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Biography Aryabhata, the Indian mathematician Essay. Aryabhata (476 CE 550 CE) was the first Hindu mathematician and astronomers from India. He wrote couple of treatise about mathematics and astronomy. Some of them were lost. His most famous works Aryabhatiya completed in 499 CE and the Arya-Siddhanta. Aryabhatiya consists of 108 verses, in which Aryabhata wrote about the mathematics and astronomy at the age of 23 in 499 CE. He was born in India at essay writing Asmaka or Kusumapura in 476 CE. There is no clear evidence of the place of birth (Indian Streams Research General, September 2012). Aryabhata studied in Kusumapura and stayed there for some time. The evidences from Hindu, Buddhist tradition, and Bhaskara I (629 CE) recognize Kusumapura as Pataliputra, currently known as Patna. Aryabhata was the head of an institution at Kusumapura.
The University of Nalanda was in disadvantage of television essay, Pataliputra at the time. Discussion Writing! This university had an astronomical observatory that forces the belief that Aryabhata was the head of the for marketing internship program, Nalanda University. Aryabhata set up an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana, Bihar (Aryabhata Indian Mathematician). Aryabhatiya deals with mathematics and astronomy. That consists of an introduction containing astronomical tables and Aryabhatas system of phonemic number notation. This work consists of three sections: Ganita (means mathematics), Kala-kriya (means Time calculations), and Gola (means Sphere). Ganita covers decimal number system, algorithms for square and cubic roots, geometric measurements, the algorithm for Pi, tables of essay writing sines using Pythagorean Theorem, quadratic equations, proportions, and the solution of linear equations. This discusses the Aryabhatas method to solve the mathematical problem, Kuttaka (means pulverizer) also known as Aryabhatas algorithm.
This algorithm suggests breaking a problem in smaller fractions. Kala-kriya speaks about persuasive essays, astronomy. It is about treating planetary motion and include the definition of various units for time, eccentric, epicyclic planetary motion modes, longitude, and latitude. Gola discusses the discussion essay writing, plane trigonometry to spherical geometry. It also has prediction of solar and lunar eclipses and explicit statement about westward motion of stars because of the spherical rotation of the Earth about its axis (Indian Streams Research General, September 2012). The Arya-siddhanta was the work on astronomical computations. Surya Siddhanta was the persuasive essays on gay marriages, base of this work and considered the essay, start of the day at the midnight, as opposed to sunrise according to Aryabhatiya. It also contained a description of letter for marketing several astronomical instruments: the gnomon (shanku-yantra), a shadow instrument (chhAyA-yantra), possibly angle-measuring devices, semicircular, and circular (dhanur-yantra/chakra-yantra), a cylindrical stick yasti-yantra, an umbrella-shaped device called the chhatra-yantra, and water clocks of at least two types, bow-shaped and cylindrical.
Bakhshali Manuscript discussed the place-value system first in essay, the 3rd century. Georges Ifrah, the disadvantage essay, mathematician from France, acknowledged that awareness of zero by Aryabhata in place-value system because of a place holder for discussion essay writing the powers of 10 with null coefficients. Instead of disadvantage using Brahmi numerals Aryabhata continued the tradition from discussion essay writing, Vedic times by using letters of the alphabet for denoting numbers, expressing quantities, such as the table of sines in a mnemonic form (Indian Streams Research General, September 2012). Of The! The Surya Siddhanta laid foundational rules to determine the true motions of the luminaries and introduced the sine, cosine trigonometric functions. Essay! Aryabhata devised the formulae for calculating the area of triangle and circle. He also devised the same for pyramid and sphere. Formulae for triangle and circle were correct. Most historians claimed that formulae for sphere and pyramid were incorrect. He created a table of letter for marketing internship sines and versine with formula sin (n+1) x sin nx = sin (n-1) x (1/225) sin nx versin= 1 cosine. Aryabhatas definition of jya (sine), kojya (cosine), urkrama-jya (versine), and otkram-jya (inverse sine) influence the trigonometry (Indian Streams Research General, September 2012).
Aryabhata concluded that the approximation for pi ([pic]) is irrational. In Ganitapada he gave the formula for the ratio of circumference to the diameter as ((4 + 100) ? 8 + 62000)/20000 = 62832/20000 = 3.1416, which is accurate to essay writing five significant figures (Aryabhata Indian Mathematician). Flies! The speculation was that Aryabhata used asanna (means approaching), to mean that not only is this approximation but also that the essay writing, value is irrational. This shows quite a sophisticated insight from him because Lambert proved the irrationality of disadvantage essay pi in Europe only in 1761. Bhaskaras commentary on Aryabhatiya discusses the topic known as Diophantine equations, e.g., integer solutions to the equations that have the form ax+by = c. That formula to find value of essay N stated as N = 8x+5 = 9y+4 = 7z+1. It turns out that the proposal satire essay, smallest value for N is 85. Vedic text Sulba Sutras discussed these notoriously difficult diophantine equations. Aryabhata provided rules of algebra in the Aryabhatia and those are as follows: and 13 + 23 + +n3= (1+2+ +n) 2. In some texts, Aryabhata seems to ascribe the apparent motions of the heavens to the Earth#8217;s rotation. He believed that the planet#8217;s orbits as elliptical rather than circular.
Aryabhata correctly insisted that the earth rotates about essay, its axis daily and that the apparent movement of the stars is essays, a relative motion caused by the rotation of the discussion essay writing, earth, contrary to the then-prevailing view in other parts of the world that the sky rotated. The first chapter of the Aryabhatiya indicated this, where he gives the number of wright essay questions rotations of the earth in a yuga, and made more explicit in his gola chapter (A He used analogy of movement of boat going forward. During this movement person feels an unmoving object going in opposite direction than the boat. With this analogy he discussed the appearance of unmoving stars going uniformly westward. The cause of rising and setting is that the sphere of the stars together with the planets apparently turns due west at the equator, constantly pushed by the cosmic wind. Aryabhata described a geocentric model of the solar system, in which he mentioned that the Sun and Moon in discussion essay, turn revolve around the Earth. He calculated the positions and periods of the planets with respect to uniformly moving points. He stated that speed at which Mercury, Venus, and Sun move around the Earth is identical and is different from the specific speed of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.
He represented each planet#8217;s motion through the zodiac. Most historians of descriptive essays on happiness astronomy expressed that this two-epicycle model reflects elements of pre-Ptolemaic Greek astronomy. Historians saw another element in Aryabhata#8217;s model, the sighrocca, the basic planetary period in relation to the Sun as a sign of an underlying heliocentric model. He explained solar and writing, lunar eclipses. He stated that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight and explained eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and falling on Earth. His theory explained the lunar eclipse occurs when the moon enters into the Earth#8217;s shadow and discussed the length the size and extent of the descriptive, Earth#8217;s shadow. Essay! He provided the computation and the size of the eclipsed part during an eclipse. Later Indian astronomers improved on frank wright essay, the calculations, but Aryabhata#8217;s methods provided the core. Aryabhata calculated the sidereal rotation as 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.1 seconds; the modern value is discussion writing, 23:56:4.091. Proposal Satire Essay! Similarly, his value for the length of the sidereal year at 365 days, six hours, 12 minutes, and 30 seconds is an error of three minutes and 20 seconds over the length of a year (Indian Streams Research General, September 2012).
Aryabhata#8217;s work influenced the Indian astronomical tradition and several neighboring cultures through translations. His work as translated in discussion essay writing, Arabic during the frank lloyd essay questions, Islamic Golden Age (c. 820 CE). Al-Khwarizmi cited some of his results and in the 10th century Al-Biruni stated that Aryabhata#8217;s followers believed that the Earth rotated on its axis. Essay Writing! Aryabhata#8217;s astronomical calculation methods were also very influential. Islamic world widely used the trigonometric tables to compute many Arabic astronomical tables (zijes). Calendric calculations devised by internship program, Aryabhata and his followers contributed the practical purposes of fixing the Panchangam (the Hindu calendar). Other cultures used this for forming the calendar systems. India honored Aryabhata by naming India#8217;s first satellite as Aryabhata. An Institute for conducting research in astronomy, astrophysics, and atmospheric sciences is the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIOS) near Nainital, India.
Indian authorities named the inter-school math competition as Aryabhata Maths Competition, as is essay writing, Bacillus Aryabhata, a species of bacteria discovered by ISRO scientists in disadvantage, 2009. Indian Streams Research General: Avhale, P. S; Waghmare, R. V.; Kolhe, S. B. Indian Streams Research Journal. Sep2012, Vol. 2 Issue 8, Special section p1-5. Discussion Writing! 5p. Retrieved from https://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/detail?vid=2hid=117sid=d84c9078-6d85-4131-9209-e44cdb4cba58%40sessionmgr110bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=a9hAN=82351338. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate. Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to discussion essay a wide range of issues in moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, articles, essays, and descriptive essays on happiness speechesfrom terrorism and political violence to suicide and the death penalty. He is discussion often described as an existentialist writer, though he himself disavowed the label. He began his literary career as a political journalist and as an actor, director, and essays on happiness playwright in essay writing, his native Algeria. Civilized Essay On Lord With! Later, while living in occupied France during WWII, he became active in the Resistance and from 1944-47 served as editor-in-chief of the discussion essay writing newspaper Combat . By mid-century, based on the strength of his three novels ( The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall ) and two book-length philosophical essays ( The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel ), he had achieved an for marketing international reputation and readership. It was in discussion, these works that he introduced and developed the marriages twin philosophical ideasthe concept of the Absurd and the notion of Revoltthat made him famous. These are the ideas that people immediately think of when they hear the writing name Albert Camus spoken today. The Absurd can be defined as a metaphysical tension or opposition that results from the presence of human consciousnesswith its ever-pressing demand for civilized on lord of the flies quotes, order and meaning in lifein an essentially meaningless and indifferent universe.
Camus considered the Absurd to be a fundamental and even defining characteristic of the modern human condition. The notion of Revolt refers to both a path of resolved action and a state of mind. It can take extreme forms such as terrorism or a reckless and unrestrained egoism (both of which are rejected by Camus), but basically, and in writing, simple terms, it consists of an attitude of heroic defiance or resistance to cover for marketing internship whatever oppresses human beings. In awarding Camus its prize for literature in 1957, the Nobel Prize committee cited his persistent efforts to illuminate the problem of the human conscience in our time. He was honored by his own generation, and is still admired today, for being a writer of conscience and essay a champion of imaginative literature as a vehicle of philosophical insight and moral truth. He was at the height of his careerat work on an autobiographical novel, planning new projects for theatre, film, and television, and still seeking a solution to the lacerating political turmoil in his homelandwhen he died tragically in satire, an automobile accident in discussion essay writing, January 1960. Albert Camus was born on November 7, 1913, in on happiness, Mondovi, a small village near the seaport city of Bone (present-day Annaba) in the northeast region of French Algeria. He was the writing second child of Lucien Auguste Camus, a military veteran and wine-shipping clerk, and of Catherine Helene (Sintes) Camus, a house-keeper and on gay marriages part-time factory worker. Discussion Writing! (Note: Although Camus believed that his father was Alsatian and a first-generation emigre, research by letter program biographer Herbert Lottman indicates that the Camus family was originally from Bordeaux and that the first Camus to leave France for Algeria was actually the authors great-grandfather, who in the early 19th century became part of the discussion first wave of European colonial settlers in cover letter for marketing internship program, the new melting pot of North Africa.) Shortly after the outbreak of WWI, when Camus was less than a year old, his father was recalled to military service and, on October 11, 1914, died of shrapnel wounds suffered at discussion writing the first battle of the Marne.
As a child, about the only thing Camus ever learned about his father was that he had once become violently ill after witnessing a public execution. This anecdote, which surfaces in fictional form in descriptive on happiness, the authors novel The Stranger and is also recounted in his philosophical essay Reflections on the Guillotine, strongly affected Camus and influenced his lifelong opposition to the death penalty. After his fathers death, Camus, his mother, and his older brother moved to Algiers where they lived with his maternal uncle and grandmother in her cramped second-floor apartment in the working-class district of Belcourt. Discussion Writing! Camuss mother Catherine, who was illiterate, partially deaf, and afflicted with a speech pathology, worked in an ammunition factory and cleaned homes to internship program help support the family. In his posthumously published autobiographical novel The First Man , Camus recalls this period of his life with a mixture of pain and affection as he describes conditions of harsh poverty (the three-room apartment had no bathroom, no electricity, and no running water) relieved by hunting trips, family outings, childhood games, and discussion essay scenic flashes of wright essay, sun, seashore, mountain, and desert. Camus attended elementary school at the local Ecole Communale, and writing it was there that he encountered the letter for marketing program first in a series of discussion, teacher-mentors who recognized and nurtured the young boys lively intelligence. These father figures introduced him to a new world of history and imagination and to letter for marketing internship literary landscapes far beyond the dusty streets of discussion essay, Belcourt and working-class poverty.
Though stigmatized as a pupille de la nation (that is, a war veterans child dependent on public welfare) and hampered by recurrent health issues, Camus distinguished himself as a student and was eventually awarded a scholarship to attend high school at the Grand Lycee. Located near the cover letter internship program famous Kasbah district, the school brought him into essay, close proximity with the native Muslim community and thus gave him an early recognition of the idea of the outsider that would dominate his later writings. It was in secondary school that Camus became an descriptive avid reader (absorbing Gide, Proust, Verlaine, and Bergson, among others), learned Latin and English, and developed a lifelong interest in essay, literature, art, theatre, and film. He also enjoyed sports, especially soccer, of which he once wrote (recalling his early experience as a goal-keeper): I learned . . Essay! . that a ball never arrives from the direction you expected it. That helped me in later life, especially in mainland France, where nobody plays straight. It was also during this period that Camus suffered his first serious attack of tuberculosis, a disease that was to afflict him, on and off, throughout his career. By the writing time he finished his Baccalaureat degree in June 1932, Camus was already contributing articles to Sud , a literary monthly, and looking forward to a career in journalism, the persuasive arts, or higher education. The next four years (1933-37) were an especially busy period in his life during which he attended college, worked at writing odd jobs, married his first wife (Simone Hie), divorced, briefly joined the Communist party, and effectively began his professional theatrical and writing career.
Among his various employments during the time were stints of routine office work where one job consisted of a Bartleby-like recording and sifting of meteorological data and another involved paper shuffling in an auto license bureau. One can well imagine that it was as a result of this experience that his famous conception of Sisyphean struggle, heroic defiance in the face of the Absurd, first began to take shape within his imagination. In 1933, Camus enrolled at the University of Algiers to pursue his diplome detudes superieures, specializing in philosophy and gaining certificates in sociology and psychology along the way. Descriptive Essays On Happiness! In 1936, he became a co-founder, along with a group of young fellow intellectuals, of the Theatre du Travail, a professional acting company specializing in drama with left-wing political themes. Camus served the company as both an actor and director and essay writing also contributed scripts, including his first published play Revolt in Asturia , a drama based on an ill-fated workers revolt during the Spanish Civil War. That same year Camus also earned his degree and completed his dissertation, a study of the influence of Plotinus and neo-Platonism on the thought and writings of cover letter program, St. Writing! Augustine. Over the descriptive next three years Camus further established himself as an emerging author, journalist, and theatre professional. After his disillusionment with and eventual expulsion from the Communist Party, he reorganized his dramatic company and renamed it the essay writing Theatre de lEquipe (literally the Theater of the of the Team). The name change signaled a new emphasis on discussion writing classic drama and avant-garde aesthetics and a shift away from labor politics and agitprop. In 1938 he joined the staff of a new daily newspaper, the Alger Republicain , where his assignments as a reporter and reviewer covered everything from contemporary European literature to local political trials.
It was during this period that he also published his first two literary works Betwixt and Between , a collection of five short semi-autobiographical and philosophical pieces (1937) and Nuptials , a series of lyrical celebrations interspersed with political and philosophical reflections on North Africa and a modest satire essay the Mediterranean. The 1940s witnessed Camuss gradual ascendance to the rank of world-class literary intellectual. He started the decade as a locally acclaimed author and playwright, but he was a figure virtually unknown outside the city of Algiers; however, he ended the decade as an internationally recognized novelist, dramatist, journalist, philosophical essayist, and champion of freedom. This period of his life began inauspiciouslywar in Europe, the occupation of discussion essay, France, official censorship, and a widening crackdown on left-wing journals. Camus was still without stable employment or steady income when, after marrying his second wife, Francine Faure, in December of 1940, he departed Lyons, where he had been working as a journalist, and returned to Algeria. To help make ends meet, he taught part-time (French history and geography) at a private school in civilized on lord of the flies, Oran. All the while he was putting finishing touches to his first novel The Stranger , which was finally published in 1942 to favorable critical response, including a lengthy and discussion penetrating review by on happiness Jean-Paul Sartre. The novel propelled him into immediate literary renown.
Camus returned to France in 1942 and a year later began working for essay writing, the clandestine newspaper Combat , the journalistic arm and frank questions voice of the French Resistance movement. During this period, while contending with recurrent bouts of tuberculosis, he also published The Myth of discussion, Sisyphus , his philosophical anatomy of suicide and the absurd, and joined Gallimard Publishing as an disadvantage editor, a position he held until his death. After the Liberation, Camus continued as editor of Combat, oversaw the discussion production and lloyd essay publication of two plays, The Misunderstanding and Caligula , and assumed a leading role in Parisian intellectual society in the company of Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir among others. In the late 40s his growing reputation as a writer and discussion writing thinker was enlarged by the publication of The Plague , an allegorical novel and fictional parable of the Nazi Occupation and the duty of revolt, and by the lecture tours to the United States and South America. In 1951 he published The Rebel , a reflection on the nature of freedom and rebellion and a philosophical critique of revolutionary violence. This powerful and controversial work, with its explicit condemnation of Marxism-Leninism and its emphatic denunciation of unrestrained violence as a means of human liberation, led to an eventual falling out with Sartre and, along with his opposition to the Algerian National Liberation Front, to his being branded a reactionary in essays marriages, the view of many European Communists.
Yet his position also established him as an discussion writing outspoken champion of individual freedom and as an descriptive on happiness impassioned critic of tyranny and terrorism, whether practiced by the Left or by the Right. In 1956, Camus published the short, confessional novel The Fall , which unfortunately would be the last of his completed major works and which in the opinion of some critics is the most elegant, and most under-rated of all his books. During this period he was still afflicted by tuberculosis and was perhaps even more sorely beset by discussion essay the deteriorating political situation in his native Algeriawhich had by now escalated from demonstrations and occasional terrorist and guerilla attacks into essay, open violence and insurrection. Essay! Camus still hoped to champion some kind of rapprochement that would allow the native Muslim population and the French pied noir minority to descriptive essays on happiness live together peaceably in a new de-colonized and largely integrated, if not fully independent, nation. Alas, by this point, as he painfully realized, the odds of such an outcome were becoming increasingly unlikely. In the fall of 1957, following publication of Exile and the Kingdom, a collection of short fiction, Camus was shocked by news that he had been awarded the discussion writing Nobel Prize for literature. He absorbed the announcement with mixed feelings of gratitude, humility, and amazement. On the one hand, the award was obviously a tremendous honor.
On the other, not only did he feel that his friend and esteemed fellow novelist Andre Malraux was more deserving, he was also aware that the Nobel itself was widely regarded as the kind of accolade usually given to satire artists at the end of a long career. Yet, as he indicated in his acceptance speech at Stockholm, he considered his own career as still in mid-flight, with much yet to accomplish and even greater writing challenges ahead: Every person, and assuredly every artist, wants to be recognized. Discussion Essay Writing! So do I. But Ive been unable to comprehend your decision without comparing its resounding impact with my own actual status. A man almost young, rich only in his doubts, and with his work still in progress how could such a man not feel a kind of panic at hearing a decree that transports him all of a sudden to the center of a glaring spotlight? And with what feelings could he accept this honor at a time when other writers in Europe, among them the very greatest, are condemned to silence, and even at a time when the country of his birth is going through unending misery? Of course Camus could not have known as he spoke these words that most of his writing career was in fact behind him. Over the next two years, he published articles and essay continued to write, produce, and writing direct plays, including his own adaptation of Dostoyevskys The Possessed . He also formulated new concepts for film and television, assumed a leadership role in a new experimental national theater, and a modest continued to campaign for peace and a political solution in Algeria. Discussion! Unfortunately, none of these latter projects would be brought to descriptive essays fulfillment. On January 4, 1960, Camus died tragically in a car accident while he was a passenger in discussion writing, a vehicle driven by his friend and descriptive essays publisher Michel Gallimard, who also suffered fatal injuries. Writing! The author was buried in the local cemetery at Lourmarin, a village in Provencal where he and essays marriages his wife and daughters had lived for nearly a decade.
Upon hearing of Camuss death, Sartre wrote a moving eulogy in writing, the France-Observateur , saluting his former friend and political adversary not only for his distinguished contributions to French literature but especially for the heroic moral courage and stubborn humanism which he brought to bear against civilized on lord the massive and deformed events of the day. According to discussion essay Sartres perceptive appraisal, Camus was less a novelist and more a writer of philosophical tales and disadvantage parables in the tradition of Voltaire. This assessment accords with Camuss own judgment that his fictional works were not true novels (Fr. romans ), a form he associated with the discussion densely populated and richly detailed social panoramas of writers like Balzac, Tolstoy, and Proust, but rather contes (tales) and recits (narratives) combining philosophical and a modest proposal essay psychological insights. In this respect, it is also worth noting that at no time in his career did Camus ever describe himself as a deep thinker or lay claim to the title of discussion writing, philosopher. Instead, he nearly always referred to himself simply, yet proudly, as un ecrivain a writer. Persuasive On Gay Marriages! This is an important fact to keep in mind when assessing his place in intellectual history and in twentieth-century philosophy, for by no means does he qualify as a system-builder or theorist or even as a disciplined thinker. He was instead (and here again Sartres assessment is astute) a sort of all-purpose critic and modern-day philosophe : a debunker of mythologies, a critic of discussion, fraud and superstition, an enemy of terror, a voice of reason and compassion, and an outspoken defender of freedomall in all a figure very much in cover internship program, the Enlightenment tradition of Voltaire and Diderot. For this reason, in assessing Camuss career and work, it may be best simply to take him at his own word and characterize him first and foremost as a writer advisedly attaching the epithet philosophical for sharper accuracy and definition.
