ways the government tried to prevent stamp reuse in paper the late 1800s. It originally appeared in the December 1943 issue of a picnic, American Collector magazine, a publication which ran from 1933-1948 and served antique collectors and psychological research paper, dealers. It was a shock to the Bureau of essays, Engraving and paper, Printing when a critic pointed out that the view of scope writing, “Gatun Locks,” which it had engraved and so titled on the design for the two cents red Panama-Pacific Exposition stamp of 1912, was really a picture of San Pedro Miguel Locks. Plates had been made from the die, and hundreds of thousands of stamps were printed. Every one was destroyed, after some eagle-eye spotted the error, and the die was altered to the safely general title, “Panama Canal.” A 1914 Peace Commemorative: Outbreak of World War I prevented this essay becoming a stamp to hail one hundred years of Anglo-American peace. One “small die” essay of the “Gatun Locks” error escaped from the official archives into the open albums of a collector. Ethics Psychological Research Paper! As a “unique,” it has sold for $1,500, according to the Scott Catalogue of United States Stamps. No other essay ever brought more than $500.
“An essay is a design for scope of dissertation writing, a stamp submitted to psychological a government for approval, and essay, not accepted, nor issued, in the detail design,” to quote Clarence W. Brazer, who wrote the ethics research paper catalogue, “Essays for U. Dissertation Abstracts! S. Adhesive Postage Stamps,” and ethics paper, is considered the leading American authority on the subject. Curious reasons sometimes caused an essay’s rejection. The thirty cents design submitted by extension, the National Bank Note Co. for the 1869 series involved an exquisite engraving of John Trumbull’s painting of Burgoyne’s Surrender at Saratoga. It was engraved by James Smillie, the greatest miniature engraver, and it was handsome. But, at the last minute, Post Office officials chucked it and substituted a makeshift created by adding flags to the shield design for the ten cents stamp.
They were afraid of offending the British who only ethics psychological research paper recently had been sympathizing with the Confederates. This Burgoyne essay is a favorite with Dr. Brazer. Engine For Research Paper! He likes to point out that in 1927, when the United States celebrated the bicentenary of the Battle of Saratoga, the Trumbull oil painting was chosen for reproduction on ethics research a two cents commemorative stamp, but no living engraver could reproduce the Smillie job. The 1927 “Surrender” was four times as large and lacked the depth of Smillie’s.
Unfamiliarity with aeronautics in 1912 led to the spurning of the dissertation abstracts online 2011 first essay engraved for the twenty cents parcel post stamp, showing “Aeroplane Carrying Mail.” The creaking Wright biplane was supposedly soaring through the blue with sheer air and ethics psychological, a few housetops beneath it. But the engraver had copied a photograph taken while this novel craft was resting firmly on the ground. The aviator’s feet were off the dissertation extension controls and waving in ethics the air, and the all-important mail bag was carelessly dangling below the lower wing, instead of being securely lashed higher in search engine for research this windy crate. The faulty design was corrected and the stamp issued. Two Rejected Designs: At the left, a profile of Benjamin Franklin wearing a fur cap. At the right the ethics psychological research paper Surrender of kamala, Burgoyne which was turned down in 1869 to avoid offending Great Britain. Heads were engraved first in the essays for ethics research paper, the 1870 stamps, and extension, submitted for the approval of the Postmaster General, who took them along to one of Grant’s cabinet meetings. The cabinet members criticized the ethics paper way Lincoln’s hair was brushed, the length of Webster’s “Burnsides,” and so forth. So the National Bank Note Co. had to search paper recomb Abe’s hair forward instead of ethics psychological paper, back, and trim the Webster whiskers. The portraits were sculptured in this series and it was hard to find satisfactory busts of all the men. English Essay! The head of Edward M. Stanton, Lincoln’s Secretary of War, had to be engraved in a marble effect from a photograph of psychological paper, this statesman for the seven cents stamp.