3. Camus, Philosophical Literature, and the Novel of Ideas. To pin down exactly why and in what distinctive sense Camus may be termed a philosophical writer, we can begin by comparing him with other authors who have merited the designation. Right away, we can eliminate any comparison with the efforts of Lucretius and Dante, who undertook to unfold entire cosmologies and philosophical systems in essay writing, epic verse. Camus obviously attempted nothing of the sort. Lloyd Wright Essay Questions! On the other hand, we can draw at writing least a limited comparison between Camus and writers like Pascal, Kierkegaard, and Nietzschethat is, with writers who were first of all philosophers or religious writers, but whose stylistic achievements and a modest literary flair gained them a special place in the pantheon of world literature as well. Here we may note that Camus himself was very conscious of his debt to writing Kierkegaard and Nietzsche (especially in civilized, the style and structure of The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel ) and that he might very well have followed in their literary-philosophical footsteps if his tuberculosis had not side-tracked him into fiction and journalism and prevented him from pursuing an discussion essay writing academic career. Perhaps Camus himself best defined his own particular status as a philosophical writer when he wrote (with authors like Melville, Stendhal, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka especially in mind): The great novelists are philosophical novelists; that is, writers who eschew systematic explanation and create their discourse using images instead of arguments ( The Myth of Sisyphus 74). By his own definition then Camus is a philosophical writer in letter internship program, the sense that he has (a) conceived his own distinctive and original world-view and (b) sought to essay writing convey that view mainly through images, fictional characters and events, and lloyd wright questions via dramatic presentation rather than through critical analysis and direct discourse. He is also both a novelist of writing, ideas and a psychological novelist, and in this respect, he certainly compares most closely to Dostoyevsky and Sartre, two other writers who combine a unique and distinctly philosophical outlook, acute psychological insight, and a dramatic style of presentation. (Like Camus, Sartre was a productive playwright, and Dostoyevsky remains perhaps the disadvantage essay most dramatic of all novelists, as Camus clearly understood, having adapted both The Brothers Karamazov and discussion essay The Possessed for the stage.)
Camuss reputation rests largely on the three novels published during his lifetime The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall and on persuasive his two major philosophical essays The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel . However, his body of work also includes a collection of short fiction, Exile and the Kingdom ; an essay writing autobiographical novel, The First Man ; a number of dramatic works, most notably Caligula, The Misunderstanding , The State of a modest proposal satire essay, Siege , and writing The Just Assassins ; several translations and adaptations, including new versions of works by Calderon, Lope de Vega, Dostoyevsky, and Faulkner; and disadvantage a lengthy assortment of essays, prose pieces, critical reviews, transcribed speeches and interviews, articles, and works of journalism. A brief summary and description of the most important of Camuss writings is discussion essay writing presented below as preparation for a larger discussion of his philosophy and world-view, including his main ideas and recurrent philosophical themes. The Stranger ( LEtranger, 1942)From its cold opening lines, Mother died today. Or maybe yesterday; I cant be sure, to its bleak concluding image of a modest, a public execution set to take place beneath the benign indifference of the universe, Camuss first and most famous novel takes the form of a terse, flat, first-person narrative by its main character Meursault, a very ordinary young man of unremarkable habits and unemotional affect who, inexplicably and in an almost absent-minded way, kills an Arab and then is arrested, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. The neutral style of the noveltypical of what the discussion essay critic Roland Barthes called writing degree zeroserves as a perfect vehicle for the descriptions and commentary of its anti-hero narrator, the ultimate outsider and wright questions a person who seems to observe everything, including his own life, with almost pathological detachment. The Plague ( La Peste, 1947)Set in the coastal town of Oran, Camuss second novel is the story of an outbreak of plague, traced from its subtle, insidious, unheeded beginnings and horrible, seemingly irresistible dominion to its eventual climax and decline, all told from the viewpoint of one of the survivors. Camus made no effort to conceal the fact that his novel was partly based on and could be interpreted as an allegory or parable of the rise of Nazism and the nightmare of the discussion essay Occupation. However, the lloyd wright essay plague metaphor is both more complicated and more flexible than that, extending to signify the Absurd in general as well as any calamity or disaster that tests the mettle of human beings, their endurance, their solidarity, their sense of responsibility, their compassion, and their will. At the end of the novel, the discussion essay plague finally retreats, and the narrator reflects that a time of pestilence teaches that there is more to admire in men than to despise, but he also knows that the plague bacillus never dies or disappears for good, that the day would come when, for the bane and the enlightening of men, it would rouse up its rats again and send them forth yet once more to spread death and contagion into lloyd wright essay questions, a happy and unsuspecting city. The Fall ( La Chute, 1956)Camuss third novel, and the last to essay writing be published during his lifetime, is in on happiness, effect an extended dramatic monologue spoken by M. Jean-Baptiste Clamence, a dissipated, cynical, former Parisian attorney (who now calls himself a judge-penitent) to an unnamed auditor (thus indirectly to the reader).
Set in a seedy bar in the red-light district of essay, Amsterdam, the work is a modest proposal satire essay a small masterpiece of compression and style: a confessional (and semi-autobiographical) novel, an arresting character study and psychological portrait, and at the same time a wide-ranging philosophical discourse on guilt and innocence, expiation and writing punishment, good and evil. Camus began his literary career as a playwright and theatre director and was planning new dramatic works for letter for marketing program, film, stage, and television at the time of his death. In addition to his four original plays, he also published several successful adaptations (including theatre pieces based on works by Faulkner, Dostoyevsky, and Calderon). He took particular pride in his work as a dramatist and man of the theatre. However, his plays never achieved the same popularity, critical success, or level of discussion essay, incandescence as his more famous novels and persuasive on gay major essays. Caligula (1938, first produced 1945)Men die and are not happy. Such is the complaint against the universe pronounced by the young emperor Caligula, who in Camuss play is less the murderous lunatic, slave to incest, narcissist, and megalomaniac of Roman history than a theatrical martyr-hero of the Absurd: a man who carries his philosophical quarrel with the discussion writing meaninglessness of human existence to a kind of fanatical but logical extreme. Camus described his hero as a man obsessed with the impossible willing to pervert all values, and if necessary destroy himself and all those around him in the pursuit of absolute liberty.
Caligula was Camuss first attempt at portraying a figure in descriptive essays, absolute defiance of the Absurd, and through three revisions of the play over a period of several years he eventually achieved a remarkable composite by adding to Caligulas original portrait touches of Sade, of revolutionary nihilism, of the Nietzschean Superman, of his own version of Sisyphus, and even of Mussolini and Hitler. The Misunderstanding ( Le Malentendu , 1944)In this grim exploration of the Absurd, a son returns home while concealing his true identity from his mother and sister. The two women operate a boarding house where, in order to make ends meet, they quietly murder and rob their patrons. Through a tangle of misunderstanding and discussion mistaken identity they wind up murdering their unrecognized visitor. Disadvantage Of Television Essay! Camus has explained the writing drama as an frank wright essay questions attempt to capture the atmosphere of malaise, corruption, demoralization, and anonymity that he experienced while living in essay, France during the German occupation. Despite the plays dark themes and cover letter internship bleak style, he described its philosophy as ultimately optimistic: It amounts to discussion essay writing saying that in descriptive on happiness, an unjust or indifferent world man can save himself, and save others, by practicing the most basic sincerity and pronouncing the most appropriate word. State of discussion essay, Siege ( LEtat de Siege, 1948) This odd allegorical drama combines features of the medieval morality play with elements of Calderon and letter the Spanish baroque; it also has apocalyptic themes, bits of music hall comedy, and a collection of avant-garde theatrics thrown in for good measure. The work marked a significant departure from Camuss normal dramatic style. It also resulted in virtually universal disapproval and negative reviews from Paris theatre-goers and critics, many of discussion, whom came expecting a play based on on gay Camuss recent novel The Plague . The play is set in the Spanish seaport city of Cadiz, famous for its beaches, carnivals, and street musicians.
By the end of the first act, the normally laid-back and carefree citizens fall under the dominion of a gaudily beribboned and uniformed dictator named Plague (based on Generalissimo Franco) and his officious, clip-board wielding Secretary (who turns out to be a modern, bureaucratic incarnation of the medieval figure Death). One of the prominent concerns of the play is the Orwellian theme of the degradation of essay writing, language via totalitarian politics and bureaucracy (symbolized onstage by calls for silence, scenes in marriages, pantomime, and a gagged chorus). As one character observes, we are steadily nearing that perfect moment when nothing anybody says will rouse the least echo in discussion, anothers mind. The Just Assassins ( Les Justes , 1950)First performed in Paris to largely favorable reviews, this play is based on real-life characters and an actual historical event: the 1905 assassination of the Russian Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich by Ivan Kalyayev and frank lloyd fellow members of the Combat Organization of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. The play effectively dramatizes the issues that Camus would later explore in discussion essay writing, detail in The Rebel , especially the question of whether acts of terrorism and political violence can ever be morally justified (and if so, with what limitations and in what specific circumstances). The historical Kalyayev passed up his original opportunity to bomb the Grand Dukes carriage because the Duke was accompanied by his wife and two young nephews.
However, this was no act of conscience on Kalyayevs part but a purely practical decision based on his calculation that the murder of children would prove a setback to the revolution. After the successful completion of his bombing mission and subsequent arrest, Kalyayev welcomed his execution on similarly practical and purely political grounds, believing that his death would further the cause of frank wright essay questions, revolution and social justice. Camuss Kalyayev, on discussion writing the other hand, is a far more agonized and conscientious figure, neither so cold-blooded nor so calculating as his real-life counterpart. Upon seeing the essay of the quotes two children in the carriage, he refuses to toss his bomb not because doing so would be politically inexpedient but because he is overcome emotionally, temporarily unnerved by the sad expression in their eyes. Similarly, at the end of the discussion play he embraces his death not so much because it will aid the revolution, but almost as a form of karmic penance, as if it were indeed some kind of of television essay, sacred duty or metaphysical requirement that must be performed in order for true justice to be achieved. c. Essays, Letters, Prose Collections, Articles, and Reviews. Betwixt and essay Between ( LEnvers et lendroit, 1937)This short collection of semi-autobiographical, semi-fictional, philosophical pieces might be dismissed as juvenilia and satire essay largely ignored if it were not for the fact that it represents Camuss first attempt to formulate a coherent life-outlook and world-view.
The collection, which in a way serves as a germ or starting point for the authors later philosophy, consists of five lyrical essays. Essay Writing! In Irony ( LIronie ), a reflection on youth and age, Camus asserts, in the manner of on happiness, a young disciple of Pascal, our essential solitariness in life and death. In Between yes and no ( Entre Oui et Non ) he suggests that to hope is discussion essay writing as empty and as pointless as to despair, yet he goes beyond nihilism by positing a fundamental value to existence-in-the-world. In Death in the soul ( La Mort dans lame ) he supplies a sort of existential travel review, contrasting his impressions of central and Eastern Europe (which he views as purgatorial and morgue-like) with the more spontaneous life of Italy and a modest satire Mediterranean culture. The piece thus affirms the authors lifelong preference for discussion essay, the color and vitality of the Mediterranean world, and especially North Africa, as opposed to what he perceives as the descriptive essays on happiness soulless cold-heartedness of modern Europe. In Love of life ( Amour de vivre ) he claims there can be no love of life without despair of life and thus largely re-asserts the essentially tragic, ancient Greek view that the very beauty of human existence is largely contingent upon its brevity and fragility. Essay Writing! The concluding essay, Betwixt and between ( LEnvers et lendroit ), summarizes and proposal satire re-emphasizes the discussion Romantic themes of the collection as a whole: our fundamental aloneness, the importance of lloyd wright, imagination and essay writing openness to experience, the on lord of the with quotes imperative to live as if .
Nuptials ( Noces , 1938)This collection of four rhapsodic narratives supplements and amplifies the youthful philosophy expressed in Betwixt and Between . That joy is necessarily intertwined with despair, that the essay shortness of life confers a premium on intense experience, and that the world is both beautiful and violentthese are, once again, Camuss principal themes. Summer in Algiers, which is probably the best (and best-known) of the essays in the collection, is a lyrical, at descriptive essays on happiness times almost ecstatic, celebration of sea, sun, and the North African landscape. Affirming a defiantly atheistic creed, Camus concludes with one of the core ideas of essay, his philosophy: If there is a sin against life, it consists not so much in despairing as in hoping for another life and in eluding the implacable grandeur of this one. The Myth of Sisyphus ( Le Mythe de Sisyphe, 1943)If there is a single non-fiction work that can be considered an essential or fundamental statement of Camuss philosophy, it is this extended essay on the ethics of suicide (eventually translated and civilized flies repackaged for American publication in 1955). It is discussion writing here that Camus formally introduces and fully articulates his most famous idea, the concept of the Absurd, and his equally famous image of essay, life as a Sisyphean struggle. From its provocative opening sentenceThere is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicideto its stirring, paradoxical conclusionThe struggle itself toward the heights is enough to essay fill a mans heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happythe book has something interesting and proposal satire challenging on nearly every page and is shot through with brilliant aphorisms and insights. Discussion Essay! In the end, Camus rejects suicide: the Absurd must not be evaded either by religion (philosophical suicide) or by wright questions annihilation (physical suicide); the task of living should not merely be accepted, it must be embraced. The Rebel ( LHomme Revolte, 1951)Camus considered this work a continuation of the critical and philosophical investigation of the Absurd that he began with The Myth of Sisyphus . Only this time his primary concern is not suicide but murder.
He takes up the question of whether acts of terrorism and discussion essay writing political violence can be morally justified, which is basically the same question he had addressed earlier in his play The Just Assassins . After arguing that an authentic life inevitably involves some form of disadvantage, conscientious moral revolt, Camus winds up concluding that only in rare and very narrowly defined instances is political violence justified. Camuss critique of revolutionary violence and terror in this work, and particularly his caustic assessment of Marxism-Leninism (which he accused of sacrificing innocent lives on the altar of History), touched nerves throughout Europe and led in part to his celebrated feud with Sartre and discussion essay other French leftists. Resistance, Rebellion, and Death (1957)This posthumous collection is of interest to students of Camus mainly because it brings together an unusual assortment of his non-fiction writings on a wide range of topics, from art and politics to the advantages of lloyd wright essay questions, pessimism and the virtues (from a non-believers standpoint) of Christianity. Of special interest are two pieces that helped secure Camuss worldwide reputation as a voice of liberty: Letters to discussion writing a German Friend, a set of four letters originally written during the Nazi Occupation, and disadvantage of television Reflections on the Guillotine, a denunciation of the death penalty cited for special mention by the Nobel committee and eventually revised and re-published as a companion essay to go with fellow death-penalty opponent Arthur Koestlers Reflections on Hanging. To re-emphasize a point made earlier, Camus considered himself first and foremost a writer ( un ecrivain ). Writing! Indeed, Camuss dissertation advisor penciled onto disadvantage of television, his dissertation the assessment More a writer than a philosopher. And at various times in his career he also accepted the labels journalist, humanist, novelist, and even moralist. However, he apparently never felt comfortable identifying himself as a philosophera term he seems to have associated with rigorous academic training, systematic thinking, logical consistency, and a coherent, carefully defined doctrine or body of ideas.
This is not to suggest that Camus lacked ideas or to say that his thought cannot be considered a personal philosophy. It is simply to essay point out that he was not a systematic, or even a notably disciplined thinker and that, unlike Heidegger and Sartre, for example, he showed very little interest in metaphysics and ontology, which seems to be one of the a modest satire essay reasons he consistently denied that he was an existentialist. Discussion Writing! In short, he was not much given to speculative philosophy or any kind of abstract theorizing. His thought is instead nearly always related to letter for marketing internship current events (e.g., the Spanish War, revolt in Algeria) and is consistently grounded in down-to-earth moral and political reality. Though he was baptized, raised, and educated as a Catholic and discussion essay invariably respectful towards the Church, Camus seems to cover internship program have been a natural-born pagan who showed almost no instinct whatsoever for belief in the supernatural. Even as a youth, he was more of a sun-worshipper and nature lover than a boy notable for his piety or religious faith. Discussion Writing! On the cover letter for marketing other hand, there is no denying that Christian literature and essay writing philosophy served as an important influence on his early thought and cover internship intellectual development. As a young high school student, Camus studied the Bible, read and savored the discussion essay writing Spanish mystics St. Theresa of Avila and St.
John of the Cross, and was introduced to the thought of St. Augustine St. Augustine would later serve as the subject of his baccalaureate dissertation and becomeas a fellow North African writer, quasi-existentialist, and a modest proposal essay conscientious observer-critic of his own lifean important lifelong influence. In college Camus absorbed Kierkegaard, who, after Augustine, was probably the single greatest Christian influence on his thought. He also studied Schopenhauer and Nietzscheundoubtedly the two writers who did the most to set him on his own path of discussion writing, defiant pessimism and atheism. Of Television Essay! Other notable influences include not only the major modern philosophers from the academic curriculumfrom Descartes and Spinoza to Bergsonbut also, and just as importantly, philosophical writers like Stendhal, Melville, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka. The two earliest expressions of Camuss personal philosophy are his works Betwixt and Between (1937) and Nuptials (1938). Here he unfolds what is essay essentially a hedonistic, indeed almost primitivistic, celebration of nature and the life of the senses. For Marketing Program! In the Romantic poetic tradition of essay, writers like Rilke and Wallace Stevens, he offers a forceful rejection of all hereafters and an emphatic embrace of the here and now. There is no salvation, he argues, no transcendence; there is only the enjoyment of consciousness and natural being.
One life, this life, is enough. Sky and sea, mountain and desert, have their own beauty and persuasive magnificence and constitute a sufficient heaven. The critic John Cruikshank termed this stage in Camuss thinking naive atheism and attributed it to his ecstatic and somewhat immature Mediterraneanism. Naive seems an apt characterization for a philosophy that is romantically bold and discussion writing uncomplicated yet somewhat lacking in sophistication and logical clarity. On the other hand, if we keep in mind Camuss theatrical background and preference for dramatic presentation, there may actually be more depth and complexity to his thought here than meets the eye. For Marketing Internship! That is to say, just as it would be simplistic and writing reductive to equate Camuss philosophy of revolt with that of his character Caligula (who is at best a kind of extreme or mad spokesperson for the author), so in the same way it is possible that the pensees and descriptive essays opinions presented in Nuptials and discussion writing Betwixt and Between are not so much the views of Camus as they are poetically heightened observations of an artfully crafted narratoran exuberant alter ego who is far more spontaneous and free-spirited than his more naturally reserved and sober-minded author. In any case, regardless of this assessment of the ideas expressed in Betwixt and Between and proposal Nuptials , it is essay clear that these early writings represent an important, if comparatively raw and simple, beginning stage in Camuss development as a thinker where his views differ markedly from his more mature philosophy in several noteworthy respects.
In the first place, the essays marriages Camus of discussion writing, Nuptials is disadvantage of television still a young man of twenty-five, aflame with youthful joie de vivre. He favors a life of essay writing, impulse and on gay daring as it was honored and practiced in both Romantic literature and in the streets of Belcourt. Recently married and divorced, raised in poverty and in close quarters, beset with health problems, this young man develops an understandable passion for clear air, open space, colorful dreams, panoramic vistas, and the breath-taking prospects and challenges of the larger world. Consequently, the Camus of the period 1937-38 is a decidedly different writer from the writing Camus who will ascend the dais at Stockholm nearly twenty years later. The young Camus is more of a sensualist and pleasure-seeker, more of a dandy and aesthete, than the persuasive essays marriages more hardened and austere figure who will endure the Occupation while serving in the French underground. He is a writer passionate in his conviction that life ought to be lived vividly and intenselyindeed rebelliously (to use the essay term that will take on increasing importance in his thought). He is also a writer attracted to causes, though he is not yet the frank lloyd essay questions author who will become world-famous for his moral seriousness and passionate commitment to discussion essay justice and freedom. All of which is understandable. After all, the Camus of the middle 1930s had not yet witnessed and frank lloyd wright absorbed the shattering spectacle and disillusioning effects of the Spanish Civil War, the rise of Fascism, Hitlerism, and discussion Stalinism, the coming into being of total war and weapons of mass destruction, and the terrible reign of genocide and terror that would characterize the satire period 1938-1945. Essay! It was under the pressure and in direct response to the events of disadvantage of television, this period that Camuss mature philosophywith its core set of humanistic themes and ideasemerged and gradually took shape. That mature philosophy is no longer a naive atheism but a very reflective and critical brand of discussion essay, unbelief.
It is proudly and inconsolably pessimistic, but not in a polemical or overbearing way. It is unbending, hardheaded, determinedly skeptical. It is for marketing internship program tolerant and respectful of world religious creeds, but at the same time wholly unsympathetic to them. Essay! In the end it is an affirmative philosophy that accepts and approves, and in of television essay, its own way blesses, our dreadful mortality and our fundamental isolation in the world. Regardless of whether he is producing drama, fiction, or non-fiction, Camus in discussion, his mature writings nearly always takes up and re-explores the same basic philosophical issues. These recurrent topoi constitute the for marketing key components of his thought. They include themes like the Absurd, alienation, suicide, and essay writing rebellion that almost automatically come to disadvantage of television essay mind whenever his name is mentioned. Hence any summary of his place in modern philosophy would be incomplete without at least a brief discussion of these ideas and discussion essay writing how they fit together to proposal satire form a distinctive and original world-view.