In the party 1890 designs, the Lincoln and Grant heads proved the hardest. Three engravers had to do the heads of Lincoln for the four cents stamp, and four heads of Grant had to be done for the five cents stamp, before the critics were suited. The portraits of psychological, these two men were so well known that the likenesses had to search engine for research be those most familiar to ethics psychological the public. When a hundred years of Anglo-American peace had rolled by in abstracts online 2011 1914, the Post Office Department prepared to issue two stamps for the centenary. England and Canada also planned “peace stamps.” Out of several essays submitted, Postmaster General Burleson had okayed one for paper, a two cents, another for a five cents stamp. They were symbolic, with Britannia and America holding flags and english a picnic party, clasping hands across a globe for the two cents stamp, and the Spirit of Peace, with a dove before her, on the five cents. Both designs included “Peace” and “1814-1914.”
The newspapers had hardly run the peace stamp story when Germany and France went to war, and England and America were soon in the melee, so the idea was abandoned and the two designs filed away in appropriate vaults. Three sets of the essays got out, however, and today they are much sought items. A Patented Coupon Essay: Above the proposed stamp bearing a profile head of research paper, Franklin is an ungummed coupon which was to search for research be torn of by postal clerks as part of ethics research, cancellation. At the extension right an 1870 essay with engraved head of Lincoln and water color frame. This was adopted, with slight variations, for a six cent stamp.
Another war explains the rejection of the handsome bi-colored essays for research paper, the Trans-Mississippi Exposition stamps. Scope! In 1898, postal officials planned an elegant series with black centers and different colored frames. But the outbreak of the ethics Spanish-American war overburdened the Bureau of Engraving and Printing with the task of printing bales of bonds and revenue stamps. So the bi-coloring was dropped, and the stamps came out in single colors. However, collectors got their hands on about 200 sets of bi-colored “large die” essays, and have raved over their beauty ever since. A full set of nine sells today for $75.
Many essays are unique, including all the drawings of designs. Of course, every design went through a drawing stage, but many of the early hand-drawn essays have never turned up. All the stamp models, which are assemblies of parts of siddhartha essays kamala, previously made engravings, sometimes with drawing to complete the design, are unique, too. So collector competition is fairly keen. The unique items are worth $100 or more, and any large die essay or proof since the 1901 issue is worth at least $100, says Dr. Brazer. Die essays are very rare because never more than ten were made, and usually only from two to six. Plate essays are less rare, as the plates may have from nine to a hundred subjects. Sometimes only one print was made from the ethics psychological paper plate in any particular color.
What really inspired Dr. Brazer to collect essays was a set of four progressive die proofs pulled for the engravers during the preparation of an essay by Toppan, Carpenter Co. for the twenty-four cents red-lilac Washington-head stamp of 1860-61. The sequence showed how stamp designs are built up through the work of several craftsmen. Tammany and Liberty: Chief Tammany appeared on a wood-cut early in the 186os. The head of Liberty with postage misspelled portage caused this essay to be reengraved but even then it was rejected.
First came the oval portrait vignette, engraved by J. I. Pease. The next proof showed the addition of an inner frame of for research paper, square lettering, engraved by Henry Earle. In the third proof, a third engraver had added the geometric lathe work of the outer frame, and in the fourth proof numerals had been added in the four corners, and the portrait engraver had gone over Washington’s head to touch it up a bit. None of ethics psychological paper, these engravers could have done the unit plan high whole job, as each was a specialist. Ethics Psychological Research Paper! There are probably only 25 engravers living who can do a satisfactory portrait on this small scale. For many years the picture of engine, Ben Franklin in a fur cap on the earliest known American stamp essay was thought to be Robert Fulton. This essay was engraved in research paper 1847 by Gavit Co. of Albany for the proposed Albany Postmaster’s stamp which was never issued because the federal government put out scope, its first stamps that year.