Even readers not closely acquainted with Camuss works are aware of his reputation as the philosophical expositor, anatomist, and poet-apostle of the Absurd. Discussion! Indeed, as even sitcom writers and stand-up comics apparently understand (odd fact: the comic-bleak final episode of Seinfeld has been compared to The Stranger , and Camuss thought has been used to explain episodes of The Simpsons ), it is largely through the thought and writings of the cover internship French-Algerian author that the concept of absurdity has become a part not only of world literature and discussion writing twentieth-century philosophy but also of modern popular culture. What then is meant by the notion of the Absurd? Contrary to lloyd wright questions the view conveyed by popular culture, the Absurd, (at least in Camuss terms) does not simply refer to some vague perception that modern life is fraught with paradoxes, incongruities, and intellectual confusion. (Although that perception is certainly consistent with his formula.) Instead, as he emphasizes and tries to discussion essay make clear, the Absurd expresses a fundamental disharmony, a tragic incompatibility, in our existence. In effect, he argues that the a modest essay Absurd is the product of a collision or confrontation between our human desire for order, meaning, and purpose in discussion, life and a modest proposal satire essay the blank, indifferent silence of the universe: The absurd is not in man nor in the world, Camus explains, but in their presence together it is the only bond uniting them. So here we are: poor creatures desperately seeking hope and discussion writing meaning in civilized essay of the quotes, a hopeless, meaningless world. Sartre, in his essay-review of The Stranger provides an additional gloss on the idea: The absurd, to be sure, resides neither in man nor in the world, if you consider each separately. But since mans dominant characteristic is being in the world, the absurd is, in the end, an inseparable part of the discussion writing human condition. The Absurd, then, presents itself in the form of an existential opposition. It arises from the human demand for lloyd essay questions, clarity and transcendence on the one hand and a cosmos that offers nothing of the kind on the other.
Such is our fate: we inhabit a world that is discussion essay indifferent to our sufferings and deaf to essays our protests. In Camuss view there are three possible philosophical responses to this predicament. Two of these he condemns as evasions, and essay the other he puts forward as a proper solution. The first choice is blunt and simple: physical suicide. If we decide that a life without some essential purpose or meaning is not worth living, we can simply choose to on happiness kill ourselves. Camus rejects this choice as cowardly. In his terms it is a repudiation or renunciation of life, not a true revolt. The second choice is the religious solution of positing a transcendent world of solace and meaning beyond the Absurd. Writing! Camus calls this solution philosophical suicide and civilized essay rejects it as transparently evasive and essay writing fraudulent.
To adopt a supernatural solution to the problem of the Absurd (for example, through some type of mysticism or leap of faith) is to disadvantage essay annihilate reason, which in Camuss view is as fatal and self-destructive as physical suicide. In effect, instead of removing himself from the discussion essay absurd confrontation of self and world like the physical suicide, the religious believer simply removes the offending world and replaces it, via a kind of metaphysical abracadabra, with a more agreeable alternative. The third choicein Camuss view the only authentic and valid solutionis simply to accept absurdity, or better yet to embrace it, and to continue living. Since the Absurd in his view is an unavoidable, indeed defining, characteristic of the human condition, the only proper response to it is full, unflinching, courageous acceptance. Life, he says, can be lived all the better if it has no meaning. The example par excellence of lloyd essay questions, this option of spiritual courage and metaphysical revolt is the mythical Sisyphus of discussion, Camuss philosophical essay. Doomed to eternal labor at his rock, fully conscious of the essential hopelessness of his plight, Sisyphus nevertheless pushes on. In doing so he becomes for Camus a superb icon of the spirit of revolt and of the human condition. To rise each day to fight a battle you know you cannot win, and to do this with wit, grace, compassion for others, and even a sense of mission, is to face the disadvantage essay Absurd in discussion, a spirit of descriptive on happiness, true heroism. Over the discussion writing course of his career, Camus examines the descriptive essays Absurd from multiple perspectives and through the eyes of many different charactersfrom the mad Caligula, who is obsessed with the problem, to the strangely aloof and yet simultaneously self-absorbed Meursault, who seems indifferent to it even as he exemplifies and is finally victimized by it. In The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus traces it in specific characters of legend and literature (Don Juan, Ivan Karamazov) and also in certain character types (the Actor, the Conqueror), all of discussion essay writing, who may be understood as in some way a version or manifestation of cover letter, Sisyphus, the archetypal absurd hero.
[Note: A rather different, yet possibly related, notion of the Absurd is proposed and analyzed in the work of Kierkegaard, especially in Fear and discussion essay Trembling and Repetition . For Kierkegaard, however, the Absurd describes not an essential and universal human condition, but the essays on happiness special condition and nature of religious faitha paradoxical state in discussion essay writing, which matters of will and perception that are objectively impossible can nevertheless be ultimately true. Though it is hard to say whether Camus had Kierkegaard particularly in essays, mind when he developed his own concept of the absurd, there can be little doubt that Kierkegaards knight of faith is in certain ways an important predecessor of Camuss Sisyphus: both figures are involved in impossible and endlessly agonizing tasks, which they nevertheless confidently and even cheerfully pursue. In the knights quixotic defiance and solipsism, Camus found a model for his own ideal of discussion writing, heroic affirmation and philosophical revolt.] The companion theme to the Absurd in Camuss oeuvre (and the only other philosophical topic to which he devoted an entire book) is the idea of Revolt. A Modest Proposal Essay! What is revolt? Simply defined, it is the discussion essay writing Sisyphean spirit of defiance in lloyd wright essay, the face of the discussion essay Absurd. More technically and less metaphorically, it is a spirit of opposition against any perceived unfairness, oppression, or indignity in essays, the human condition. Rebellion in Camuss sense begins with a recognition of boundaries, of limits that define ones essential selfhood and core sense of being and thus must not be infringedas when a slave stands up to his master and says in effect thus far, and no further, shall I be commanded. This defining of the self as at some point inviolable appears to be an act of pure egoism and individualism, but it is writing not.
In fact Camus argues at considerable length to show that an act of conscientious revolt is frank lloyd questions ultimately far more than just an individual gesture or an act of solitary protest. The rebel, he writes, holds that there is a common good more important than his own destiny and that there are rights more important than himself. He acts in the name of discussion essay writing, certain values which are still indeterminate but which he feels are common to himself and to all men ( The Rebel 15-16). Camus then goes on persuasive on gay to assert that an analysis of rebellion leads at least to the suspicion that, contrary to the postulates of contemporary thought, a human nature does exist, as the Greeks believed. After all, Why rebel, he asks, if there is discussion essay nothing permanent in the self worth preserving? The slave who stands up and asserts himself actually does so for the sake of everyone in the world. He declares in effect that all meneven the man who insults and oppresses himhave a natural community. Here we may note that the civilized essay of the flies idea that there may indeed be an essential human nature is actually more than a suspicion as far as Camus himself was concerned. Indeed for him it was more like a fundamental article of his humanist faith. Essay! In any case it represents one of the core principles of his ethics and is one of the letter internship tenets that sets his philosophy apart from existentialism. True revolt, then, is performed not just for the self but also in solidarity with and out of compassion for others. Discussion Writing! And for this reason, Camus is led to conclude that revolt too has its limits. If it begins with and persuasive on gay necessarily involves a recognition of human community and a common human dignity, it cannot, without betraying its own true character, treat others as if they were lacking in that dignity or not a part of that community. In the end it is remarkable, and indeed surprising, how closely Camuss philosophy of revolt, despite the authors fervent atheism and individualism, echoes Kantian ethics with its prohibition against treating human beings as means and its ideal of the human community as a kingdom of discussion writing, ends. A recurrent theme in Camuss literary works, which also shows up in his moral and political writings, is the character or perspective of the stranger or outsider.
Meursault, the laconic narrator of The Stranger , is the most obvious example. Descriptive! He seems to observe everything, even his own behavior, from an outside perspective. Like an anthropologist, he records his observations with clinical detachment at the same time that he is warily observed by the community around him. Camus came by this perspective naturally. As a European in discussion, Africa, an African in a modest proposal satire, Europe, an infidel among Muslims, a lapsed Catholic, a Communist Party drop-out, an underground resister (who at times had to use code names and writing false identities), a child of the state raised by a widowed mother (who was illiterate and virtually deaf and dumb), Camus lived most of frank wright essay questions, his life in various groups and communities without really being integrated within them. This outside view, the perspective of the exile, became his characteristic stance as a writer. It explains both the cool, objective (zero-degree) precision of much of his work and also the high value he assigned to longed-for ideals of friendship, community, solidarity, and brotherhood. Throughout his writing career, Camus showed a deep interest in questions of guilt and essay innocence. Once again Meursault in The Stranger provides a striking example.
Is he legally innocent of the murder he is charged with? Or is he technically guilty? On the one hand, there seems to have been no conscious intention behind his action. Indeed the cover letter program killing takes place almost as if by accident, with Meursault in discussion writing, a kind of absent-minded daze, distracted by the sun. From this point of view, his crime seems surreal and his trial and subsequent conviction a travesty. On the other hand, it is hard for the reader not to share the view of other characters in the novel, especially Meursaults accusers, witnesses, and jury, in whose eyes he seems to be a seriously defective human beingat best, a kind of hollow man and at worst, a monster of self-centeredness and insularity. A Modest Proposal Satire Essay! That the discussion writing character has evoked such a wide range of a modest proposal satire, responses from critics and readersfrom sympathy to horroris a tribute to essay writing the psychological complexity and persuasive marriages subtlety of Camuss portrait. Camuss brilliantly crafted final novel, The Fall , continues his keen interest in the theme of essay writing, guilt, this time via a narrator who is virtually obsessed with it. Persuasive On Gay Marriages! The significantly named Jean-Baptiste Clamence (a voice in the wilderness calling for clemency and forgiveness) is writing tortured by guilt in on gay marriages, the wake of a seemingly casual incident. Discussion! While strolling home one drizzly November evening, he shows little concern and almost no emotional reaction at all to the suicidal plunge of a young woman into the Seine. But afterwards the incident begins to gnaw at him, and frank lloyd eventually he comes to view his inaction as typical of a long pattern of personal vanity and as a colossal failure of human sympathy on his part.
Wracked by remorse and self-loathing, he gradually descends into a figurative hell. Formerly an attorney, he is now a self-described judge-penitent (a combination sinner, tempter, prosecutor, and father-confessor) who shows up each night at writing his local haunt, a sailors bar near Amsterdams red light district, where, somewhat in the manner of Coleridges Ancient Mariner, he recounts his story to letter for marketing whoever will hear it. In the final sections of the novel, amid distinctly Christian imagery and symbolism, he declares his crucial insight that, despite our pretensions to righteousness, we are all guilty . Hence no human being has the right to discussion pass final moral judgment on another. In a final twist, Clamence asserts that his acid self-portrait is also a mirror for his contemporaries. Hence his confession is also an accusationnot only of his nameless companion (who serves as the mute auditor for his monologue) but ultimately of the persuasive hypocrite lecteur as well. The theme of guilt and innocence in discussion essay writing, Camuss writings relates closely to another recurrent tension in his thought: the opposition of Christian and pagan ideas and influences.
At heart a nature-worshipper, and by instinct a skeptic and non-believer, Camus nevertheless retained a lifelong interest and respect for Christian philosophy and literature. In particular, he seems to have recognized St. Augustine and Kierkegaard as intellectual kinsmen and writers with whom he shared a common passion for controversy, literary flourish, self-scrutiny, and self-dramatization. Christian images, symbols, and cover letter internship allusions abound in essay writing, all his work (probably more so than in the writing of any other avowed atheist in modern literature), and Christian themesjudgment, forgiveness, despair, sacrifice, passion, and so forthpermeate the novels. (Meursault and Clamence, it is worth noting, are presented not just as sinners, devils, and outcasts, but in frank wright essay, several instances explicitly, and not entirely ironically, as Christ figures.) Meanwhile alongside and against this leitmotif of Christian images and discussion essay themes, Camus sets the main components of his essentially pagan worldview. Like Nietzsche, he maintains a special admiration for Greek heroic values and pessimism and for classical virtues like courage and honor. What might be termed Romantic values also merit particular esteem within his philosophy: passion, absorption in essays on happiness, pure being, an appreciation for and indeed a willingness to revel in raw sensory experience, the glory of the moment, the beauty of the world. As a result of this duality of influence, Camuss basic philosophical problem becomes how to reconcile his Augustinian sense of original sin (universal guilt) and discussion essay rampant moral evil with his personal ideal of a modest essay, pagan primitivism (universal innocence) and with his conviction that the natural world and our life in discussion essay writing, it have intrinsic beauty and value. Descriptive Essays On Happiness! Can an absurd world have intrinsic value? Is authentic pessimism compatible with the view that there is an essential dignity to essay writing human life? Such questions raise the possibility that there may be deep logical inconsistencies within Camuss philosophy, and some critics (notably Sartre) have suggested that these inconsistencies cannot be surmounted except through some sort of Kierkegaardian leap of on lord with quotes, faith on Camuss partin this case a leap leading to essay writing a belief not in God but in man.
Such a leap is certainly implied in a modest satire, an oft-quoted remark from Camuss Letter to essay writing a German Friend, where he wrote: I continue to believe that this world has no supernatural meaning But I know that something in the world has meaningman. One can find similar affirmations and protestations on behalf of humanity throughout Camuss writings. They are almost a hallmark of his philosophical style. Disadvantage Of Television! Oracular and high-flown, they clearly have more rhetorical force than logical potency. On the other hand, if we are trying to locate Camuss place in European philosophical tradition, they provide a strong clue as to where he properly belongs. Surprisingly, the sentiment here, a commonplace of the Enlightenment and of traditional liberalism, is much closer in spirit to the exuberant secular humanism of the Italian Renaissance than to the agnostic skepticism of contemporary post-modernism. vi. Individual vs. History and Mass Culture. A primary theme of early twentieth-century European literature and critical thought is the rise of modern mass civilization and discussion essay its suffocating effects of alienation and dehumanization. This became a pervasive theme by the time Camus was establishing his literary reputation. Anxiety over essay on lord quotes the fate of Western culture, already intense, escalated to apocalyptic levels with the sudden emergence of fascism, totalitarianism, and new technologies of coercion and death.
Here then was a subject ready-made for a writer of Camuss political and humanistic views. He responded to the occasion with typical force and eloquence. In one way or another, the discussion essay themes of wright essay, alienation and essay dehumanization as by-products of an increasingly technical and automated world enter into nearly all of disadvantage of television essay, Camuss works. Even his concept of the Absurd becomes multiplied by essay writing a social and economic world in of television, which meaningless routines and writing mind-numbing repetitions predominate. The drudgery of disadvantage essay, Sisyphus is mirrored and amplified in the assembly line, the business office, the government bureau, and discussion writing especially in the penal colony and concentration camp. In line with this theme, the ever-ambiguous Meursault in The Stranger can be understood as both a depressing manifestation of the essays on happiness newly emerging mass personality (that is, as a figure devoid of essay, basic human feelings and passions) and, conversely, as a lone hold-out, a last remaining specimen of the old Romanticismand hence a figure who is viewed as both dangerous and alien by on happiness the robotic majority. Similarly, The Plague can be interpreted, on at least one level, as an allegory in which humanity must be preserved from the fatal pestilence of discussion essay writing, mass culture, which converts formerly free, autonomous, independent-minded human beings into a soulless new species. At various times in the novel, Camuss narrator describes the plague as if it were a dull but highly capable public official or bureaucrat: It was, above all, a shrewd, unflagging adversary; a skilled organizer, doing his work thoroughly and a modest proposal essay well. (180) But it seemed the plague had settled in for discussion writing, good at its most virulent, and it took its daily toll of deaths with the punctual zeal of a good civil servant. (235)
This identification of the plague with oppressive civil bureaucracy and the routinization of charisma looks forward to the authors play The State of Siege , where plague is used once again as a symbol for totalitarianismonly this time it is personified in an almost cartoonish way as a kind of overbearing government functionary or office manager from hell. Clad in a gaudy military uniform bedecked with ribbons and decorations, the character Plague (a satirical portrait of Generalissimo Francisco Francoor El Caudillo as he liked to civilized essay on lord of the style himself) is closely attended by writing his personal Secretary and loyal assistant Death, depicted as a prim, officious female bureaucrat who also favors military garb and who carries an ever-present clipboard and notebook. So Plague is a fascist dictator, and Death a solicitous commissar. Together these figures represent a system of pervasive control and micro-management that threatens the cover for marketing program future of mass society. In his reflections on this theme of post-industrial dehumanization, Camus differs from essay, most other European writers (and especially from those on the Left) in viewing mass reform and wright essay questions revolutionary movements, including Marxism, as representing at least as great a threat to individual freedom as late-stage capitalism. Throughout his career he continued to cherish and defend old-fashioned virtues like personal courage and honor that other Left-wing intellectuals tended to view as reactionary or bourgeois. Suicide is the central subject of The Myth of Sisyphus and discussion serves as a background theme in Caligula and The Fall . In Caligula the mad title character, in disadvantage of television, a fit of horror and discussion essay revulsion at persuasive on gay the meaninglessness of life, would rather dieand bring the world down with himthan accept a cosmos that is indifferent to human fate or that will not submit to his individual will. In The Fall , a strangers act of suicide serves as the starting point for a bitter ritual of self-scrutiny and remorse on the part of the essay narrator. Like Wittgenstein (who had a family history of suicide and suffered from bouts of depression), Camus considered suicide the fundamental issue for moral philosophy.
However, unlike other philosophers who have written on the subject (from Cicero and Seneca to Montaigne and Schopenhauer), Camus seems uninterested in assessing the traditional motives and justifications for suicide (for instance, to avoid a long, painful, and debilitating illness or as a response to personal tragedy or scandal). Indeed, he seems interested in the problem only to the extent that it represents one possible response to the Absurd. His verdict on the matter is unqualified and clear: The only courageous and morally valid response to the Absurd is to continue livingSuicide is not an on happiness option. From the time he first heard the essay writing story of his fathers literal nausea and proposal satire revulsion after witnessing a public execution, Camus began a vocal and lifelong opposition to the death penalty. Executions by guillotine were a common public spectacle in Algeria during his lifetime, but he refused to discussion essay writing attend them and recoiled bitterly at their very mention. Condemnation of capital punishment is both explicit and implicit in his writings. For example, in descriptive essays on happiness, The Stranger Meursaults long confinement during his trial and his eventual execution are presented as part of an elaborate, ceremonial ritual involving both public and religious authorities. The grim rationality of this process of essay writing, legalized murder contrasts markedly with the letter for marketing sudden, irrational, almost accidental nature of writing, his actual crime.
Similarly, in The Myth of Sisyphus , the would-be suicide is contrasted with his fatal opposite, the frank essay questions man condemned to death, and we are continually reminded that a sentence of death is our common fate in an absurd universe. Camuss opposition to the death penalty is not specifically philosophical. That is, it is not based on a particular moral theory or principle (such as Cesare Beccarias utilitarian objection that capital punishment is wrong because it has not been proven to essay have a deterrent effect greater than life imprisonment). Camuss opposition, in contrast, is humanitarian, conscientious, almost visceral. On Gay! Like Victor Hugo, his great predecessor on this issue, he views the writing death penalty as an egregious barbarisman act of blood riot and vengeance covered over with a thin veneer of law and civility to make it acceptable to modern sensibilities. Cover For Marketing Program! That it is also an act of vengeance aimed primarily at the poor and oppressed, and essay writing that it is given religious sanction, makes it even more hideous and indefensible in a modest essay, his view. Camuss essay Reflections on the Guillotine supplies a detailed examination of the issue.
An eloquent personal statement with compelling psychological and philosophical insights, it includes the authors direct rebuttal to traditional retributionist arguments in favor of capital punishment (such as Kants claim that death is the legally appropriate, indeed morally required, penalty for murder). To all who argue that murder must be punished in kind, Camus replies: Capital punishment is the essay writing most premeditated of murders, to frank essay questions which no criminals deed, however calculated, can be compared. For there to discussion essay writing be an equivalency, the death penalty would have to punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date on which he would inflict a horrible death on him and who, from that moment onward, had confined him at his mercy for months. A Modest Proposal Satire! Such a monster is not to be encountered in private life. Camus concludes his essay by arguing that, at the very least, France should abolish the savage spectacle of the guillotine and replace it with a more humane procedure (such as lethal injection). But he still retains a scant hope that capital punishment will be completely abolished at some point in the time to come: In the essay writing unified Europe of the future the solemn abolition of the disadvantage death penalty ought to be the first article of the discussion essay writing European Code we all hope for. Camus himself did not live to see the day, but he would no doubt be gratified to know that abolition of capital punishment is now an essential prerequisite for membership in the European Union. Camus is often classified as an existentialist writer, and it is easy to see why. Affinities with Kierkegaard and Sartre are patent. Essay Questions! He shares with these philosophers (and with the other major writers in the existentialist tradition, from Augustine and Pascal to discussion essay writing Dostoyevsky and Nietzsche) an habitual and essay on lord of the intense interest in essay writing, the active human psyche, in the life of persuasive on gay, conscience or spirit as it is actually experienced and lived.
Like these writers, he aims at nothing less than a thorough, candid exegesis of the human condition, and like them he exhibits not just a philosophical attraction but also a personal commitment to such values as individualism, free choice, inner strength, authenticity, personal responsibility, and self-determination. However, one troublesome fact remains: throughout his career Camus repeatedly denied that he was an existentialist. Was this an discussion essay accurate and honest self-assessment? On the one hand, some critics have questioned this denial (using the term almost in its modern clinical sense), attributing it to the celebrated Sartre-Camus political feud or to a certain stubbornness or even contrariness on Camuss part. In their view, Camus qualifies as, at minimum, a closet existentialist, and in certain respects (e.g., in his unconditional and passionate concern for the individual) as an even truer specimen of the type than Sartre.
On the other hand, besides his personal rejection of the label, there appear to be solid reasons for challenging the claim that Camus is an existentialist. Lloyd Essay! For one thing, it is noteworthy that he never showed much interest in (indeed he largely avoided) metaphysical and ontological questions (the philosophical raison detre of Heidegger and Sartre). Of course there is no rule that says an existentialist must be a metaphysician. However, Camuss seeming aversion to technical philosophical discussion does suggest one way in which he distanced himself from contemporary existentialist thought. Another point of divergence is that Camus seems to discussion essay writing have regarded existentialism as a complete and systematic world-view, that is, a fully articulated doctrine. In his view, to be a true existentialist one had to a modest commit to the entire doctrine (and not merely to bits and pieces of discussion writing, it), and this was apparently something he was unwilling to do. A further point of separation, and possibly a decisive one, is that Camus actively challenged and set himself apart from the existentialist motto that being precedes essence. Ultimately, against Sartre in particular and existentialists in general, he clings to his instinctive belief in a common human nature. In his view human existence necessarily includes an essential core element of dignity and value, and in this respect he seems surprisingly closer to the humanist tradition from Aristotle to Kant than to cover letter for marketing internship program the modern tradition of skepticism and relativism from Nietzsche to Derrida (the latter his fellow-countryman and, at least in his commitment to human rights and discussion essay opposition to the death penalty, his spiritual successor and descendant). Obviously, Camuss writings remain the primary reason for his continuing importance and the chief source of his cultural legacy, but his fame is frank lloyd questions also due to his exemplary life. He truly lived his philosophy; thus it is in his personal political stands and public statements as well as in his books that his views are clearly articulated.
In short, he bequeathed not just his words but also his actions. Discussion Essay Writing! Taken together, those words and actions embody a core set of liberal democratic valuesincluding tolerance, justice, liberty, open-mindedness, respect for personhood, condemnation of violence, and resistance to tyrannythat can be fully approved and acted upon by the modern intellectual engage . On a purely literary level, one of essays, Camuss most original contributions to modern discourse is his distinctive prose style. Terse and hard-boiled, yet at the same time lyrical, and indeed capable of discussion essay writing, great, soaring flights of emotion and feeling, Camuss style represents a deliberate attempt on his part to wed the famous clarity, elegance, and dry precision of the French philosophical tradition with the descriptive on happiness more sonorous and opulent manner of 19th century Romantic fiction. Writing! The result is something like a cross between Hemingway (a Camus favorite) and Melville (another favorite) or between Diderot and Hugo. Lloyd Questions! For the most part when we read Camus we encounter the plain syntax, simple vocabulary, and biting aphorism typical of modern theatre or noir detective fiction. However, this base style frequently becomes a counterpoint or springboard for extended musings and discussion writing lavish descriptions almost in the manner of Proust.
Here we may note that this attempted reconciliation or union of opposing styles is not just an aesthetic gesture on the authors part: It is also a moral and political statement. Disadvantage Essay! It says, in effect, that the life of discussion writing, reason and the life of civilized on lord of the, feeling need not be opposed; that intellect and passion can, and should, operate together. Perhaps the writing greatest inspiration and example that Camus provides for contemporary readers is the lesson that it is still possible for a modest, a serious thinker to face the modern world (with a full understanding of its contradictions, injustices, brutal flaws, and absurdities) with hardly a grain of hope, yet utterly without cynicism. Writing! To read Camus is to find words like justice, freedom, humanity, and dignity used plainly and openly, without apology or embarrassment, and without the pained or derisive facial expressions or invisible quotation marks that almost automatically accompany those terms in public discourse today. At Stockholm Camus concluded his Nobel acceptance speech with a stirring reminder and challenge to modern writers: The nobility of our craft, he declared, will always be rooted in two commitments, both difficult to maintain: the essays refusal to lie about what one knows and the resistance to oppression. He left behind a body of work faithful to his own credo that the arts of language must always be used in the service of truth and the service of discussion essay, liberty.
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IELTS Writing Task 2: Discuss Both Views Essay
An Interesting Day: President Bush's Movements and Actions on 9/11. By Allan Wood, Paul Thompson. DISCLAIMER: The analytical articles published on writing, this website were written and published by “project managers” of certain investigative projects hosted by the History Commons website. A Modest Satire Essay? Therefore, any views, conclusions, or opinions expressed in this or any other article should not be attributed to History Commons. For questions concerning an article, please contact the discussion author(s) directly. #8220;It was an interesting day.#8221;#8212;President Bush, recalling 9/11 [White House, 1/5/02] Both images taken at 9:03 a.m.: Bush takes part in a meaningless photo-op, knowing full well the US is already under attack. [left, from Booker video, right from Getty Images] At approximately 8:48 a.m. on for marketing program, the morning of September 11, 2001, the first pictures of the burning World Trade Center were broadcast on live television. Discussion Writing? The news anchors, reporters, and viewers had little idea what had happened in lower Manhattan, but there were some people who did know. By that time, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), the National Military Command Center, the for marketing program Pentagon, the White House, the Secret Service, and Canada#8217;s Strategic Command all knew that three commercial airplanes had been hijacked. They knew that one plane had been flown deliberately into the World Trade Center#8217;s North Tower; a second plane was wildly off course and also heading toward Manhattan; and a third plane had abruptly turned around over essay writing Ohio and essays, was flying back toward Washington, DC.
So why, at 9:03 a.m.#8212;fifteen minutes after it was clear the discussion essay writing United States was under terrorist attack#8212;did President Bush sit down with a classroom of second-graders and proposal essay, begin a 20-minute pre-planned photo op? No one knows the essay answer to that question. In fact, no one has even asked Bush about it. A Modest Proposal Satire? Bush#8217;s actions on September 11 have been the subject of lively debate, mostly on the internet. Details reported that day and in the week after the attacks#8212;both the media reports and accounts given by Bush himself#8212;have changed radically over the past 18 months. Discussion Writing? Culling hundreds of reports from newspapers, magazines, and the internet has only civilized essay flies with quotes made finding the #8220;truth#8221; of discussion what happened and when it happened more confusing. A Modest Satire? In the changed political climate after 9/11, few have dared raise challenging questions about Bush#8217;s actions. A journalist who said Bush was #8220;flying around the country like a scared child, seeking refuge in his mother#8217;s bed after having a nightmare#8221; and another who said Bush #8220;skedaddled#8221; were fired. [Washington Post, 9/29/01 (B)] We should have a concise record of essay writing where President Bush was throughout the day the lloyd wright US was attacked, but we do not. What follows is an attempt to give the most complete account of Bush#8217;s actions#8212;from Florida to essay writing, Louisiana to Nebraska to Washington, DC. Bush#8217;s appearance at frank lloyd wright essay questions the Emma E. Writing? Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Florida, on cover, September 11, 2001 had been in essay the planning stages since August [Booker web site], but was only disadvantage publicly announced on the morning of September 7. [White House, 9/7/01] Later that same day, 9/11 hijackers Mohamed Atta and Marwan Alshehhi traveled to Sarasota and discussion essay writing, enjoyed drinks and dinner at a Holiday Inn only two miles down the sandy beach from where Bush was scheduled to essays, stay during his Sarasota visit. Discussion Writing? [Longboat Observer, 11/21/01, Washington Post, 1/27/02] The Colony Beach and Tennis Resort, where Bush stayed the a modest proposal essay night before 9/11. Discussion Writing? [Colony Resort web site] On the night of September 10th, Bush stayed at the Colony Beach Resort#8212;#8220;an upscale and quotes, relatively pristine tropical island enclave located directly on writing, the Gulf of essays Mexico, a spindly coral island#8230; off Sarasota, Florida.#8221; [AP, 07/29/01] Zainlabdeen Omer, a Sudanese native living in Sarasota, told the local police that night that someone he knew who had made violent threats against Bush was in town and discussion, Omer was worried about Bush#8217;s safety.
The man was identified only as #8220;Ghandi.#8221; A police report states the Secret Service was informed immediately. [Hopsicker, 7/22/02] After a private dinner with various Florida politicians (including his brother Jeb) and Republican donors, Bush went to bed around 10:00 p.m. [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01, Washington Post, 1/27/02] Surface-to-air missiles were placed on the roof of the resort [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/10/02], and an Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) plane circled high overhead. [ Fighting Back: The War on disadvantage essay, Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p. 25] It#8217;s not clear if this type of discussion essay protection was standard for letter for marketing internship the president or whether security was increased because of possible threats. An Assassination Attempt? Bush awoke a little before 6:00 a.m. on discussion, September 11, pulled on shorts and frank essay, an old T-shirt and laced up his running shoes. [CBS, 11/1/02] At 6:30 a.m., Bush, a reporter friend, and his Secret Service crew took a four-mile jog in the half-light of dawn around a nearby golf course. [Washington Post, 1/27/02, Washington Post, 09/11/01] At about the same time Bush was getting ready for discussion essay his jog, a van carrying several Middle Eastern men pulled up to the Colony#8217;s guard station. The men said they were a television news crew with a scheduled #8220;poolside#8221; interview with the president. They asked for a certain Secret Service agent by name. The message was relayed to a Secret Service agent inside the resort, who hadn#8217;t heard of the agent mentioned or of plans for an interview. For Marketing Program? He told the men to contact the president#8217;s public relations office in Washington, DC, and had the van turned away. Writing? [Longboat Observer, 9/26/01] General Ahmed Shah Massoud. The Secret Service may have foiled an assassination attempt. Civilized Of The Flies Quotes? Two days earlier, Ahmed Shah Massoud, leader of writing Afghanistan#8217;s Northern Alliance, had been murdered by a similar ruse.
Two North African men, posing as journalists from cover for marketing internship program #8220;Arabic News International,#8221; had been requesting an interview with Massoud since late August. Ahmad Jamsheed, Massoud#8217;s secretary, said that by the night of September 8, #8220;they were so worried and excitable, they were begging us.#8221; An interview was arranged for the following day. As it began, a bomb hidden in the video camera exploded, killing the two journalists. Massoud was rushed by essay, helicopter to a hospital in Tajikistan, but was pronounced dead on arrival (although his death was not acknowledged until September 15). Satire? [International Policy Institute for writing Counter-Terrorism, 10/30/01, Newsday, 10/26/01] The assassination is satire essay widely believed to have been timed to remove the Taliban#8217;s most popular and respected opponent in anticipation of the backlash that would occur after the discussion essay 9/11 attacks. [BBC, 9/10/01, BBC, 9/10/01 (B), Time, 8/4/02, St. Petersburg Times, 9/9/02] The Northern Alliance blamed al-Qaeda and the ISI, Pakistan#8217;s secret service, for the attacks. Cover Letter Internship? [Radio Free Europe, 9/10/01, Newsday, 9/15/01, Reuters, 10/4/01] Nearly three hours after the incident at the Colony, another Longboat Key resident reported a run-in with possibly the same men. At about essay, 8:50 (when reports of the first World Trade Center crash were first broadcast), while standing on the Sarasota bay front waiting for the presidential motorcade to pass by, this man saw two Middle Eastern men in a dilapidated van #8220;screaming out the a modest satire essay windows #145;Down with Bush#146; and discussion, raising their fists in the air.#8221; The FBI questioned the man, but it#8217;s not known if this was the of television same van that had visited the Colony. [Longboat Observer, 9/26/01] Later on the morning of September 11, the Secret Service searched a Sarasota apartment looking for essay further corroboration of on gay marriages Zainlabdeen Omer#8217;s report of an assassination threat. Three Sudanese men were questioned for about ten hours. The Secret Service also raided a beauty supply store in Sarasota, whose owner, identified as #8220;Hakim,#8221; told the agents that #8220;Ghandi#8221; was a member of the Sudanese People#8217;s Liberation Army, a group fighting against the fundamentalist Muslim government in Sudan. Discussion Writing? [Hopsicker, 7/22/02] Monica Yadav of letter internship Sarasota#8217;s ABC News 40 reported that a few days after the Secret Service visit, the beauty supply store was closed up and Hakim was long gone.
Yadav also learned that Zainlabdeen Omer had suddenly quit his jobs and vacated his apartment. #8220;All I know is he can#8217;t leave town,#8221; a friend of Omer#8217;s told Yadav. Essay Writing? #8220;Omer got in a lot of trouble with the frank lloyd questions law.#8221; The Special Agent in charge of the Presidential detail in Sarasota told Yadav that Bush was never in any danger and discussion essay, the various warnings and possible terrorist connections were all #8220;just a coincidence.#8221; [Hopsicker, 7/22/02] Yet, as we will see below, there are more details of a threat against Bush before he left Sarasota. Descriptive On Happiness? Bush Is Briefed as the Hijackings Begin. After his jog, Bush showered, then sat down for his daily intelligence briefing around 8 a.m. #8220;The President#8217;s briefing appears to have included some reference to the heightened terrorist risk reported throughout the writing summer, but contained nothing specific, severe or imminent enough to necessitate a call to [National Security Advisor] Condoleezza Rice.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] While Bush was being briefed, the essay planes that would be hijacked began taking off. American Airlines Flight 11 was first, leaving Boston#8217;s Logan Airport at 7:59 a.m. The others soon followed, except for discussion essay writing United Flight 93, scheduled to leave at 8:01, but which was delayed on the runway for about 40 minutes. [Boston Globe, 11/23/01] (For more information on the four flights, see Flight 11, Flight 175, Flight 77, Flight 93.) At approximately 8:13, Flight 11 was instructed by descriptive, air traffic controllers at the FAA#8217;s Boston Center, in Nashua, New Hampshire, to climb to 35,000 feet. The plane did not obey the order and its transponder was turned off. Air traffic control manager Glenn Michael said, #8220;we considered it at essay writing that time to for marketing internship program, be a possible hijacking.#8221; [AP, 8/12/02, emphasis added] According to FAA regulations, that was the essay correct decision: #8220;Consider that an aircraft emergency exists#8230; when#8230; there is unexpected loss of radar contact and radio communications with any#8230; aircraft.#8221; [FAA Air Traffic Control Regulations, Chapter 10, Section 2-5 ] Air traffic controller Matt McCluskey stands in the Boston tower where the Flight 11 hijack was first detected. [AP] If air traffic controllers believed Flight 11 had been hijacked at 8:13, NORAD should have been informed immediately, so military planes could be scrambled to investigate. However, NORAD and the FAA both claimed NORAD was not informed until 8:40#8212;27 minutes later. [NORAD, 9/18/01, AP, 8/12/02, AP, 8/19/02, Newsday, 9/10/02; one NORAD employee said it took place at 8:31, ABC News, 9/11/02] Indeed, before contacting NORAD, Boston air traffic controllers watched Flight 11 make an unexpected 100-degree turn and essay on lord flies quotes, head south toward New York City [Christian Science Monitor, 9/13/01], told other controllers of the discussion hijacking at 8:25 [Guardian, 10/17/01], continued to civilized essay on lord of the with, hear highly suspicious dialogue from the cockpit (such as, #8220;Nobody move, please, we are going back to the airport. Don#8217;t try to make any stupid moves#8221; ) [Guardian, 10/17/01, New York Times, 10/16/01], and even asked the pilots of writing Flight 175 to scan the skies for disadvantage essay the errant plane. [Guardian, 10/17/01, Boston Globe, 11/23/01] Is NORAD#8217;s claim credible? If so, the discussion writing air traffic controllers (including Mr. Michael) should have been fired and subject to essay, possible criminal charges for their inaction.
To date, however, there has been no word of essay writing any person being disciplined at persuasive marriages any institution at discussion any level for what happened on a modest proposal essay, 9/11. If NORAD#8217;s claim is discussion essay writing false, and proposal essay, it was indeed informed within the time frame outlined in FAA regulations that Flight 11 may have been hijacked, that would mean NORAD did absolutely nothing for almost thirty minutes while a hijacked commercial airliner flew off course through some of the most congested airspace in the world. Presumably, that would warrant some very serious charges. Again, no one associated with NORAD or the FAA has been punished. According to phone calls made by discussion essay writing, fight attendants Betty Ong and Amy Sweeney, the hijackers had stabbed and killed at least one passenger and two flight attendants by about 8:21. Persuasive On Gay? [ABC News, 7/18/02, Boston Globe, 11/23/01, AP, 10/5/01, Los Angeles Times, 9/20/01] (One hijacker may have been riding in essay the cockpit and begun the hijacking earlier.) After 8:21, both women apparently remained on the phone with American Airlines#8217; headquarters for persuasive essays marriages 25 minutes, until their plane crashed into the World Trade Center#8217;s North Tower. Discussion Writing? [ABC News, 7/18/02, AP, 10/5/01] These calls make NORAD#8217;s supposed ignorance of a crisis even more dubious. Bush#8217;s motorcade arrives at cover for marketing Booker Elementary. [A still from discussion essay Booker video] Bush Leaves for Booker Elementary. Around the essay of the same time the Flight 11 hijackers were stabbing passenger Daniel Lewin#8212;at 8:20 a.m.#8212;Bush#8217;s briefing ended and discussion essay, he said good-bye to the Colony#8217;s general manager. [Telegraph, 12/16/01, Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] The first event on Bush#8217;s schedule was what is known as a #8220;soft event#8221; #150; a photo-op with children at Emma Booker Elementary School#8212;promoting his proposed education bill. [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/11/01] After spending about frank lloyd wright questions, 20 minutes with the children, Bush was scheduled to give a short press conference at about 9:30. [White House, 9/7/01, Federal News Service, 9/10/01] Accounts of when Bush#8217;s motorcade left for the school vary from 8:30 to 8:39. [8:30, Washington Post, 1/27/02, 8:35, Sarasota Magazine, 9/19/01, 8:39, Washington Times, 10/7/02] One account has the Bush party leave the writing Colony suite at 8:30 and drive away at cover letter internship 8:39. Whenever he left, the motorcade traveled quickly: #8220;The police shut down traffic in both directions, leaving roads utterly deserted for Bush#8217;s long motorcade, which barreled along at 40 mph, running red lights with impunity.#8221; [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, pp.
37-38] At 40 mph, it would take about 14 minutes to travel the writing nine-mile distance to the school. Several accounts say the journey took about 20 minutes [New York Times, 9/16/01 (B), St. Petersburg Times, 9/8/02 (B), MSNBC, 10/29/02], which means that Bush arrived shortly before 9:00. [8:46, ABC News, 9/11/02, 8:55, Washington Times, 10/7/02, 8:55, Sarasota Magazine, 9/19/01, #8220;just before 9:00,#8221;Telegraph, 12/16/01, #8220;shortly before 9:00,#8221;Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/10/02, #8220;just before 9:00,#8221;New York Times, 9/16/01 (B), 9:00, Albuquerque Tribune, 9/10/02] When Did Bush First Learn of the letter internship program Attacks? Why does it matter when Bush left the resort and writing, arrived at the school? Because this is the crucial time when Bush was first told, or should have been told, of the attacks.
Official accounts, including the words of Bush himself, say Bush was first told of what was happening in of television New York City after he arrived at the school. [Telegraph, 12/16/01, CBS, 9/11/02] However, this statement does not stand up to scrutiny. There are at least four reports that Bush was told of the first crash before he arrived at the school. Essay? In this map, the essays on gay marriages yellow star is roughly where Bush#8217;s motorcade is essay writing when Flight 11 crashes at essay 8:46, and the orange star is writing where he is when told about the crash a few minutes later. [Made with Yahoo Maps] Two accounts explicitly state Bush was told while in the motorcade. #8220;The President was on Highway 301, just north of Main Street#8230; [when] he received the news that a plane had crashed in on gay New York City.#8221; [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] (See adjacent map for discussion writing the location where he is told.) Another account states, #8220;Bush was driving to internship program, the school in writing a motorcade when the phone rang. An airline accident appeared to have happened. He pressed on with his visit.#8221; [Observer, 9/16/01] The first media reports of Flight 11#8217;s crash into the World Trade Center began around 8:48, two minutes after the crash happened. [New York Times, 9/15/01] CNN broke into cover letter for marketing program its regular programming at that time [CNN, 9/11/01], though other networks, such as ABC, took a few more minutes to begin reporting. [ABC, 9/14/02] So within minutes, millions were aware of the story, yet Bush supposedly remained unaware for about another ten minutes. Writing? Claims of Bush#8217;s ignorance become harder to believe when one learns that others in his motorcade were immediately told of the attack. For instance, Kia Baskerville, a CBS News producer traveling with Bush that morning, received a message about a plane crash #8220;as the cover letter internship presidential motorcade headed to President Bush#8217;s first event.#8221; Baskerville said, #8220;Fifteen minutes later I was standing in a second grade classroom [waiting for Bush#8217;s entrance]#8221;#8212;which means she got the discussion essay writing news at about 8:47#8212;right as the story was first being reported. Of Television Essay? [CBS, 8/19/02] A news photographer in the motorcade overheard a radio transmission that Press Secretary Ari Fleischer would be needed on arrival at discussion essay writing the school to discuss reports of some sort of crash. [Christian Science Monitor, 9/17/01] Another account notes Fleischer got the on lord of the flies with quotes news that the crash had occurred #8220;just minutes before,#8221; but notes that Bush was not in the same car as Fleischer. [CBS, 11/1/02] Senior presidential communications officer Thomas Herman said, #8220;Just as we were arriving at the school, I received a notification from our operations center than [sic] an essay writing airliner had struck one of the towers#8230;.#8221; [Marist College Magazine, Fall 2002] Meanwhile, CIA Director George Tenet was told of the crash a few minutes after it happened.
A messenger gave him the news as he was eating breakfast with former Senator David Boren in a Washington restaurant three blocks from the White House. Boren says Tenet was told that the World Trade Center had been attacked by an airplane: #8220;I was struck by the fact that [the messenger] used the word attacked.#8221; An aide then handed a cell phone to Tenet, and frank lloyd wright essay, Tenet made some calls, showing that at least some at essay writing the highest levels of the Bush administration were talking about an attack at this time. Tenet then said to persuasive essays, Boren, #8220;You know, this has bin Laden#8217;s fingerprints all over it.#8221; [ABC, 9/14/02] Some people at the school also heard of the news before Bush arrived. Around 8:50, Tampa Bay#8217;s Channel 8 reporter Jackie Barron was on essay, the phone with her mother, who mentioned the disadvantage of television essay first news reports. Essay Writing? At almost the same time, Brian Goff, a Fox reporter from satire essay Tampa, heard the same thing on his cell phone. [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] Associated Press reporter Sonia Ross was also told of the essay writing crash by phone from a modest satire a colleague. [AP, 9/12/01 (D)] Florida Congressman Dan Miller, waiting in front of the school as part of the official greeting party, was told by an aide about the crash at discussion essay writing 8:55, before Bush arrived. [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] Given all this, how could Bush have remained ignorant? Could he have been out cover letter for marketing, of the loop because he was in essay a car?
No. The previous night, Colony Resort manager Katie Klauber Moulon toured the presidential limousine and marveled #8220;at all the phones and frank lloyd questions, electronic equipment.#8221; [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] Karl Rove, Bush#8217;s #8220;chief political strategist,#8221; who presumably was riding with Bush, used a wireless e-mail device on 9/11 as well. [Newsweek, 10/14/02] There seems to have been ample opportunity and the means to alert Bush. White House Situation Room Director Deborah Loewer. If Bush wasn#8217;t told while in his limousine, he certainly was told immediately after he got out of it. Essay Writing? US Navy Captain Deborah Loewer, the wright questions director of the discussion essay White House Situation Room, was traveling in letter internship program the motorcade when she received a message from an essay assistant back in Washington about the first crash. Of Television Essay? Loewer said that as soon as the car arrived at Booker, she ran quickly over to Bush. #8220;It#8217;s a very good thing the Secret Service knows who I am,#8221; Loewer later said. She told Bush that an discussion essay writing aircraft had #8220;impacted the World Trade Center. This is all we know.#8221; [Catholic Telegraph, 12/7/01, AP, 11/26/01] Meanwhile, More Hijackings. Flight 77#8217;s intended and actual routes. [USA Today] Note the strange loop off course about halfway along the persuasive marriages route to the west, which was the first sign the essay writing plane was hijacked. Such a large diversion is essay extremely uncommon, and should have triggered an immediate fighter response. Even though Flight 175 left about the essay same time as Flight 11, it appears to disadvantage of television, have been hijacked much later.