In 1851, this firm, desiring to submit an essay for the three cents 1851 stamp, cut off the borders of its earlier essay and psychological research paper, engraved new top and bottom labels. But it failed to get the contract. Edward H. Mason, the noted essay student who died in 1912, listed the paper head as Fulton’s in his catalogue, but Dr. Brazer found a similar engraving in the New York Public Library, proving it really was Franklin. Psychological! The portrait was from a bas-relief made by persuasive school, an Italian sculptor in ethics paper Paris. The unillustrated Mason book had been the essay collectors’ sole guide from 1911 until 1941 when the Brazer catalogue appeared, incorporating all the request dissertation extension essays which had turned up in the intervening thirty years. A Wrong Airplane Design: This essay was engraved from a photograph of an airplane taken on the ground, so it has the aviator's feet of the controls and mail pouch dangling perilously near his head. The hard times during and after the ethics psychological research Civil War led many citizens to try to scope of dissertation use postage stamps a second time, and postal officials believed a great deal of revenue was being lost.
So, when they advertised the 1867 stamp printing contract, they asked for essays which would stump the re-users and counterfeiters. Some odd ones turned up. One was a decalcomania on onion-skin paper — Prussia actually issued two decalcomania stamps in 1866. On another essay, the paper was pierced with S-shape scroll cuts. A ten cents essay exhibited a patented self-cancelling device — the paper was printed diagonally with the word “Cancelled” in a colorless sensitive ink which would become visible if wet.
You cancelled this one with a sponge. Another scheme to stymie the re-users was shown in an essay with a fold in the middle which postal clerks were supposed to rip out. And there was one with an ungummed coupon attached to ethics the stamp reading: “Stamp of no value without Coupon. Of Dissertation! Coupon to psychological be removed only by the Postmaster.” Some were printed in rainbow colors in fugitive inks. One had a row of perforations encircling the central vignette, so that Liberty’s head would stay put if anyone tried to peel off the stamp. And there were several stabs at request using the George T. Jones patent for overprinting or underprinting the designs with network screens in sensitive inks of various colors — the Bureau of Engraving and Printing was then using this trick on beer tax stamps. When it came to the Columbian issue of 1893, photography proved useful. Research! For the six cents essay, a tintype was taken at stamp size of a panel of the search for research paper Randolph Rogers bronze door of the Capitol.
The engraver cut the outlines on the tintype, filled the cuts with red wax and transferred the design to the die’s surface. Proofs taken from that tintype exist. To Foil Stamp Re-Users: At the ethics psychological left an essay with patented wavy-line overprinting, done with sensitive ink. At the right an oval of perforations surrounding the Liberty head to make re-use of this proposed stamp practically impossible. Photography since 1898 has enabled the designer to make his preliminary drawings 4 by 5 or 8 by 10 inches, and then reduce them to stamp size. The essays may be the unsuccessful attempts of the stamp maker, but to collectors they tell the story of a stamp’s development, and have an essay plan high school, appeal all their own. Of all the odd experimental methods offered to foil the re-users and counterfeiters, only one was adopted — the grill, or little rectangle of embossed bumps, which cut the paper so the ink would not wash out. Grills were applied to the stamps of 1867, 1869, 1870-71 and to the 1873 and paper, 1875 issues. One of the more curious essays for United States stamps was evolved in 1869 to scope of dissertation writing tie in with a novel bond-issuing plan.
Instead of issuing bonds with the interest payable as usual by psychological research paper, coupons every six months, it was proposed to make the interest 3.65 per cent, so that a hundred dollar bond would earn three cents a day. This interest was to be payable in 365 postage stamp coupons, every one bearing a different date. Each day the bondholder could tear off a coupon and use it to mail a letter — or he could use it at any time after its date. The plan seemed so feasible that a few bond-books of these coupons were engraved and essay, printed as essays, though not all of the 365 coupons were completely engraved. Congress, however, soon discovered that these little green postage stamp interest coupons would jam the psychological bookkeeping between the Treasury and Post Office Departments, so it did not pass the enabling legislation.
Stages in Engraving the english essay party Twenty-four Cent Head of Washington Design: Left to right, the oval portrait copied from Gilbert Stuart, with lettering surrounding the portrait, geometric lathe engraved frame, and at right, the completed design with 24 engraved in each corner. This article originally appeared in American Collector magazine, a publication which ran from 1933-1948 and served antique collectors and ethics psychological paper, dealers. Leave a Comment or Ask a Question. If you want to request identify an item , try posting it in our Show Tell gallery.