At 8:41, its pilot was still talking to ground control [New York Times, 10/16/01], but at writing 8:42 it sharply veered off course, and a flight controller noted that its transponder had been turned off and lloyd wright questions, communication cut. Essay Writing? [Boston Globe, 11/23/01, New York Times, 10/16/01] One minute later, at a modest 8:43, NORAD was notified the plane had been hijacked. [NORAD, 9/18/01] The hijackers turned the transponder back on but used a different signal code. This allowed flight controllers to discussion essay writing, #8220;easily#8221; track the plane as it flew toward New York City. Civilized On Lord Of The Flies With? [Washington Post, 9/17/01] At about 8:46, Flight 77 began to go severely off course. According to discussion essay, regulations, a fighter is required to civilized on lord of the flies with, be dispatched if a plane strays from its official course by more than two miles or 15 degrees [MSNBC, 9/12/01]. Discussion Essay Writing? As the adjacent map shows, Flight 77 returned to cover for marketing internship program, its proper course for a time, but its last radio contact occurred at discussion essay 8:50. [Guardian, 10/17/01] Supposedly, NORAD was not officially notified that Flight 77 has been hijacked until 9:24 [NORAD, 9/18/01], but the New York Times reported that by letter for marketing program, around 8:50, military officials at essay the Pentagon were already discussing what to do about of television, Flight 77. [New York Times, 9/15/01] Note the difference in notification times: 27 minutes for Flight 11, 1 minute for Flight 175 and 38 minutes for Flight 77. Flight 93 wasn#8217;t hijacked until about 9:16, but by writing, about 8:50, it was clear that at least three planes had been hijacked. Vice President Dick Cheney, speaking on frank wright essay, NBC#8217;s Meet the Press, said, #8220;The Secret Service has an arrangement with the FAA.
They had open lines after the World Trade Center was#8230;#8221; [Meet the Press, 9/16/01] Cheney never finished his sentence (interesting in discussion writing itself#8212;did he say too much?), but it seems safe to say that his next word would have been #8220;hit.#8221; Cheney#8217;s statement makes it clear the Secret Service knew the extent of the situation well before 9:00 am. Intelligence agencies were suffering #8220;warning fatigue#8221; from so many warnings of an al-Qaeda attack [Independent, 9/7/02], some specifically mentioning the use of hijacked airplanes as missiles (see this essay). Bush himself was given an intelligence briefing a month earlier entitled #8220;Bin Laden to civilized flies with quotes, Strike in US,#8221; and it contained a warning from the British government that the discussion writing US should expect multiple airline hijackings from al-Qaeda. [Sunday Herald, 5/19/02] So with the clear knowledge that three planes had been hijacked, with one of them already crashed into the World Trade Center, who would have possibly assumed that Flight 11#8217;s crash was an accident? Yet that is precisely what the persuasive essays on gay marriages official story claims. There are a number of different #8220;official#8221; accounts, but all of discussion essay them stress that Bush wasn#8217;t told until after he arrived inside the essays on happiness school (contrary to the account of Captain Loewer) and discussion essay, that it was assumed to cover letter for marketing internship program, be an discussion writing accident (contradicting Tenet being told that it was an letter internship program attack). Essay? Karl Rove [Reuters], Andrew Card [AP], and persuasive essays marriages, Dan Bartlett. In some accounts, #8220;President Bush had emerged from his car and was shaking hands with local officials standing outside the school when Chief of Staff Andrew Card sidled up to him with the discussion news.#8221; [CBS, 11/1/02] Bush later recalled that it was Card who first notified him: #8220;#145;Here#8217;s what you#8217;re going to be doing; you#8217;re going to meet so-and-so, such-and-such.#146; Then Andy Card said, #145;By the disadvantage of television way, an aircraft flew into the World Trade Center.#146; #8221; [Washington Times, 10/7/02] At a press conference later that day, Press Secretary Ari Fleischer also claimed it was Andy Card who first informed him, #8220;as the discussion essay writing President finished shaking hands in a hallway of school officials.#8221; [Knoxville News Sentinel, 9/11/01] In other accounts, it was advisor Karl Rove who first told Bush. Essay Of The Flies With? According to photographer Eric Draper, who was standing nearby, Rove rushed up, took Bush aside in a corridor inside the essay school and said the cause of the crash was unclear. Bush replied, #8220;What a horrible accident!#8221; Bush also suggested the pilot may have had a heart attack. [Daily Mail, 9/8/02] Dan Bartlett, White House Communications Director, says he was there when Bush was told: #8220; [Bush] being a former pilot, had kind of the same reaction, going, was it bad weather? And I said no, apparently not.#8221; [ABC News, 9/11/02] A reporter who was standing nearby later said, #8220;From the of television demeanor of the President, grinning at the children, it appeared that the enormity of what he had been told was taking a while to sink in.#8221; [Daily Mail, 9/8/02] One account explicitly says that Rove told Bush the World Trade Center had been hit by a large commercial airliner. Essay Writing? [Telegraph, 12/16/01] However, Bush later remembered Rove saying it appeared to frank wright essay, be an accident involving a small, twin-engine plane. [Washington Post, 1/27/02, MSNBC, 9/02] In yet another account, Blake Gottesman, Bush#8217;s personal assistant, while giving the president some final instructions as they walked to the school, remarked, #8220;Andy Card says, #145;By the way, an aircraft flew into the World Trade Center.#146; #8221; [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, pp.
41-42] Condoleezza Rice. [AP] Told Again, Yet Still Clueless. Booker principal Gwen Tose-Rigell was waiting for Bush outside the school. #8220;The limousine stops and discussion essay, the president comes out. He walks toward me. I#8217;m standing there in a lineup; there are about five people. Disadvantage Essay? He walks over discussion essay writing and says he has to make a phone call, and he#8217;ll be right back.#8221; [MSNBC, 09/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01] The phone call was with National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice. Essays On Gay? From a room with secure communications, Rice updated Bush on the situation. [Christian Science Monitor, 9/17/01, Time, 9/12/01] The fact that Bush immediately said he had to essay writing, make an important call strongly suggests he was told about the situation while in the motorcade. But some accounts have Andrew Card saying to Bush as he gets out of wright his limousine, #8220;Mr. President, you really need to take this phone call,#8221; thereby implying that Card knows what#8217;s going on, but Bush doesn#8217;t. [St. Petersburg Times, 9/8/02 (B)] As National Security Advisor, Rice had to have had as much information as anyone. By the time she spoke to Bush, she must have known that three planes had been hijacked and that the country was under attack.
We know very little about the conversation#8212;only that Rice later claimed, #8220; [Bush] said, what a terrible, it sounds like a terrible accident. Keep me informed.#8221; [ABC News, 9/11/02] One reporter noted: #8220;Bush did not appear preoccupied [after the phone call] #133; There was no sign that Rice had just told [him] about the first attack [on the World Trade Center].#8221; [Cox News, 9/12/01 (B)] Tose-Rigell was then summoned to a room to discussion, talk with Bush: #8220;He said a commercial plane has hit the World Trade Center, and we#8217;re going to go ahead and go on, we#8217;re going on a modest proposal satire, to do the discussion essay reading thing anyway.#8221; [AP, 8/19/02 (D)] One local reporter notes that at this point, #8220;He could and arguably should have left Emma E. Booker Elementary School immediately, gotten onto persuasive, Air Force One and left Sarasota without a moment#8217;s delay#8230; But he didn#8217;t.#8221; [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/12/01 (B)] The only discussion essay possible excuse is that Bush was completely clueless as to what was happening. Sure enough, at descriptive essays a press conference on the evening of 9/11, Press Secretary Ari Fleischer was asked by a reporter, #8220;And then this morning, when Andy Card told him about the discussion essay first accident, was Andy Card or Condi Rice or any of those aware of the cover hijackings? What did they know when they#8212;-#8221; Fleischer cut in and replied, #8220;No, at that point they were not.#8221; [Knoxville News Sentinel, 9/11/01] So supposedly, 15 minutes after the first crash, none of Bush#8217;s aides, not even Rice back in discussion essay writing Washington, DC, knew a thing about the hijackings that had been reported to NORAD 20 minutes earlier? This simply is not plausible. Booker Elementary School. [MSNBC]
Bush#8217;s Confused Recollection. Bush#8217;s own recollection of the first crash only complicates the civilized essay quotes picture. Less than two months after the attacks, Bush made the writing preposterous claim that he had watched the cover letter for marketing internship first attack as it happened on live television. This is the seventh different account of discussion writing how Bush learned about the first crash (in his limousine, from persuasive Loewer, from Card, from Rove, from discussion essay Gottesman, from Rice, from television). On December 4, 2001, Bush was asked: #8220;How did you feel when you heard about the for marketing terrorist attack?#8221; Bush replied, #8220;I was sitting outside the classroom waiting to go in, and I saw an airplane hit the discussion writing tower#8212;the TV was obviously on.
And I used to fly, myself, and I said, well, there#8217;s one terrible pilot. I said, it must have been a horrible accident. But I was whisked off there, I didn#8217;t have much time to think about it.#8221; [White House, 12/4/01] There was no film footage of the first attack until at essays on happiness least the essay writing following day, and Bush didn#8217;t have access to a television until 15 or so minutes later. [Washington Times, 10/7/02] The Boston Herald later noted, #8220;Think about that. Bush#8217;s remark implies he saw the first plane hit the tower. But we all know that video of the first plane hitting did not surface until the next day. Could Bush have meant he saw the second plane hit#8212;which many Americans witnessed? No, because he said that he was in the classroom when Card whispered in persuasive essays on gay marriages his ear that a second plane hit.#8221; [Boston Herald, 10/22/02] Bush#8217;s recollection has many precise details. Discussion? Is he simply confused? It#8217;s doubly strange why his advisors didn#8217;t correct him or#8212;at the very least#8212;stop him from repeating the same story only four weeks later. [White House, 1/5/02, CBS, 9/11/02] On January 5, 2002, Bush stated: #8220;Well, I was sitting in a schoolhouse in Florida#8230; and my Chief of essay questions Staff #150; well, first of essay writing all, when we walked into the classroom, I had seen this plane fly into the first building. There was a TV set on. And you know, I thought it was pilot error and I was amazed that anybody could make such a terrible mistake.
And something was wrong with the plane#8230;#8221; [White House, 1/5/02] Unfortunately, Bush has never been asked#8212;not even once#8212;to explain these statements. Cover Internship Program? His memory not only contradicts every single media report, it also contradicts what he said that evening. In his speech to the nation that evening, Bush said: #8220;Immediately following the first attack, I implemented our government#8217;s emergency response plans.#8221; [White House, 9/11/01] It#8217;s not known what these emergency plans were, because neither Bush nor anyone in his administration mentioned this immediate response again. Implementing #8220;emergency response plans#8221; seems to completely contradict Bush#8217;s #8220;by the way#8221; recollection of writing a small airplane accident. Bush meets teacher Sandra Kay Daniels. [A still from Booker video] Inside the Classroom and the Second Plane Crash. Shortly after his call with National Security Advisor Rice, Bush entered Sandra Kay Daniels#8217;s second-grade class for persuasive essays on gay marriages a photo-op to discussion, promote Bush#8217;s education policies. Essay On Lord Flies With? [Daily Mail, 9/8/02] The event was to begin precisely at 9:00, but the call pushed it back to essay, about 9:03. Of Television Essay? [Washington Times, 10/8/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01, Daily Mail, 9/8/02] Numerous reporters who were traveling with the president, as well as members of the writing local media, watched from the back of the room. [AP, 8/19/02 (D)] Altogether there were about 150 people in the room, only 16 of them students. Bush was introduced to the children and then posed for a number of of television pictures. Discussion Essay? Daniels then led the students through some reading exercises (video footage shows this lasted about civilized on lord flies quotes, three minutes). [Salon, 9/12/01 (B)] Bush later related what he was thinking at the time: #8220;I was concentrating on the program at writing this point, thinking about what I was going to say [about the plane crash]. Disadvantage Of Television? Obviously, I felt it was an accident.
I was concerned about it, but there were no alarm bells.#8221; [Washington Times, 10/7/02] At 9:03, Flight 175 crashed into the South Tower of the World Trade Center. News of this traveled extremely rapidly. In fact, some of Bush#8217;s Secret Service agents watched the discussion second crash live on television in persuasive an adjacent room. [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/10/02] Press Secretary Ari Fleischer, in the same room as Bush but not near him, immediately received the news on his pager. [CBS, 9/11/02] Other pagers were going off as well. Andrew Card tells Bush the second tower has been hit. Essay Writing? [White House via AP] See a video of Bush#8217;s reaction here: [ABC, 9/14/02] Chief of Staff Andrew Card was in a nearby room when he heard the news. He waited until there was a pause in the reading drill to walk in and tell Bush. [Washington Times, 10/7/02, Washington Times, 10/8/02] The children were getting their books from under their seats to on gay, read a story together when Card came in. [Daily Mail, 9/8/02] Card whispered to discussion essay writing, Bush: #8220;A second plane hit the second tower.
America is under attack.#8221; [San Francisco Chronicle, 9/11/02] Another account has Card saying: #8220;A second plane has hit the World Trade Center. Cover Internship Program? America is under attack.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] Accounts vary as to when Card gave Bush the discussion essay writing news. Some say 9:05 [Salon 9/11/01, New York Times, 9/16/01 (B), Telegraph, 12/16/01, Albuquerque Tribune, 9/10/02], and some say 9:07. [Washington Post, 9/11/01, Washington Times, 10/8/02] ABC News reporter Ann Compton, who was in the room, said she was surprised by the interruption and #8220;wrote [the time] down in marriages my reporter#8217;s notebook, by my watch, 9:07 a.m.#8221; [ABC News, 9/11/02] The Reaction#8212;Or Lack of One. Another picture of Andrew Card telling Bush the discussion essay writing second tower has been hit. Proposal Essay? [White House via AP] Descriptions vary greatly as to how Bush responded to the news. It is discussion writing said he #8220;blanched#8221; [Richmond Times-Dispatch, 10/1/02], #8220;the color drained from the program president#8217;s face#8221; [AP, 9/12/01 (D)], he #8220;wore a bemused smile#8221; [Orlando Sentinel, 9/12/01], #8220;because visibly tense and serious#8221; [Time, 9/12/01], and discussion writing, so on.
Watch the video and draw your own conclusions (the 11-minute video can be viewed at frank lloyd wright essay questions the Center for Cooperative Research, Buzzflash, Global Free Press, The Emperor#8217;s New Clothes, or Liberty DYNU). Bush later recalled his own reaction: #8220;I am very aware of the cameras. I#8217;m trying to absorb that knowledge. I have nobody to talk to. I#8217;m sitting in the midst of a classroom with little kids, listening to a children#8217;s story and I realize I#8217;m the discussion writing Commander in Chief and the country has just come under attack.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01, CBS, 11/1/02] Asked again what he thought after he heard the news, Bush said, #8220;We#8217;re at war and disadvantage essay, somebody has dared attack us and we#8217;re going to do something about it.
I realized I was in a unique setting to receive a message that somebody attacked us #133; [I]t became evident that we were, you know, that the world had changed.#8221; [CBS, 9/11/02] So what did the Commander in Chief do with the essay knowledge that the frank lloyd questions United States was under attack? Bush did not say one word. He did not ask Card any questions. Discussion? He did not give any orders. He did not know who (or which country) was attacking, whether there would be more attacks, what military plans had been taken, what military actions should be taken#8212;indeed, he knew virtually nothing about what was going on outside the room. He just sat there.
Bush later recalled: #8220;There was no time for discussion or anything.#8221; [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, pp. 83-84] Even stranger, as one newspaper put it, although the nation was under terrorist attack, #8220;for some reason, Secret Service agents [did] not bustle him away.#8221; [Globe and Mail, 9/12/01] Military pilots must have #8220;permission from the White House because only the president has the authority to order a civilian aircraft shot down.#8221; [CNN, 10/26/99] But if retaliatory strikes needed to the authorized, Bush was not available. If one of the planes had to be shot down to save more lives on the ground, Bush was not available. Although several fighters had been dispatched to defend New York City, the a modest pilot of discussion essay one of the civilized essay of the flies with planes flying to discussion writing, catch Flight 175 later noted that it wouldn#8217;t have mattered if he caught up with it, because only Bush could order a shootdown, and descriptive essays, Bush could not be reached in the classroom. [Cape Cod Times, 8/21/02] Bush not long after being told of the second plane crash. [A still from Booker video] Secret Service agents and other security personnel had set up a television in a nearby classroom. Essay? They turned on the TV just as Flight 175 crashed into the World Trade Center. Persuasive On Gay Marriages? According to Sarasota County Sheriff Bill Balkwill, who was in discussion essay the room, a Marine responsible for carrying Bush#8217;s phone immediately said to Balkwill, #8220;We#8217;re out of frank wright essay questions here. Can you get everyone ready?#8221; [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/10/02] But he must have been overruled by someone, because Bush did not leave. Meanwhile, Secret Service agents burst into Vice President Cheney#8217;s White House office. They carried him under his arms#8212;nearly lifting him off the ground#8212;and propelled him down the essay steps into letter for marketing internship the White House basement and through a long tunnel toward an underground bunker.
Accounts of discussion when this happened vary greatly, from 9:06 [New York Times, 9/16/01 (B), Telegraph, 12/16/01] to after 9:30. [CBS, 9/11/02, Washington Post, 1/27/02] Cheney#8217;s own account is civilized essay on lord of the flies with vague and contradictory. [Meet the essay writing Press, 9/16/01] The one eyewitness account, by White House photographer David Bohrer, said it happened just after 9:00. [ABC, 9/14/02 (B)] It#8217;s easy to see why the White House would have wanted this event placed at disadvantage a later time (after Bush#8217;s initial statement to writing, the nation rather than after the frank lloyd second crash) to writing, avoid the obvious question: if Cheney was immediately evacuated, why wasn#8217;t Bush? The Photo-Op Goes On. After Card told Bush about the second plane and persuasive on gay marriages, quickly left, the classroom was silent for about 30 seconds or so. [Tampa Tribune, 9/1/02] The children were about to take turns reading from a story called The Pet Goat . [AFP, 9/7/02] Bush picked up the book and began to read with the children. [Tampa Tribune, 9/1/02] In unison, the children read out loud, #8220;The#8212;Pet#8212;Goat. A#8212;girl#8212;got#8212;a#8212;pet#8212;goat. But#8212;the#8212;goat#8212;did#8212;some#8212;things#8212;that#8212;made#8212;the#8212;girl#8217;s#8212;dad#8212;mad.#8221; Bush mostly listened, but occasionally asked the children a few questions to encourage them. [Washington Times, 10/7/02] At one point he said, #8220;Really good readers, whew!#8230; These must be sixth-graders!#8221; [Time, 9/12/01] Who was really in control? Certainly not Bush. In the back of the room, Press Secretary Ari Fleischer caught Bush#8217;s eye and held up a pad of discussion paper for him to see, with #8220;DON#8217;T SAY ANYTHING YET#8221; written on on gay marriages, it in writing big block letters. Cover Letter? [Washington Times, 10/7/02] Some person or people had overruled the discussion essay security who wanted Bush evacuated immediately, even as Vice President Cheney was taken from his White House office to a safe location. Bush#8217;s security overruled Bush on security matters later in disadvantage of television essay the day on Air Force One, but who overruled them that morning? Bush with his Pet Goat book in Sandra Kay Daniels#8217;s elementary school classroom. [Eric Draper] When Did Bush Leave the Classroom?
Nearly every news account fails to mention when Bush left the classroom after being told America was under attack. Three mention 9:12 a.m. [New York Times, 9/16/01 (B), Telegraph, 12/16/01, Daily Mail, 9/8/02] Remaining in essay the classroom for approximately five to seven minutes is inexcusable, but the video of Bush in the classroom suggests he stayed longer than that. The video contains several edits and letter, ends before Bush leaves the room, so it also doesn#8217;t tell us exactly how long he stayed. One newspaper suggested he remained #8220;for eight or nine minutes#8221;#8212;sometime between 9:13 and 9:16, since Card#8217;s arrival is uncertain. [Tampa Tribune, 9/1/02] When Bush finally did leave, he didn#8217;t act like a man in discussion essay a hurry. In fact, he was described as #8220;openly stretching out the moment.#8221; [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by with quotes, Bill Sammon, 10/02, p. 89] When the lesson was over, Bush said to the children: #8220;Hoo! These are great readers. Very impressive! Thank you all so much for showing me your reading skills.
I bet they practice too. Don#8217;t you? Reading more than they watch TV? Anybody do that? Read more than you watch TV? [Hands go up] Oh that#8217;s great! Very good. Very important to practice! Thanks for having me.
Very impressed.#8221; [Transcribed from Booker video, Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, pp. 89-90] Bush still continued to talk, advising the children to stay in school and be good citizens. [Tampa Tribune, 9/1/02, St. Essay? Petersburg Times, 9/8/02 (B)] One student asked Bush a question, and he gave a quick response on frank essay questions, his education policy. Discussion Essay? [New York Post, 9/12/02] The only source to describe what happened next is Fighting Back by persuasive essays, Bill Sammon. Publishers Weekly described Sammon#8217;s book as an #8220;inside account of the Bush administration#8217;s reaction to 9-11 [and] a breathless, highly complimentary portrait of the writing president [showing] the great merit and unwavering moral vision of his inner circle.#8221; [Publisher#8217;s Weekly, 10/15/02] Sammon#8217;s conservative perspective makes his account of essays on gay marriages Bush#8217;s behavior at essay the end of the photo-op all the more surprising. Bush is described as smiling and chatting with the children #8220;as if he didn#8217;t have a care in the world#8221; and proposal satire essay, #8220;in the most relaxed manner imaginable.#8221; White House aide Gordon Johndroe, then came in as he usually does at the end of press conferences, and said, #8220;Thank you, press. If you could step out the discussion essay writing door we came in, please.#8221; A reporter then asked, #8220;Mr. President, are you aware of the proposal satire essay reports of the plane crash in New York? Is there anything#8230;,#8221; But Bush interrupted, and no doubt recalling his order, #8220;DON#8217;T SAY ANYTHING YET,#8221; Bush responded, #8220;I#8217;ll talk about discussion essay writing, it later.#8221; But still the satire essay president did not leave. #8220;He stepped forward and shook hands with [classroom teacher] Daniels, slipping his left hand behind her in discussion essay writing another photo-op pose.
He was taking his good old time.#8230; Bush lingered until the press was gone.#8221; [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p. 90] Think about on lord with, that: rather than rush out discussion essay writing, of the room at the first chance, Bush actually stayed until after all the dozens of reporters had left! Having just been told of a Pearl Harbor-type attack on US soil, Bush was indeed #8220;openly stretching out the moment.#8221; But he still wasn#8217;t done. Bush then turned to principal Tose-Rigell, who was waiting to cover, take him to the library for essay writing his speech on education. Essay Of The Quotes? He explained to writing, her about the terror attacks and cover letter internship, why he had to leave. [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p. 90] Finally, he went to discussion writing, an empty classroom next door where his staff was based. [ABC News, 9/11/02] Given that Bush#8217;s program was supposed to end at 9:20, he left the classroom only a couple of minutes earlier than planned, if even that. [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/16/01] The reason given why Bush didn#8217;t leave as soon as Card told him the news is: #8220;Without all the facts at hand, George Bush had no intention of essays marriages upsetting the schoolchildren who had come to essay, read for disadvantage essay him.#8221; [MSNBC, 10/29/02] Advisor Karl Rove said, #8220;The President thought for a second or two about getting up and walking out essay, of the room. Civilized Essay Of The Flies Quotes? But the drill was coming to a close and he didn#8217;t want to alarm the discussion children.#8221; [ABC, 9/11/02] This excuse is patently absurd, given the of television essay security risks and importance of Bush being informed and making decisions as Commander in essay writing Chief. Nor was the drill coming to frank wright essay questions, a close: one drill had ended and another was about to begin#8212;it was a perfect time to essay writing, simply say, #8220;Excuse me#8221; and leave the disadvantage essay room. Essay Writing? Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport is disadvantage of television essay only 3frac12; miles away; in fact, Booker was chosen as the location for the photo-op partly because of its proximity to the airport. Discussion? [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/12/02] Hijackers could have crashed a plane into Bush#8217;s publicized location and his security would have been completely helpless to stop it. Descriptive Essays? Remember, Bush#8217;s schedule had been announced on September 7 and two of the 9/11 hijackers came to Sarasota that same day. [White House, 9/7/01, Longboat Observer, 11/21/01, Washington Post, 1/27/02] Furthermore, the Secret Service was aware of the strange request for an interview a few hours earlier and the previous night#8217;s report of a person in town who had made violent threats against Bush. Discussion? Indeed, a few days after 9/11, Sarasota#8217;s main newspaper reported, #8220;Sarasota barely skirted its own disaster. As it turns out, terrorists targeted the president and Air Force One on persuasive marriages, Tuesday, maybe even while they were on the ground in Sarasota and essay, certainly not long after.
The Secret Service learned of the threat just minutes after Bush left Booker Elementary.#8221; [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/16/01] Bush in a holding room before giving his speech. Essays? Communications director Dan Bartlett points to the TV, and essay, the clock reads 9:25. [White House] Once he was out of the classroom, did Bush immediately leave Booker? No. Disadvantage Of Television? He stayed in the adjacent room with his staff, calling Vice President Cheney and National Security Advisor Rice, and preparing a speech. [Telegraph, 12/16/01, St. Petersburg Times 9/8/02] Incredibly, even as uncertain information began to surface, suggesting that more planes had been hijacked (eventually 11 planes would be suspected) [CBS, 9/11/02], Bush was allowed to make his remarks at essay 9:30#8212;exactly the time and letter for marketing internship program, place stated on discussion essay, his advance schedule. [Federal News Service, 9/10/01, see the a modest satire essay transcript of his speech here] Why hasn#8217;t Bush#8217;s security staff been criticized for their completely inexplicable decision to stay at the school? And why didn#8217;t Bush#8217;s concern for essay writing the children extend to essays on happiness, not making them and the rest of the 200 or so people at the school terrorist targets? President Bush speaks at 9:29 in the library of Booker Elementary School. [From Booker Elementary website] At 9:16, NORAD was notified that Flight 93 had been hijacked, and at discussion essay 9:24 it was notified that Flight 77 had also been hijacked and a modest proposal, was heading toward Washington (though, as discussed above, the hijacking was known long before this). [NORAD, 9/18/01] No media report has suggested that the possible shooting down of hijacked airplanes was discussed at this time, however. Discussion Writing? It appears the frank essay discussion was not broached until after 9:55. [Washington Post, 1/27/02, CBS, 9/11/02] At about 9:26, it was either FAA head Jane Garvey or FAA administrator Ben Sliney (and not Bush) who decided to halt all airplane takeoffs in discussion essay writing the US. Frank Lloyd Wright? [Time, 9/14/01, USA Today, 8/13/02] Additionally, no evidence has appeared suggesting Bush had a role in ordering any fighters into essay writing the skies. Finally, to the Airport.
Bush talks on a cell phone on the way to the Sarasota airport. Andrew Card is in front of him. [AP] By 9:35, Bush#8217;s motorcade was ready to take him to the Sarasota airport where Air Force One was waiting. [Telegraph, 12/16/01] At 9:37, Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon. Bush was informed as his motorcade got near the airport. (Apparently Bush could be reached by phone in his limousine at this time.) [Washington Times, 10/8/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01] The motorcade arrived around 9:43 and pulled up close to Air Force One. On Gay Marriages? Security conducted an extra-thorough search of all the baggage for the other passengers, delaying takeoff until 9:55. [St. Discussion Essay? Petersburg Times, 9/8/02 (B)] A year later, Chief of Staff Andrew Card recalled that, #8220;As we were heading to Air Force One#8230; [we] learned, what turned out to be a mistake, but we learned that the Air Force One package could in fact be a target.#8221; [MSNBC, 9/9/02] This echoes the report mentioned above that #8220;terrorists targeted the president and Air Force One#8230; maybe even while they were on civilized essay of the, the ground in Sarasota#8230;#8221; [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/16/01] This only increases the essay writing strangeness that Bush wasn#8217;t immediately evacuated at 9:03 as some of his security had recommended. Dogs thoroughly check luggage underneath Air Force One. [AP]
Bush spoke by telephone to Cheney as the motorcade raced to essays, the airport. [St. Petersburg Times 9/8/02] Supposedly, during this call Bush issued an essay order to ground all flights within the country. Disadvantage Of Television? [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] The FAA did shut down the nationwide air traffic system at essay writing around 9:45. [MSNBC, 9/22/01, CNN, 9/12/01, New York Times, 9/12/01, Newsday, 9/10/02, Washington Post, 9/12/01] But other reports state that it was FAA administrator Ben Sliney who made the decision without consulting anyone. Lloyd Wright Essay Questions? [USA Today, 8/13/02, USA Today, 8/13/02 (B)] For some time it was claimed that Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta had made the decision, but it was later revealed that Mineta didn#8217;t even know of the order until 15 minutes later. Apparently, #8220;FAA officials had begged [the reporter] to maintain the fiction.#8221; [Slate, 4/2/02] The idea that Bush made the decision is even less plausible. In fact, there is no evidence at all to suggest that Bush had by essay writing, this point made even one decision relevant to for marketing internship, his security or that of the country. Where is the security covering Bush as he leaves Sarasota? Is a good public relations photo more important than security, minutes after the discussion essay Secret Service was told Bush could be attacked as he left Sarasota? [AP] Air Force One Takes Off Without Fighter Escort. Air Force One took off at descriptive either 9:55 or 9:57 a.m. [CNN, 9/12/01, New York Times, 9/12/01, Telegraph, 12/16/01, CBS, 9/11/02, Washington Post, 9/12/01, Washington Post, 1/27/02, AP, 9/12/01] Communications Director Dan Bartlett remembered, #8220;It was like a rocket. For a good ten minutes, the plane was going almost straight up.#8221; [CBS, 9/11/02] But, incredibly, Air Force One took off without any military fighter protection. This defies all explanation.
Recall that at 9:03 a.m., one of Bush#8217;s security people said, #8220;We#8217;re out of essay here. Can you get everyone ready?#8221; [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/10/02] Certainly, long before Bush left the elementary school at disadvantage essay 9:35 a.m., arrangements would have been made to get fighters to Sarasota as soon as possible. Discussion Essay? Not only would it have been advisable to protect Air Force One, but it would have been only sensible as another way to protect Bush on the ground from terrorist attack even before he left the school. In Florida, there were two bases said to civilized essay on lord quotes, have fighters on discussion writing, 24-hour alert, capable of getting airborne in approximately five minutes. Homestead Air Station, 185 miles from Sarasota, and Tyndall Air Station, 235 miles from Sarasota; both had the highest readiness status on 9/11.
Presumably, as happened at other bases across the essays marriages country, just after 9:03, base commanders throughout Florida would have immediately begun preparations to get their fighters ready. [Aviation Week and Space Technology, 6/3/02] Fighters left bases on the same alert status and traveled similar distances to reach Washington, DC, well before 10:00, so why were the fighters delayed in Florida? [Aviation Week and discussion essay writing, Space Technology, 9/9/02] Military planes should have been over a modest proposal satire essay Sarasota by the time Bush left Booker at 9:35 a.m. Discussion Writing? Yet, as will be described below, more than one hour after Air Force One took off, there were still no fighters protecting it! Air Force One departs Sarasota. Frank Lloyd Wright Questions? [AP] An administration official claimed, #8220;The object seemed to be simply to get the President airborne and out of the way.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] But without fighter cover this makes little sense, because the sky was arguably more dangerous than the ground. At the time, there were still over 3,000 planes in writing the air over the US [USA Today, 8/13/02 (B)], including about half of the frank lloyd essay questions planes in the region of essay Florida where Bush was. [St. Petersburg Times, 9/7/02] Recall, too, that the Secret Service learned of a threat to Bush and Air Force One #8220;just minutes after Bush left Booker Elementary.#8221; Karl Rove, also on descriptive essays on happiness, Air Force One, confirmed that a dangerous threat was known before the plane took off: #8220;They also made it clear they wanted to get us up quickly, and they wanted to get us to a high altitude, because there had been a specific threat made to Air Force One#8230;. A declaration that Air Force One was a target, and said in discussion writing a way that they called it credible.#8221; [New Yorker, 10/1/01] Cheney, right and sitting, talks to Bush. Condoleezza Rice, center and sitting, and others, look on. [White House] Shoot Down Authorized#8212;Too Late. Frank Essay? Once he was airborne, Bush talked to Cheney again and Cheney recommended that Bush #8220;order our aircraft to shoot down these airliners that have been hijacked.#8221; [CBS, 9/11/02] #8220;I said, #145;You bet,#146; #8221; Bush later recalled. Essay? #8220;We had a little discussion, but not much.#8221; [Newsday, 9/23/01, USA Today, 9/16/01, Washington Post, 1/27/02] However, even though only proposal Bush had the discussion writing authority to order a passenger plane shot down [CNN, 10/26/99], the order was apparently given before Bush discussed it with Cheney. Frank Essay? One flight commander recalled, #8220;After the Pentagon was hit, we were told there were more [airliners] coming.
Not #145;might be#146; ; they were coming.#8221; A call from writing someone in the White House declared the Washington area #8220;a free-fire zone,#8221; meaning, according to one of the responding fighter pilots, #8220;we were given authority to use force, if the for marketing situation required it.#8221; [Aviation Week and discussion essay, Space Technology, 9/9/02] Extraordinary times can demand extraordinary measures, so having someone other than Bush give this order could be understandable. But Bush was available and talking to of the flies, people like Cheney after 9:30 a.m. Discussion Writing? Around this time, officials feared that as many as 11 airliners had been hijacked [CBS, 9/11/02], so why weren#8217;t Bush and Cheney even considering this course of action until about 10:00 a.m.? Was Bush being kept out of the loop in reality, or only in the media reports? Is the lateness of this discussion merely political spin to on gay, reduce speculation that Flight 93 had been shot down? Flight 93 was still in the air after the Bush authorization, and fighters were given orders to shoot it down if necessary. [ABC News, 9/11/02] NORAD knew at 9:16 a.m. that Flight 93 was hijacked [NORAD, 9/18/01], but supposedly fighters weren#8217;t scrambled until minutes before it crashed at writing 10:06 a.m.
Going Nowhere as Threats Increase. Shortly after takeoff, Cheney apparently informed Bush of of the with quotes #8220;a credible threat#8221; to essay, Air Force One. [AP, 9/13/01 (D)] US Representative Adam Putnam #8220;had barely settled into his seat on frank lloyd wright questions, Air Force One#8230; when he got the news that terrorists apparently had set their sights on the plane.#8221; [Orlando Sentinel, 9/14/01] The Secret Service had received an essay anonymous call: #8220;Air Force One is next.#8221; The caller allegedly knew the descriptive on happiness agency#8217;s code words relating to essay, Air Force One procedures. Pilot Colonel Mark Tillman was told of the threat and he asked that an armed guard be stationed at the cockpit door. The Associated Press reported that the civilized with quotes threat came #8220;within the same hour#8221; as the Pentagon crash ( i.e. , before 10:00 a.m., roughly when the plane took off). [AP, 9/13/01 (D)] Details suggest this threat was not the same as the earlier one, but it#8217;s hard to know for essay sure. In his comments at Booker, Bush said he was immediately flying back to Washington, but soon after takeoff, he, Cheney and the Secret Service began arguing whether it was safe to fly back to the capital. [Telegraph, 12/16/01] Andrew Card told Bush, #8220;We#8217;ve got to let the dust settle before we go back.#8221; [St. Petersburg Times, 9/8/02] The plane apparently stayed over Sarasota until the argument was settled. Letter Internship Program? Accounts differ, but until about 10:35 a.m. Discussion Essay? [CBS, 9/11/02 (B), Washington Post, 1/27/02], Air Force One #8220;appeared to be going nowhere. The journalists on board #150; all of whom were barred from communicating with their offices #150; sensed that the plane was flying in big, slow circles.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] Cheney apparently called Bush again at 10:32 a.m., and told him of marriages another threat to Air Force One. Within minutes, the argument was over, and the plane turned away from writing Washington and flew to Louisiana instead. [Washington Post, 1/27/02] Bush recalled: #8220;I wanted to come back to Washington, but the circumstances were such that it was just impossible for wright questions the Secret Service or the national security team to discussion essay writing, clear the way for Air Force One to come back.#8221; [CBS, 9/11/02] Given that the cover internship program rocket-like takeoff was due to a threat, this must have been another threat, possibly even a third threat. Discussion Essay Writing? Colonel Mark Tillman in essay of the flies with quotes the cockpit of Air Force One. Discussion Essay Writing? [CBS] Around 10:55 a.m., there was yet another threat to Air Force One.
The pilot, Colonel Mark Tillman, said he was warned that a suspect airliner was dead ahead. #8220;Coming out of essay on lord of the with Sarasota there was one call that said there was an airliner off our nose that they did not have contact with.#8221; Tillman took evasive action, pulling his plane even higher above normal traffic. [CBS, 9/11/02 (B)] Reporters on discussion, board noticed the internship program rise in elevation. [Dallas Morning News, 8/28/02, Salon, 9/12/01] The report was apparently a false alarm, but it shows the discussion essay writing folly of having Bush fly without a fighter escort. Were There Threats to Air Force One? The threat or threats to Air Force One were announced on September 12, after mounting criticism that Bush was out of sight in wright essay Louisiana and Nebraska during most of the day and discussion writing, did not return to frank wright, Washington until 10 hours after the attacks. White House spokesman Ari Fleischer said there was #8220;real and credible information that the White House and Air Force One were targets.#8221; [White House, 9/12/01] On September 13, New York Times columnist William Safire wrote#8212;and Bush#8217;s political strategist Karl Rove confirmed#8212;that there was an #8220;inside#8221; threat that #8220;may have broken the essay writing secret codes [showing a knowledge of presidential procedures].#8221; [New York Times, 9/13/01] Had terrorists hacked their way into sensitive White House computers? Was there a mole in the White House? No.
It turned out the essays on happiness entire story was made up. Discussion? [Washington Post, 9/27/01] The press expressed considerable skepticism about the story. For instance, one Florida newspaper thought Fleischer#8217;s disclosure was #8220;an apparent effort to explain why the persuasive essays president was flown to Air Force bases#8221; before returning to Washington. Essay? [St. On Gay Marriages? Petersburg Times, 9/13/01] When asked on essay writing, September 15 about the #8220;credible evidence,#8221; Fleischer said, #8220;we exhausted that topic about persuasive essays on gay marriages, two days ago.#8221; [White House, 9/15/01] On September 26, CBS News reported: #8220;Finally, there is this postscript to the puzzle of how someone presumed to discussion essay writing, be a terrorist was able to call in a threat against Air Force One using a secret code name for the president#8217;s plane. Well, as it turns out, that simply never happened. Sources say White House staffers apparently misunderstood comments made by their security detail.#8221; [CBS, 9/26/01] One former official who served in essays on happiness George Bush Sr.#8216;s administration told Human Events Online, which bills itself as #8220;the national conservative weekly,#8221; that he was #8220;deeply disappointed by [Bush#8217;s] zigzagging across the country.#8221; [Human Events Online, 9/17/01] At the end of the discussion month, Slate magazine awarded its #8220;Whopper of the Week#8221; to Karl Rove, Ari Fleischer, and Dick Cheney. [Slate, 9/28/01] No one knew exactly where the a modest bogus story originated from, but #8220;what can be safely said is essay writing that it served the White House#8217;s immediate purposes, even though it was completely untrue.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] What were those purposes? A well-informed, anonymous Washington official said, #8220;It did two things for disadvantage of television essay [Cheney]. It reinforced his argument that the essay writing President should stay out of town, and it gave George W. an excellent reason for doing so.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] When Bush was asked in May 2002 why he had flown to two Air Force bases before returning to Washington, Bush said, #8220;I was trying to essays on happiness, get out of harm#8217;s way.#8221; [White House, 5/21/02] The most obviously bogus threat#8212;the mole knowing secret codes#8212;came from Cheney in a pivotal moment in his argument with Bush over where Bush should go. But were the other threats, for discussion writing instance, the one made before Air Force One even took off, or the persuasive on gay marriages airline suspected of crashing into Air Force One, also bogus? The approximate route of Bush#8217;s journey on essay writing, Air Force One is shown in yellow.
Keep in civilized on lord flies with mind the plane flew in discussion essay circles somewhere over Florida for about 40 minutes before heading west. Why did the a modest satire first planes scrambled to defend the plane come from essay Ellington, Texas, and not any of the three likely Florida bases? When Does the Fighter Escort Finally Arrive? Much like the time when Bush left the Booker classroom, the of the flies time when fighters finally reached Air Force One is rarely mentioned, and when it is, the facts are highly debatable. According to one account, around 10:00 a.m. Air Force One was #8220;joined by discussion essay writing, an escort of F-16 fighters from a base near Jacksonville, Florida.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] But one month later, it was reported that in Cheney#8217;s 10:32 phone call, he told Bush that it would take another 40 to disadvantage of television, 90 minutes [as late as noon] to get protective fighters up to escort Air Force One. [Washington Post, 1/27/02] Another account said, #8220;Air Force One headed toward Jacksonville [at 10:41] to meet jets scrambled to give the presidential jet its own air cover,#8221; but it isn#8217;t said when the plane actually met up with the fighters. [New York Times, 9/16/01 (B)] We know that when Air Force One took evasive action around 10:55, there was no fighter escort. Discussion Essay? NORAD commander Major General Larry Arnold later said, #8220;We scrambled available airplanes from Tyndall [note this is near Tallahassee, not Jacksonville, Florida] and then from Ellington in of television essay Houston, Texas,#8221; but he doesn#8217;t say when. [Code One Magazine, 1/02] In another account, the first two F-16s to discussion, arrive are piloted by Shane Brotherton and Randy Roberts, from the Texas Air National Guard, not from any Florida base. [CBS, 9/11/02] All that#8217;s known for sure is that by 11:30 there were six fighters protecting Air Force One. [Sarasota Magazine, 9/19/01] President Bush (center, stooped down) and staff look out the windows of Air Force One to civilized of the flies with quotes, see their newly arrived fighter escorts. [White House] It would appear that fighters arrived some time between 11:00 and 11:30. Discussion Essay? These fighters were supposed to be on 24-hour alert, ready to get into the air in about five minutes. If we assume the of television essay fighters flew at a speed of discussion writing 1,100 mph, the same speed Major Gen.
Arnold said fighters used to reach New York City earlier in a modest satire essay the day when traveling a comparable distance [MSNBC, 9/23/01 (C), Slate, 1/16/02], the fighters should have reached Sarasota in about 10 minutes. Yet they took around two hours to discussion, reach Air Force One from when they were likely first needed, shortly after 9:00. This clearly goes beyond mere incompetence, yet no newspaper article has ever raised the issue. Was Cheney able to prevent the fighters from reaching Air Force One, perhaps to disadvantage of television essay, convince Bush not to return to Washington? If so, why? Did Cheney assume (or know) that Bush was in no real danger? Like so many other questions surrounding 9/11, we do not know. Discussion Essay? Barksdale Air Force Base. Air Force One at Barksdale Air Force Base. Civilized Essay On Lord Flies With Quotes? [AP] Air Force One landed at Barksdale Air Force base near Shreveport, Louisiana at discussion essay writing about 11:45 a.m. Persuasive Essays On Gay Marriages? [CBS, 9/11/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01, Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] #8220;The official reason for landing at Barksdale was that Bush felt it necessary to make a further statement, but it isn#8217;t unreasonable to discussion, assume that #150; as there was no agreement as to essay of the flies with, what the President#8217;s movements should be it was felt he might as well be on discussion writing, the ground as in the air.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01, CBS, 9/11/02] Ironically, the landing came only frank lloyd wright essay questions a short time after Bush#8217;s plane was finally protected by fighters.
There was quite a difference in the protection afforded Bush at Barksdale and writing, what was in a modest proposal satire Sarasota. Bush was left unprotected at a known location in Sarasota for nearly 30 minutes. At Barksdale, a location that was at the time unknown, Congressman Dan Miller #8220;was amazed at the armored equipment and soldiers with automatic weapons that immediately surrounded the plane.#8221; [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] Bush was driven to writing, base headquarters in proposal satire a Humvee escorted by armed outriders. Reporters and others remained under strict orders not to give out their location. Discussion? [Telegraph, 12/16/01] Bush walking inside Barksdale Air Force Base. [White House] Bush was taken to a secret and secure place on proposal satire essay, the base. [Louisiana Life, Autumn 2002] Shortly after 12:30 p.m., Bush taped a short speech, which he wrote on a napkin. [Louisiana Life, Autumn 2002, Salon, 9/12/01, Washington Times, 10/8/02] The tape was broadcast on television at around 1:20 p.m. [Salon 9/11/01] He also #8220;spent the discussion essay writing next hour and a half talking on the phone,#8221; again arguing with Cheney and others over disadvantage where he should go next. Essay Writing? [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] The Secret Service felt the civilized essay of the flies quotes situation in essay writing Washington was still unsafe. Descriptive On Happiness? [CBS, 9/11/02] Bush told Karl Rove: #8220;I want to go back home as soon as possible.#8221; Rove answered: #8220;Our people are saying it#8217;s unstable still.#8221; [AP, 9/13/01 (D)] Bush was told he could get to the US Strategic Command center in Offutt, Nebraska, quicker than he could fly to discussion, Washington, so he agreed to go to Nebraska. [Telegraph, 12/16/01, AP, 9/13/01 (D)] Just after 1:00 p.m., Bush supposedly #8220;received an disadvantage essay intelligence report from the base commander that a high-speed object was headed for his ranch in Crawford, Texas.#8221; It turned out to be another false alarm. [ Fighting Back: The War on writing, Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p.117] This may well be another bogus report designed to explain why Bush didn#8217;t return to frank wright questions, Washington at this time, since US airspace was declared clear except for discussion writing some military and emergency flights at 12:16 p.m. [USA Today, 8/12/02 (C)] By 12:30, the FAA reported that only about 50 of frank lloyd wright essay questions these flights were still flying in US airspace, and none were reporting problems [CNN, 9/12/01, New York Times, 9/12/01], so how could an unknown plane have been headed toward Bush#8217;s ranch 30 minutes after that? Offutt Air Force Base. Air Force One left Barksdale for Offutt Air Force Base around 1:30 p.m. [CBS, 9/11/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01, Salon, 9/11/01, Washington Post, 9/11/01, MSNBC, 9/22/01, CNN, 9/12/01] The Air Force One entourage was pared down to a few essential staffers such as Ari Fleischer, Andrew Card, Karl Rove, Dan Bartlett, and Gordon Johndroe [White House, 9/11/01], plus about five reporters. [AP, 9/12/01 (D)] During the flight, Bush remained in #8220;continuous contact#8221; with the White House Situation Room and Vice President Cheney. [CNN, 9/11/01 (B)] Air Force One landed at Offutt shortly before 3:00 p.m. [Washington Post, 9/11/01] At 3:06, Bush passed through security to the US Strategic Command Underground Command Center [Salon, 9/11/01, CBS, 9/11/02] and was taken into an underground bunker designed to withstand a nuclear blast. [Telegraph, 12/16/01] Bush, center, with Andrew Card to his left, takes part in discussion writing a video conference from frank wright questions inside Offutt Air Force Base. [White House] There, he held a teleconference call with Vice President Cheney, National Security Advisor Rice, Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, Deputy Secretary of discussion State Richard Armitage, CIA Director Tenet, Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta, and on happiness, others. Discussion? [ABC News, 9/11/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01, Washington Times, 10/8/02] The meeting lasted about an frank essay questions hour. [Telegraph, 12/16/01, Salon, 9/11/01, AP, 8/19/02] Rice recalled that during the meeting, Tenet told Bush, #8220;Sir, I believe it#8217;s al-Qaeda. We#8217;re doing the assessment but it looks like, it feels like, it smells like al-Qaeda.#8221; [CBS, 9/11/02] By this time, people were anticipating and expecting another reassuring public statement from discussion essay writing Bush. Essay On Lord Flies With Quotes? [Orlando Sentinel, 9/12/01] The White House staff was preparing for Bush to discussion, address the nation from the frank wright Offutt bunker, but Bush decided instead to return to writing, Washington. [CBS, 9/11/02] As a side note, Warren Buffett, one of the richest people in the world, was hosting an unpublicized charity benefit inside the high security Offutt military base at a modest satire 8:00 a.m.
With him were business leaders and several executives from the World Trade Center, including Anne Tatlock of Fiduciary Trust Co. Discussion Writing? International, who likely would have died had it not been for descriptive essays the meeting. [San Francisco Business Times, 2/1/02] They watched a lot of the television coverage that morning, but it#8217;s unknown if any of discussion essay these people were still at descriptive essays Offutt by essay writing, the time Bush arrived in the afternoon. This photo of Bush speaking to disadvantage, Cheney shortly after leaving Offutt was later used for discussion writing Republican fundraising. Descriptive Essays? [White House] Back in discussion Washington. Air Force One left Offutt around 4:30 p.m. [MSNBC, 9/22/01, CNN, 9/12/01, Telegraph, 12/16/01] and landed at Andrews Air Force Base at persuasive marriages 6:34 p.m., escorted by essay, two F-15 fighters and one F-16. [CNN, 9/11/01] Bush then took the essays on gay marriages Marine One helicopter to the White House [Salon 9/11/01], arriving shortly before 7:00 p.m. [CNN, 9/12/01, Telegraph, 12/16/01, AP, 8/19/02] Bush gave a nationally televised speech at 8:30 p.m. [CNN, 9/12/01, White House, 9/11/01], speaking for about five minutes. [US News, 9/14/01] In what would later be called the Bush Doctrine, he stated, #8220;We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.#8221; [Washington Post, 1/27/02] Bush addresses the nation. [White House] Around 9:00 p.m., Bush met with his full National Security Council, followed roughly half an discussion essay writing hour later by a modest satire essay, a meeting with a smaller group of key advisors. Discussion Writing? Bush and his advisors had already decided bin Laden was behind the attacks. CIA Director Tenet told Bush that al-Qaeda and descriptive, the Taliban in discussion essay Afghanistan were essentially one and the same. [Washington Post, 1/27/02] The many accounts of what happened to Bush on 9/11 are riddled with disinformation of false threats, omitted details, fudged timing, and more. But around September 11, 2002, the descriptive essays on happiness heavily publicized first anniversary of the discussion attacks, there was an letter internship obvious attempt to discussion essay writing, further rewrite the story. Chief of Staff Andrew Card claimed that after he told Bush about the second World Trade Center crash, #8220;it was only a matter of seconds#8221; before Bush #8220;excused himself very politely to the teacher and to the students, and he left#8221; the classroom. Card also stated that Bush #8220;quickly excused himself to a holding room.#8221; [San Francisco Chronicle, 9/11/02] In a different account, Card said, #8220;Not that many seconds later the a modest essay president excused himself from the classroom.#8221; [MSNBC, 9/9/02] The Booker school video shows these statements are lies#8212;unless #8220;a matter of seconds#8221; means over 700 seconds! Sandra Kay Daniels, the teacher whose second-grade classroom Bush visited on 9/11, told the essay Los Angeles Times that after Card informed Bush of the second crash, Bush got up and left. #8220;He said, #145;Ms.
Daniels, I have to leave now.#146;#8230; Looking at his face, you knew something was wrong. I said a little prayer for him. He shook my hand and left.#8221; Daniels also said, #8220;I knew something was up when President Bush didn#8217;t pick up the book and cover letter, participate in discussion writing the lesson.#8221; [Los Angeles Times, 9/11/02] However, the Booker video clearly shows that Bush did follow along after being told of the second plane. [Video: Center for Cooperative Research, Buzzflash, Global Free Press, The Emperor#8217;s New Clothes, or Liberty DYNU] The New York Post reported, #8220;A federal agent rushed into the room to inform the president of the United States. President Bush had been presiding over [Daniels#8217;s] reading class last 9/11, when a Secret Service agent interrupted the disadvantage of television essay lesson and asked, #145;Where can we get to a television?#146; #8221; Daniels then claimed that Bush left the class even before the second crash: #8220;The president bolted right out of here and told me: #145;Take over.#146; #8221; When the second crash occurred, she claims her students were watching TV in a nearby media room. [New York Post, 9/12/02] This article is riddled with errors. As mentioned previously, the Secret Service was already watching the second plane crash live on discussion essay, television in an adjacent room at 9:03#8212;long before this supposedly happened. Nor did Bush #8220;bolt#8221; out of the room; in fact, even pro-Bush author Bill Sammon called Bush #8220;the dawdler in chief#8221; for taking so long to leave the room. A Modest Proposal Essay? [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p. 90] Bush shows a CBS reporter around Air Force One as part of his 9/11 anniversary interview. [AP/CBS] Bush himself took part in the historical revisionism. Discussion Writing? In an extensive video interview shown on CBS#8217;s #8220;60 Minutes,#8221; he again repeated his bizarre belief that he was watching television when the first crash took place. CBS also revived the false story that terrorists had broken Air Force One#8217;s secret codes, even though it was CBS who debunked that same story nearly a year earlier. Descriptive On Happiness? [CBS, 9/11/02] Vital Questions Remain Unanswered. Needless to say, in essay the anniversary hoopla, Bush and other leaders were described as #8220;resolute,#8221;#8220;brave,#8221;#8220;strong,#8221; and so forth. Even the minor level of a modest satire media criticism just after 9/11 that led to several reporters losing their jobs was absent.
The topic of Bush#8217;s behavior on 9/11 has been barely mentioned in discussion the media since. There are many questions that deserve answers. So many pieces of the puzzle do not fit. Simply by lloyd wright, reading the mainstream media reports, we can see that mere incompetence doesn#8217;t explain what happened to Bush on that day. For instance, it makes no sense that Bush would listen to a story about a goat long after being told the US was under attack, and even after the writing Secret Service decided to immediately evacuate him from the school. Civilized Essay Quotes? It defies explanation that Air Force One#8217;s fighter escort took two hours to appear. Discussion Essay Writing? And it is mind-boggling that there are seven different versions of how Bush learned about the first crash. It#8217;s doubtful that the on lord of the Independent Commission investigation will look critically at what Bush did on discussion, 9/11 and why he did it. Program? Despite the contradictory reports, no one in the mainstream media has yet demanded clarification of the many obvious inconsistencies and discussion essay, problems of the official version.
Anyone even asking questions has been quickly insulted as anti-American, accused of descriptive essays bashing the president in a time of war, or branded a conspiracy nut. Only a few relatives of the 9/11 attacks have been able to raise these issues publicly. For instance, Kristen Breitweiser told Phil Donahue: #8220;It was clear that we were under attack. Why didn#8217;t the Secret Service whisk [Bush] out of that school?#8230; [H]e is the commander-in-chief of the United States of America, our country was clearly under attack, it was after the second building was hit. I want to know why he sat there for 25 minutes.#8221; [Donahue, 8/13/02] But so far, few have listened to their concerns. Because the media has failed in its role to ask these questions, much less attempt to answer them, it is now the writing responsibility of ordinary Americans#8212;of you, of me, and the people we know#8212;to gather the information, look for answers, and sound the alarm. Descriptive Essays? Allan Wood has assisted with the discussion writing research for, and descriptive essays, editing of, the discussion essay writing 9/11 Timeline. Descriptive Essays On Happiness? He is also a member of discussion essay writing 911CitizensWatch.org. Any questions, comments, or additional information regarding this article can be sent to his email: aninterestingday @hotmail.com (remove the space). Thanks to Melissa Kavonic for assisting in the proofreading of the disadvantage of television article. The Center for essay writing Cooperative Research needs your support.
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Department of Media, Culture, and Communication. Please click on a thesis title to essay writing, view the abstract. This thesis seeks to disadvantage of television, address the issue, imagined and discussion otherwise, of the graying of the lloyd wright classical music audience. Orchestras around the world have found that audience figures are declining, partly because of the decline of the younger audience. When listeners fail to develop the habit of attending classical performances while young, they will carry their indifference into adulthood. The classical music audience, then, is literally dying of old age. However, the rhetoric around this problem tends to discussion essay, ignore the spaces in which youth audiences do listen to classical music. Wright Questions! In this thesis, I hope to through an discussion analysis of critical theory address why the traditional live classical performance fails to interest the young consumer, touching on issues of class, education, and cultural construction as possible reasons for proposal satire essay the music’s unpopularity. I will also address in what ways the classical performance is becoming revitalized through less traditional venues.
As a way to address how these tactics can be applied to the traditional classical music performances, I will perform a case study on something that involved both: last year’s performance of Le Grand Macabre at the New York Philharmonic. Through this, I hope to see how uses of marketing, celebrity, cost, space, community, and genre can attract young adults for a lifetime appreciation of the live classical performance. As the world becomes interconnected and easily accessible with the advancement of technology, more and more companies now have the ability and interests to tap into foreign markets. Either by means of opening up local subsidiaries or outsourcing to another country, they are all inevitably involved in the interaction with an unfamiliar culture. One of the challenges that confronts them is the discussion essay writing increasing diversity of the workforce and similarly complex prospective customers with disparate cultural backgrounds. Essay On Lord Flies With Quotes! After all, language barriers, cultural nuances, and value divergence can easily cause unintended misunderstanding and low efficiency in internal communications in a multinational environment. It leads to conflict among employees and profit loss in organizational productivity. Therefore, in international organizations, cross-cultural communication, also known as intercultural and trans-cultural communication, serves as a lubricant, which mitigates frictions, resolves conflicts, and improves overall work efficiency; likewise, it serves as coagulant, integrating the collective wisdom and strength, enhancing the collaboration of team work, and uniting multiple cultures together between race and ethnicity, which leads to discussion writing, a desirable virtuous circle of frank lloyd wright essay, synergy effect. In the paper, I will identify three aspects of culture that constitute people’s understanding between each other in professional settings, namely, language and non-verbal codes; cultural values and beliefs; and cultural stereotypes and preconceptions.
In addition, four concrete cases will be used to illustrate cultural differences in real life, its practical significance in the business world, and valuable lessons learned. How is writing celebrity culture in marriages the contemporary moment produced and consumed by current tabloid media and paparazzi practices? Using textual and socio-historical analysis as well as industrial research, this thesis examines stardom in relation to scandal and dysfunction. In particular, this project details the (dys)functional female star's negotiation of her image construction and circulation within a hyper-real and hyper-visible celebrity media environment. Utilizing the discussion case of controversial celebrity Britney Spears as a primary example, I conclude that the condition of the crisis celebrity is indeed a gendered construct. Disadvantage Essay! Furthermore, the exposure of celebrity scandal and its accompanying narratives created by tabloid media and paparazzi photography is rooted in the desire to know the truth of the writing star predicated on the defilement of the glamorous.
Therefore, the letter internship perceived dysfunctional behavior of female stars can be re-conceptualized as a method of star intervention and possible resistance in discussion the image-making process producing multiple truths for cover letter for marketing internship program the celebrity subject. Ultimately, this project calls for discussion writing a discourse of celebrity that acknowledges it as a complex knowledge system where multiple narratives of the star can exist. Research on Spears in disadvantage particular suggests that her fame is evidence of a postmodern stardom that transcends labels of truth and authenticity, her identity always in a state of flux based on the discursive spaces that seek to define her and her own navigation of identity in discussion writing the tabloid media landscape. This thesis examines the socio-political blogosphere in Malaysia, how it has been talked about, and how it has changed the political discourse in Malaysia. In this study, I look at essays three major newspapers in essay Malaysia - the New Straits Times, the Sun, and descriptive essays the Star. I analyze blogs and bloggers who are at the core of the (socio-political) blogosphere that is being talked about in the newspapers. The timeframe between 2007 and 2009 can be divided into three parts, i.e. before, during, and after the general elections of 2008.
My guiding questions are How was the blogosphere perceived before the elections?, What role did it play during the writing elections? and How is the blogosphere seen after the elections? I have chosen the blogosphere as my object of study because I agree that it has changed the essays media landscape in Malaysia. This in turn influenced Malaysian society's understanding of and discussion essay relation to politics, and the citizen's right to participate in political discussion, to voice their opinion, and eventually foster democracy. In Malaysia's case, it is especially important because this country has two important roles: one as a leading economy in persuasive marriages Southeast Asia, and secondly, as an example of an Islamic state that tolerates many religions and ethnicities in one country. Discussion! Democracy and freedom of press is necessary to maintain these roles.
The act of seeing has undergone a stark change now that images are digital. It is essay flies quotes imbued with a measurable power that can be capitalized upon as images circulate; in fact, it may appear as if these objects have been explicitly engineered for this purpose of circulation. It has even come to the point where the discussion essay writing content images convey is only there as somewhat of a computer-deployed ruse for humans; their “interestingness” a human-readable quality that insures their viral circulation. The digital image is therefore an object that expresses how the objectives of various political, social, and descriptive essays economic actors converge around the aggressive acquisition of data, to essay writing, be leveraged for their gain. On Lord Of The Flies With! It therefore stands to essay, question how it came to pass that images have been bestowed with such powerand if this is indeed the new law of images, we must question what actors have positioned themselves to conceive, implement, and perpetually enforce it. Finally, we must question the repercussions of this new reality, and probe deeply into the foundation of persuasive essays, this new law of essay writing, images, to see if we have any leeway in either circumventing it, or using it to empower ourselves. In agreement with most socioculturalist theorists, there is a dearth of youth informal learning research that examines social practices within their indigenous communities. For Marketing! Youth are partaking in a plethora of discussion writing, digital and new media activities every day, such as video gaming.
Consequently, contemporary games’ presence continues to transform its existence in schools. Cover Letter! In 2009, President Obama discussed his concern of American students’ world ranking, where he openly advocate commercial gaming in discussion classrooms, primarily the lloyd wright Little Big Planet (LBP), to discussion, help increase STEM literacy (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math). This study is timely considering the educational climate of America. With LBP’s situated learning environment, this interdisciplinary game analysis (textual and disadvantage cultural) examines informal learning, along with the kinds of literacy practices that are cognitively and socially developing (On-Line and Offline). Legitimizing LBP as an authentic pedagogical playground, I draw correlations between LBP literacy practices and Partnership of 21 st Century Skills framework, articulated by corresponding goals of discussion writing, 2009 New Jersey Core Curriculum Standards. Of Television! Using an auto-ethnographic approach, this textual analysis examines the games’ aesthetics, architecture, and interactive objects as immersing and discussion essay engaging enhancement tools. Exposing these elements, I bolster the arguments of James Gee’s principles of a “good game,” while revealing in-game literacy practices. Extending this project online, where affinity spaces and communities of disadvantage, intelligence are bound, I analyze gathered game social and cultural artifacts (e.g user-generated content level boards, fandom, and essay discussions forums) where such materials reveal literacy practices.
Through the gathered materials from the LBP gaming community, I found LBP has multiple learning principles (supported by Gee) embedded in the game-play and its community. LBP game principles mechanisms, instruments, and environment are elements of an authentic pedagogical playground and are directly correlated to NJCCCS and P21 21 st Century Literacy learning goals. There is evidence of a “constellation of literacies” due to its emancipatory environment for honing skills through identity formation and other content production activities. More so, the analysis expose the collective intelligence and collaboration existing within the affinity spaces, which negate most “participation gaps” existing in most real environments. I never realized democracy has so many possibilities, so much revolutionary potential. Media, information, knowledge, content, audience, author - all were going to be democratized by Web 2.0. The Internet would democratize Big Media, Big Business, Big Government.
When Andrew Keen in The Cult of the Amateur writes this sentence, he falls into the old and common habit of creating a Utopian atmosphere each time a new medium appears. Essays On Happiness! The printing press, radio, TV. all were followed by a period of hopes and dreams about the potential of the discussion essay medium. Lloyd! The Internet has been taking the trend to another level. The Internet was supposed to have the intrinsic power of democratizing not only the media world, but also corporate America and Washington as well. The rise and success of writing, user-generated content published online is the poster boy for descriptive on happiness this new kind of essay writing, technological Utopia: users seem to essays on happiness, be about to become the rulers. Closed distribution and consumption are 20th century principles that became obsolete with the evolution of the production of media content. But the Internet Utopia is a lot more dangerous because it gave birth to a violent and disruptive counter-culture. If the Internet has the power to revolutionize our whole world, why should users be stuck with the old top-down economic organizations?
Why should users trust gatekeepers and middlemen anymore? How can media companies survive this cultural revolution? How can they leverage their assets, economic power and cultural tradition to stay on top of the game? There is no point in denying the evolution, there is no point in essay trying to slow it down, or brutally control it. Media companies need to embrace the changes, they need to work with it, they need to adapt to it, they need to rethink the whole industry value chain, and they need to drive the user-generated content movement in order to mainstream it. Because the end of top-down production does not have to mean the end of intermediaries, the end of the cultural gatekeepers does not mean the end of the middlemen and media leaders. This study employs a quantitative approach to the debate of the cover letter for marketing program Internet as a public sphere by using a web crawler to discern the network of writing, websites around a particular issue and analyze the questions linking patterns of network actors. I use blogs as a starting point, as they represent an easy and personal way to produce content on the Internet without the space and character limitations of other online media. Essay Writing! If the Internet truly enables the discourse between individuals that grounds a public sphere, I posit that there should be broad linking between blog sites. On Gay! If rich blog networks form around a particular issuethat is, if blogs are linking to essay writing, other blogsthis may suggest the existence of conversations that facilitate a broad public discourse.
Ultimately, despite finding a preponderance of persuasive essays on gay, sites run by large organizations within political issue networks, this study suggests a viable locus for examining online political dialogue. Melissa De Witte. A new image economy of discussion essay, images is emerging. From pictures captured on essays on gay marriages, mobile camera phones and closed circuit television; videos disseminated across social networks to essay writing, interactive news websites and images published on blogs - are all indications of a new fetishized, optic engagement with visual media. As an emphasis for consuming and creating the visual expands, images are increasingly impacting the formation and distribution of the descriptive essays spectacle.
But in an optic centric society, what happens when a historical image is withheld, denied, or simply doesn't exist? How do these new technologies shape and discussion writing substitute the spectacle? How do these new visual formats account or challenge the civilized with quotes historical experience? What version now gets remembered and writing told? Focusing on secondary images that surface from frank lloyd wright questions, a traumatic event or political unrest I argue that while a spectacle may be seemingly invisible, it can actually be a powerful heuristic for fantasy and manipulation. Analyzing the substitute images from of the executions of discussion writing, Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, the lloyd essay questions hanging of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein and the suicide attacks in London on the 7th July 2005, I contrast state produced images against the visuals produced under new technologies of production and distribution.
I argue that traditional historical narratives are rupturing as the new image economy drives a new visual and discussion writing historical engagement. I contend how this new image economy can exponentially enforce, distort and on happiness dematerialize the spectacular. I argue that memory and the visual are now in essay writing a state of exception, where aesthetic representations have no obligation to historical coherence. The viewing experience is under an isomorphic, phantom gaze that fluctuates between objective and subjective worldviews. As new types of phantom visibility unfold, modernist distinctions are being flattened and historical dedifferentiation dominates processes of cultural memory. In this paper I will look at the work of visually activist stand-up comedians with physical disabilities and persuasive their efforts to disrupt the dominant narrative of an ableist visuality. An ableist visuality is one that marginalizes people with disabilities and is perpetuated through the discussion essay writing mass mediated public sphere. The gaze of an ableist visuality may be broken down into three particular component gazes, being the charitable gaze, the medicalized gaze, and the anti-reproductive eugenic gaze. These particular institutionalized gazes are ultimately violent to people with disabilities and of television essay are perpetuated through mass media, yet they are being challenged and disrupted by visually activist comedians who are proposing an inverse or counter visuality as they subvert the writing gaze of their audience by staring back as an indictment of the oppressive ableist visuality. This paper will determine the cover letter for marketing borders of an discussion ableist visuality and provide analysis of the ways in which visual activists are working to subvert this visuality through the medium of stand-up comedy. Jennefer Lyn L. Bagaporo.
Traditional gender roles are one of the ingredients in a patriarchal society. A Modest Proposal Satire! Women and men are assigned and socialized into discussion essay particular roles that they carry throughout their life times. Butsocialization is a never-ending process. Therefore, gender roles, become dynamic too. As stressed in essays on happiness the symbolic interactionism and essay the standpoint theories, gender roles differ among class,culture, and race as it depends on the society where it exist. Cover For Marketing Internship! In this light, events that disrupt normalcy, such as armed conflicts are seen to confront and/or perpetuate these roles. This paper examines the individual life stories of selected women and men included in discussion essay The World Bank 2005 study Moving Out of Poverty in a modest satire essay the Philippines.
It collected and essay writing studied their life stories and whether these reflected conformation to conventional gender roles or challenged these roles. Disadvantage! A total of 10 (5 women, 5 men) movers’ life stories containing their migration,occupation, economic, social, and education histories were studied in-depth. Findings showed that the women and men in this study underwent an incessant tug-of-war of adhering to customary gender roles and confronting them in relation to essay, their conditions at thetime the life stories were collected. This examination reveals that gender roles are evolving based on the context in which it is portrayed. Proposed research areas of expansion are also provided.
In May 2007, school officials at St. Thomas, a public high school in Montreal, Quebec, discovered an online community on the social networking site Facebook, created by a group of about 200 students for the sole purpose of posting embarrassing remarks about civilized quotes their teachers. The divisive incident, which was picked up by local media, resulted in the expulsion of the teens who spearheaded the group. In support of improved Internet literacy programs in schools to the benefit of essay, both educators and students, this research illustrates how a significant generation gap in youth and adult Internet knowledge can wreak havoc on a school environment and stifle learning; additionally, this project demonstrates how the traditional teacher-student power paradigm in the classroom is problematic in the digital age. These themes are explored via a textual analysis of the statements made by lloyd wright questions, students, teachers, teacher's union representatives, newspaper editors, the general public, and school boa rd officials published in two local papers as the controversy unfolded.
The analysis indicates that adults fear, and therefore censor, restrict and penalize teen Internet practices, relying on legal and ethical jargon to buttress their positions of authority. The teens, on the other hand, exhibit an ability to think critically and a willingness to speak openly on the topic, thus illustrating both a capacity and a desire to bridge the generation gap through Internet literacy programs at school. This paper analyzes celebrities' cosmetic surgery confessions in the media and discussion essay writing explores the impact of the confessions on non-celebrities. Essay! Based on the analysis of talk shows and online news in Korea today, I argue that celebrities' confessions are the result of the interaction between celebrities and discussion essay writing the media, and the confessions serve as an atonement ritual to make a new start for cover for marketing celebrities themselves. The confessions also have the effect of trivializing cosmetic surgery. My analysis of Korean female college students' self-accounts about the confessions confirms these arguments and shows the discussion students' strong endorsement of cosmetic surgery as well as their tendency to view cosmetic surgery as a means of upward mobility, given the success of surgical celebrities. The survey questionnaire developed for this study, completed by essays on happiness, 217 female college students, reveals that more exposure to such confessions predicts greater normalization and trivialization of cosmetic surgery in discussion writing the respondents' everyday lives. This site, and all its contents, are Copyright by New York University. All rights reserved.
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dicton essayer Il y a des fleurs partout pour qui veut bien les voir. Ce n’est pas ce que nous sommes qui nous empeche de realiser nos reves ; c’est ce que nous croyons que nous ne sommes pas. Paul Emile Victor. Lune des meilleures facons daider quelquun est de lui donner une responsabilite et de lui faire savoir que vous lui faites confiance. Booker T. Discussion. Washington.
La decouverte, cest de voir ce que tout le monde voit et de penser ce que personne ne pense. L’amour que l’on donne est le seul qui nous reste. J’ai decide d’etre heureux parce que c’est bon pour la sante. La seule limite a notre epanouissement de demain sera nos doutes daujourdhui. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. La seule veritable erreur est celle dont on flies quotes, ne tire aucun enseignement. Il est plus facile de desintegrer un atome qu’un prejuge. Lune des meilleures facons daider quelquun est de lui donner une responsabilite et de lui faire savoir que vous lui faites confiance. Booker T. Discussion Essay. Washington.
Si vous voulez que la vie vous sourie, apportez-lui votre bonne humeur. Essay. Il y a des jours avec et des jours sans et les jours sans, il faut faire avec ! Cest dans les moments les plus sombres quon voit le mieux les e?toiles. Ne jugez pas chaque journee par votre recolte, mais par les graines que vous avez plantees. Robert Louis Stevenson. Une facon d’etre optimiste consiste a garder sa tete pointee vers le soleil et les pieds en mouvement.
Celui qui donne un coup de pioche veut connaitre un sens a son coup de pioche. Essay. Et le coup de pioche du bagnard, qui humilie le bagnard, n’est point le meme que le coup de pioche du prospecteur, qui grandit le prospecteur. Of Television. Le bagne ne reside point la ou des coups de pioche sont donnes. Essay. Il n’est pas d’horreur materielle. Descriptive Essays. Le bagne reside la ou des coups de pioche sont donnes qui n’ont point de sens, qui ne relie pas celui qui les donne a la communaute des hommes. Essay Writing. Et nous voulons nous evader du bagne. Of Television Essay. Antoine de St Exupery, Terre des hommes. Si vous voulez que la vie vous sourie, apportez-lui votre bonne humeur. Le paradis tout comme lenfer peut-etre terrestre, nous les emmenons avec nous partout ou nous allons.
Les jours ou le ciel est gris, le soleil n’a pas disparu a tout jamais. Baltazar Gracian (1647) (What would you do if you werent afraid ?) Contentez-vous dagir et laissez les autres parler. Ne laissez pas le monde changer votre sourire, mais laissez votre sourire changer le monde. Liberez-vous de lesclavage mental.
Personne ne peut liberer votre esprit sauf vous. Un sourire coute moins cher que l’electricite, mais donne autant de lumiere. Rappelle-toi : lunique personne qui taccompagne toute ta vie, cest toi-meme ! Sois vivant dans tout ce que tu fais. C’est malheureux de s’egarer. Discussion Essay. Mais il y a pire que de perdre son chemin : c’est de perdre sa raison d’avancer. Les optimistes proclament que nous vivons dans un monde rempli de possibilites Les pessimistes ont peur que ce soit vrai ! James Branch Cabell.
La difficulte de reussir ne fait quajouter a la necessite dentreprendre. Un optimiste, cest lincarnation humaine du printemps. Suzan J. Cover Letter Internship. Bissonnette. Ce jour ne reviendra plus. Discussion. Chaque jour est un joyau sans prix. Nattendez pas detre heureux pour sourire, souriez pour etre heureux. Edward L. Descriptive On Happiness. Kramer. La croyance que rien ne change provient soit dune mauvaise vue, soit dune mauvaise foi. Discussion Essay Writing. La premiere se corrige, la seconde se combat.
La difficulte de reussir ne fait quajouter a la necessite dentreprendre. Il suffit dune minute pour changer votre attitude et avec cette minute, vous pouvez changer toute votre journee. L’attitude est le pinceau de l’esprit. Essays. Elle colore toutes les situations. Sir William Stephen Alexander Lockhart.
Les portes de lavenir sont ouvertes a ceux qui savent les pousser. Quand mon ami est borgne, je le regarde de profil. Les gens qui ne rient jamais ne sont pas des gens serieux. La sensation detre heureux ou malheureux depend rarement de notre etat dans labsolu, mais de notre perception de la situation, de notre capacite a nous satisfaire de ce que nous avons. Accueillir avec confiance une difficulte, c’est deja la faciliter. Il n’est jamais trop tard pour devenir ce que nous aurions pu etre. George Eliot (femme de lettres anglaise) Qui veut faire quelque chose trouve un moyen, qui ne veut rien faire trouve une excuse. Ce n’est pas la chute qui represente l’echec. Discussion. L’echec, c’est de rester la ou l’on est tombe Nous commencons a vieillir quand nous remplacons nos reves par des regrets.
L’optimiste ne refuse jamais de voir le cote negatif des choses ; il refuse simplement de s’attarder dessus. Riez tant que vous pouvez : cest un medicament economique. Tout le monde est un genie. Frank Lloyd Essay Questions. Mais si on essay writing, juge un poisson sur sa capacite a grimper a un arbre, il passera sa vie a croire qu’il est stupide. Nulle pierre ne peut etre polie sans friction, nul homme ne peut parfaire son experience sans epreuve. Le talent, ca n’existe pas. On Happiness. Le talent, c’est d’avoir envie de faire quelque chose. Antoine de Saint-Exupery. Les gens me demandent souvent quelle est la technique la plus efficace pour ameliorer sa vie. Essay. Il est un peu embarrassant quapres des annees et des annees de recherches et dexperimentation je doive conclure que la meilleure reponse a cette question est Soyez juste un peu plus gentil. Ne prenez pas la vie trop au serieux, de toute facon vous n’en sortirez pas vivant.
Je suis pour l’augmentation du gout de la vie. Le succes est la capacite d’aller d’echec en echec sans perdre son enthousiasme. Je ne me decourage pas, car chaque tentative infructueuse qu’on laisse derriere soi constitue un autre pas en avant. La vie c’est comme une bicyclette, il faut avancer pour ne pas perdre l’equilibre. Mieux vaut prendre le changement par la main avant quil ne nous prenne par la gorge. Si on descriptive on happiness, veut obtenir quelque chose que l’on n’a jamais eu, il faut tenter quelque chose que l’on n’a jamais fait.
Que la force me soit donnee de supporter ce qui ne peut etre change et le courage de changer ce qui peut l’etre mais aussi la sagesse de distinguer l’un de l’autre. Rien ne sert de defendre le monde dhier quand on discussion writing, peut construire le monde de demain. Nul ne peut atteindre laube sans passer par le chemin de la nuit. La chute n’est pas un echec. Disadvantage Essay. L’echec c’est de rester la ou on writing, est tombe. Si tu as une pomme, que j’ai une pomme, et que l’on echange nos pommes, nous aurons chacun une pomme. Essays On Happiness. Mais si tu as une idee, que j’ai une idee et que l’on echange nos idees, nous aurons chacun deux idees. George Bernard Shaw. Rien de grand na jamais ete accompli sans laide de lenthousiasme.
La chose la plus difficile est de n’attribuer aucune importance aux choses qui n’ont aucune importance. Charles de Gaulle. Quiconque cesse dapprendre est vieux, quil ait vingt ans ou quatre-vingts. Writing. Quiconque continue a apprendre reste jeune. N’ayez pas peur d’etre heureux, c’est juste un bon moment a passer. Vous pouvez vous desoler que les roses ont des epines mais vous pouvez aussi vous rejouir que les epines ont des roses ! En randonnee, si tu trebuches sur le chemin, nemporte pas le caillou avec toi ! Quand la chance frappe a leur porte, la plupart des gens ne font que de se plaindre du bruit. Ne perds pas ton temps a repeter que le monde te doit quelque chose. Le monde ne te doit rien. Letter For Marketing Program. Il etait la avant toi.
Le danger, ce n’est pas ce qu’on ignore, c’est ce que l’on tient pour certain et qui ne l’est pas. Le meilleur moment pour planter un arbre, cetait il y a 40 ans. Essay Writing. Le deuxieme meilleur moment, cest aujourdhui . Il y a deux facons de faire face aux difficultes : soit on proposal satire essay, les transforme, soit on essay, se transforme en les affrontant. Ce qui compte, ce nest pas le nombre dheures que vous consacrez a vos activites, cest lenergie que vous y mettez. Ce que la chenille appelle la fin du monde, le maitre lappelle un papillon. N’attendez pas des circonstances extraordinaires pour bien agir, essayez les situations ordinaires. Johann Paul Friedrich Richter. A la naissance dun enfant, si sa mere demandait a sa bonne fee de le doter du cadeau le plus utile pour lui, ce cadeau serait la curiosite.
Si vous avez confiance en vous-memes, vous inspirerez confiance aux autres. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Mieux vaut allumer une bougie que maudire les tenebres. Ne cherchez pas la faute, cherchez le remede. Le succes, c’est d’avoir ce que vous desirez; le bonheur, c’est d’aimer ce que vous avez. H. Frank Lloyd. Jackson Brown. Tout le monde savait que c’etait impossible. Discussion Essay. Il est venu un imbecile qui ne le savait pas et qui l’a fait. Si tu ne sais pas aimer, a quoi te sert-il que le soleil se leve et se couche ? Le succes n’est pas la cle du bonheur. Persuasive Essays On Gay Marriages. Le bonheur est la cle du succes.
Si vous aimez ce que vous faites, vous reussirez. La folie cest de se comporter de la meme facon et de sattendre a des resultats differents ! Le succes n’est pas au bout du chemin. Essay. Il est dans ta demarche meme. Faites quelque chose et, si ca ne reussit pas, essayez autre chose. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Les grandes machines tournent avec de petits pivots. Plus on essay questions, prend de la hauteur, plus on writing, voit loin. L’humanite se divise en trois categories : ceux qui ne peuvent pas bouger, ceux qui peuvent bouger, et ceux qui bougent. En ce moment, lhumanite cest nous, que ca nous plaise ou non. Vous ne pouvez choisir ni comment mourir, ni quand. Civilized. Mais vous pouvez decider de comment vous allez vivre.
Maintenant. Face au monde qui bouge, il vaut mieux penser le changement que changer le pansement ! Il meurt lentement celui qui devient l’esclave de l’habitude ( ) celui qui ne prend pas de risques pour realiser ses reves. Dans la vie, il y a deux categories dindividus : ceux qui regardent le monde tel quil est et se demandent pourquoi. Discussion Essay Writing. Ceux qui imaginent le monde tel qu’il devrait etre et qui se disent : pourquoi pas ? La fatalite triomphe des que l’on croit en elle. Simone de Beauvoir. Si vous avez de la difficulte a poursuivre vos passions, mettez de la passion dans vos poursuites. Je nai pas echoue. Lloyd. Jai simplement trouve 10.000 solutions qui ne fonctionnent pas. Si vous avez l’impression que vous etes trop petit pour pouvoir changer quelque chose, essayez donc de dormir avec un moustique et vous verrez lequel des deux empeche l’autre de dormir. Si vous ne risquez rien, vous risquez encore plus.
Regarde toujours dans la direction du soleil levant et tu ne verras jamais lombre derriere toi. Le succes ne consiste pas a ne jamais faire d’erreurs, mais a ne jamais faire la meme deux fois. George Bernard Shaw. Vous pouvez blamer les gens qui se cognent dans l’obscurite ou vous pouvez allumer des bougies. Discussion Writing. La seule erreur est d’avoir conscience d’un probleme en choisissant de ne pas agir . Un pessimiste voit la difficulte dans chaque occasion, un optimiste voit loccasion dans chaque difficulte.
V ous serez peut-etre decu si vous echouez, mais vous serez voue a l’echec si vous n’essayez pas. Pour chaque minute ou vous etes en colere, vous perdez 60 secondes de bonheur. Ralph Waldo Emerson. Si nous faisions tout ce dont nous sommes capables, nous nous surprendrions vraiment. Il n’y a personne qui soit ne sous une mauvaise etoile, il n’y a que des gens qui ne savent pas lire le ciel. Le succes c’est d’aller d’echec en echec sans perdre son enthousiasme. Faites que le reve devore votre vie afin que la vie ne devore pas votre reve. Antoine de Saint-Exupery. C’est parce qu’on s’imagine tous les pas qu’on devra faire qu’on se decourage, alors qu’il s’agit de les aligner un a un. Un probleme sans solution est un probleme mal pose.
Ne doutez jamais qu’un petit groupe d’individus conscients et engages puisse changer le monde. Persuasive Essays Marriages. C’est meme de cette facon que cela sest toujours produit. Il y a bien des manieres de ne pas reussir, mais la plus sure est de ne jamais prendre de risques. L’echec n’est qu’un changement temporaire de direction qui te remet directement sur le chemin de la reussite. Les especes qui survivent ne sont pas les especes les plus fortes, ni les plus intelligentes, mais celles qui sadaptent le mieux aux changements.
Une mauvaise herbe est une plante dont on discussion essay, na pas encore trouve les vertus. Ralph Waldo Emerson. Il faut viser la lune, parce qu’au moins, si vous echouez, vous finissez dans les etoiles. La victoire appartient au joueur qui commet l’avant-derniere erreur. Le pessimiste se plaint du vent, l’optimiste espere qu’il va changer, le realiste ajuste ses voiles. William Arthur Ward. Ne pleurez jamais davoir perdu le soleil, les larmes vous empecherons de voir les etoiles. La perfection, ce nest pas de faire quelque chose de grand et de beau, mais de faire ce que lon fait avec grandeur et beaute. L’echec est l’epice qui donne sa saveur au succes. Pour la plupart d’entre nous, le plus grand danger n’est pas d’avoir un but trop eleve et de ne pas l’atteindre, mais au contraire d’en avoir un trop peu ambitieux et de l’atteindre.
Le monde deteste le changement, c’est pourtant la seule chose qui lui a permis de progresser. Charles F. Quotes. Kettering. La seule chose promise davance a lechec, cest celle que lon ne tente pas. Un pessimiste fait de ses occasions des difficultes, et un optimiste fait de ses difficultes des occasions. Le succes, cest tomber 7 fois et se relever 8. Celui qui deplace les montagnes, c’est celui qui commence par enlever les petites pierres. Resolvez un probleme et vous en eloignez cent autres. Meme si la vie n’a pas de sens, qu’est-ce qui nous empeche de lui en inventer un ? Lewis Caroll (Alice au Pays des Merveilles) Ceux qui pensent qu’il est impossible d’agir sont generalement interrompus par ceux qui agissent.
Les chefs-d?uvre ne sont jamais que des tentatives heureuses. Si tu traverses lenfer, ne tarrete pas. La seule difference entre le genie et lhomme ordinaire est que le genie ne sait pas quil est ordinaire, alors que lhomme ordinaire pense quil nest pas genial. On nest pas orphelin davoir perdu pere et mere, mais davoir perdu lespoir. Proverbe africain recueilli au Mali par Gerard Dumestre. Le difficile, cest ce qui peut etre fait tout de suite.
Limpossible, cest ce qui prend un peu plus de temps. L’optimiste comme le pessimiste finissent par mourir. Writing. Mais ils ont tous les deux profite de la vie d’une maniere completement differente. Quand on on gay, a 1000 raisons pour pleurer, il faut trouver 1001 raisons pour sourire. L’utopie est simplement ce qui n’a pas encore ete essaye. Il y a ceux qui regardent les choses telles quelles se presentent et disent : -pourquoi, moi je reve de choses qui nont jamais existe et je dis : -pourquoi pas ? L’enthousiasme a toujours engendre la certitude. Il n’y a pas de vent favorable pour celui qui ne sait pas ou il va.
L’une des meilleures facons d’aider quelqu’un est de lui donner une responsabilite et de lui faire savoir que vous lui faites confiance. Booker T. Essay. Washington. Ce n’est pas parce que les choses sont difficiles que nous n’osons pas, c’est parce que nous n’osons pas qu’elles sont difficiles. La grandeur d’un metier est peut-etre, avant tout, d’unir les hommes : il n’est qu’un luxe veritable, et c’est celui des relations humaines. Saint-Exupery, Terres des hommes.
Si tu ne peux voir que les obstacles, c’est que tu as quitte le but des yeux. De nouvelles citations sont ajoutees regulierement, revenez faire un tour prochainement ! Cliquez sur l'image ci-dessous et laissez-vous guider pour retrouver le sourire ! En vous inscrivant ici vous recevrez les conseils de Samuel Moreaux par email via sa newsletter. Of Television Essay. Vous pouvez vous desinscrire a tout instant. Cette newsletter est declaree a la CNIL sous le n° 1844877 et respecte la loi Informatiques et Libertes. Discussion Essay. Facebook Youtube.